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1.  Comparative Study of Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of a Zero-Profile Device Concerning Reduced Postoperative Dysphagia after Single Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion 
Objective
This study analyzed clinical and radiological outcomes of a zero-profile anchored spacer (Zero-P) and conventional cage-plate (CCP) for single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) to compare the incidence and difference of postoperative dysphagia with both devices.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed our experiences of single level ACDF with the CCP and Zero-P. From January 2011 to December 2013, 48 patients who had single level herniated intervertebral disc were operated on using ACDF, with CCP in 27 patients and Zero-P in 21 patients. Patients who received more than double-level ACDF or combined circumferential fusion were excluded. Age, operation time, estimated blood loss (EBL), pre-operative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores, post-operative mJOA scores, achieved mJOA scores and recovery rate of mJOA scores were assessed. Prevertebral soft tissue thickness and postoperative dysphagia were analyzed on the day of surgery, and 2 weeks and 6 months postoperatively.
Results
The Zero-P group showed same or favorable clinical and radiological outcomes compared with the CCP group. Postoperative dysphagia was significantly low in the Zero-P group.
Conclusions
Application of Zero-P may achieve favorable outcomes and reduce postoperative dysphagia in single level ACDF.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2014.56.2.103
PMCID: PMC4200356  PMID: 25328646
Zero-profile; Prevertebral soft tissue swelling; Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion; ACDF; Dysphagia
2.  Treatment of Hydrocephalus Associated with Neurosarcoidosis by Multiple Shunt Placement 
A 31-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to hydrocephalus with neurosarcoidosis. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunting was performed in the right lateral ventricle with intravenous methylprednisolone. Subsequently, after 4 months, additional ventriculo-peritoneal shunting in the left lateral ventricle was performed due to the enlarged left lateral ventricle and slit-like right lateral ventricle. After 6 months, he was re-admitted due to upward gaze palsy, and magnetic resonance image showed an isolated fourth ventricle with both the inlet and outlet of fourth ventricle obstructed by recurrent neurosarcoidosis. Owing to the difficulty of using an endoscope, we performed neuronavigator-guided ventriculo-peritoneal shunting via the left lateral transcerebellar approach for the treatment of the isolated fourth ventricle with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient was discharged with improved neurological status.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.52.3.270
PMCID: PMC3483335  PMID: 23115677
Neurosarcoidosis; Hydrocephalus; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
3.  Terson Syndrome Caused by Intraventricular Hemorrhage Associated with Moyamoya Disease 
Terson syndrome was originally used to describe a vitreous hemorrhage arising from aneurysmal subrarachnoid hemorrhage. Terson syndrome can be caused by intracranial hemorrhage, subdural or epidural hematoma and severe brain injury but is extremely rare in intraventricular hemorrhage associated with moyamoya disease. A 41-year-old man presented with left visual disturbance. He had a history of intraventicular hemorrhage associated with moyamoya disease three months prior to admission. At that time he was in comatose mentality. Ophthalmologic examination at our hospital detected a vitreous hemorrhage in his left eye, with right eye remaining normal. Vitrectomy with epiretinal membrane removal was performed. After operation his left visual acuity was recovered. Careful ophthalmologic examination is mandatory in patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.6.367
PMCID: PMC3424178  PMID: 22949967
Moyamoya disease; Terson syndrome; Intraventricular hemorrhage
4.  Acute Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma of Arterial Origin 
Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma (SDH) of arterial origin is very rare. We report a case of acute spontaneous SDH that showed contrast media extravasation from cortical artery on angiograms. A 58-year-old male patient developed sudden onset headache and right hemiparesis. Brain CT scan demonstrated acute SDH at left convexity. The patient was drowsy mentality on admission. He had no history of head trauma. Cerebral angiography was performed and revealed a localized extravasation of the contrast media from distal cortical MCA branch. After angiography, the patient deteriorated to comatose mentality. Decompressive craniectomy for removal of SDH was performed. We verified the arterial origin of the bleeding and coagulated the bleeding focus. The histological diagnosis was aneurysmal artery. He recovered after surgery with mild disability. In a case of acute spontaneous SDH, the possibility of a cortical artery origin should be considered.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2012.51.2.91
PMCID: PMC3322214  PMID: 22500200
Acute subdural hematoma; Spontaneous; Cortical artery
5.  The Variable Ellipsoid Modeling Technique as a Verification Method for the Treatment Planning System of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery 
Objective
The secondary verification of Leksell Gamma Knife treatment planning system (LGP) (which is the primary verification system) is extremely important in order to minimize the risk of treatment errors. Although prior methods have been developed to verify maximum dose and treatment time, none have studied maximum dose coordinates and treatment volume.
Methods
We simulated the skull shape as an ellipsoid with its center at the junction between the mammillary bodies and the brain stem. The radiation depths of the beamlets emitted from 201 collimators were calculated based on the relationship between this ellipsoid and a single beamlet expressed as a straight line. A computer program was coded to execute the algorithm. A database system was adopted to log the doses for 31×31×31 or 29,791 matrix points allowing for future queries to be made of the matrix of interest.
Results
When we compared the parameters in seven patients, all parameters showed good correlation. The number of matrix points with a dose higher than 30% of the maximal dose was within ± 2% of LGP. The 50% dose volume, which is generally the target volume, differs maximally by 4.2%. The difference of the maximal dose ranges from 0.7% to 7%.
Conclusion
Based on the results, the variable ellipsoid modeling technique or variable ellipsoid modeling technique (VEMT) can be a useful and independent tool to verify the important parameters of LGP and make up for LGP.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2010.47.2.128
PMCID: PMC2836448  PMID: 20224712
Gamma knife radiosurgery; Treatment planning system; Quality assurance
6.  Spinal Intradural Extramedullary Mature Cystic Teratoma in an Adult 
Spinal intradural extramedullary teratoma is a rare condition that develops more commonly in children than in adults and may be associated with spinal dysraphism. We report a rare case of adult-onset intradural extramedullary teratoma in the thoracolumbar spinal cord with no evidence of spinal dysraphism and without the history of prior spinal surgery. The patient was a 38-year-old male whose chief complaint was urinary incontinence. X-ray images of the thoracolumbar spine showed the widening of the interpedicular distance and posterior marginal erosion of the vertebral bodies and pedicles at the T11, T12, and L1 level. Magnetic resonance imagings of the lumbar spine showed a lobulated inhomogeneous high signal intradural mass (87×29×20 mm) between T11 and L1 and a high signal fluid collection at the T11 level. Laminectomy of the T11-L1 region was performed, and the mass was subtotally excised. The resected tumor was histopathologically diagnosed as a mature cystic teratoma. The patient's symptom of urinary incontinence was improved following the surgery.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.44.5.334
PMCID: PMC2612572  PMID: 19119471
Spinal cord neoplasm; Mature teratoma
7.  Predisposing Factors Related to Shunt-Dependent Chronic Hydrocephalus after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage 
Objective
Hydrocephalus is a common sequelae of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and patients who develop hydrocephalus after SAH typically have a worse prognosis than those who do not. This study was designed to identify factors predictive of shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus among patients with aneurysmal SAH, and patients who require permanent cerebrospinal fluid diversion.
Methods
Seven-hundred-and-thirty-four patients with aneurysmal SAH who were treated surgically between 1990 and 2006 were retrospectively studied. Three stages of hydrocephalus have been categorized in this paper, i.e., acute (0-3 days after SAH), subacute (4-13 days after SAH), chronic (≥14 days after SAH). Criteria indicating the occurrence of hydrocephalus were the presence of significantly enlarged temporal horns or ratio of frontal horn to maximal biparietal diameter more than 30% in computerized tomography.
Results
Overall, 66 of the 734 patients (8.9%) underwent shunting procedures for the treatment of chronic hydrocephalus. Statistically significant associations among the following factors and shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus were observed. (1) Increased age (p < 0.05), (2) poor Hunt and Hess grade at admission (p < 0.05), (3) intraventricular hemorrhage (p < 0.05), (4) Fisher grade III, IV at admission (p < 0.05), (5) radiological hydrocephalus at admission (p < 0.05), and (6) post surgery meningitis (p < 0.05) did affect development of chronic hydrocephalus. However the presence of intracerebral hemorrhage, multiple aneurysms, vasospasm, and gender did not influence on the development of shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus. In addition, the location of the ruptured aneurysms in posterior cerebral circulation did not correlate with the development of shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus.
Conclusion
Hydrocephalus after aneurysmal SAH seems to have a multifactorial etiology. Understanding predisposing factors related to the shunt-dependent chronic hydrocephalus may help to guide neurosurgeons for better treatment outcomes.
doi:10.3340/jkns.2008.43.4.177
PMCID: PMC2588257  PMID: 19096639
Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt; Chronic hydrocephalus; Related factor

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