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1.  Development of a Multiplex and Cost-Effective Genotype Test toward More Personalized Medicine for the Antiplatelet Drug Clopidogrel 
There has been a wide range of inter-individual variations in platelet responses to clopidogrel. The variations in response to clopidogrel can be driven by genetic polymorphisms involved in the pathway of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and the target receptor P2Y12. A set of genetic variants known for causing variations in clopidogrel responses was selected, which included CYP2C19*2, *3, *17, CYP2B6*4, *6, *9, CYP3A4*18, CYP3A5*3, MDR1 2677G > T/A, 3435C > T, and P2Y12 H2 (742T > C). The simultaneous detection of these 10 variants was developed by using a multiplex PCR and single-base extension (MSSE) methodology. The newly developed genotyping test was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing in the representative positive control samples and validated in an extended set of 100 healthy Korean subjects. Genotyping results from the developed MSSE exhibited a perfect concordance with the direct DNA sequencing data and all of variants tested in 100 healthy Korean subjects were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p > 0.05). The present molecular diagnostic studies provide an accurate, convenient, and fast genotyping method for the detection of multiple variants. This would be helpful for researchers, as well as clinicians, to use genetic information toward more personalized medicine of clopidogrel and other antiplatelet drugs in the future.
doi:10.3390/ijms15057699
PMCID: PMC4057700  PMID: 24857912
clopidogrel; genotypes; CYP2C19; P2Y12; SNaPshot; pharmacogenetics
2.  Expression of arachidonic acid-metabolizing cytochrome P450s in human megakaryocytic Dami cells 
Cytochrome P450s (P450s) are involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid (ARA), and ARA metabolites are associated with various cellular signaling pathways, such as blood hemostasis and inflammation. The present study demonstrates the expression of ARA-metabolizing P450s in the human megakaryocytic Dami cells using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunublotting analysis followed by activity assays using ARA as a substrate. In addition to the previously identified CYP5A1, both protein and mRNAs of CYP1A1, 2U1, and 2J2 bands were detected. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was observed in Dami cells, and its activity was significantly decreased after treatment with the P450 inhibitor SKF-525A when compared to the control groups (60% reduction, P < 0.001). CYP1A1 protein expression in Dami cells was induced by 3-methylenecholantheren. This increase in CYP1A1 protein level was correlated with enhanced EROD activity (fourfold increase vs. the control), as well as with increased metabolites, such as 20-hydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (20-HETE), 14, 15-EET (14-,15-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid), and 14, 15-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (14, 15-DHET). The expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of DHETs from EETs, was confirmed by RT-PCR. Furthermore, 15 ARA metabolites, including 8,9-EET, 14,15-EET, and 20-HETE, were detected by LC-MS/MS in ARA-treated Dami cells, and their levels were decreased with the treatment of the SKF-525A. The present data suggest the possibility that the P450s play a role in the metabolism of ARA and other CYP-related substrates in human megakaryocytes and that P450 expression in megakaryocytic cell lines may predict their existences in platelets with functional activities.
doi:10.1007/s11626-013-9633-1
PMCID: PMC3713264  PMID: 23722412
Arachidonic acid; Dami cells; P450s; Megakaryocytes; Platelets
3.  Pharmacogenetic Study of Deferasirox, an Iron Chelating Agent 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64114.
Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) subfamily, multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). A total of 20 functional genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in 98 patients who received deferasirox to reduce transfusion-induced iron overload. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to find out the drug-related toxicities. Fifteen (15.3%) patients developed hepatotoxicity. Patients without wild-type allele carrying two MRP2 haplotypes containing −1774 del and/or −24T were at increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity compared to patients with the wild-type allele on multivariate analysis (OR = 7.17, 95% CI = 1.79–28.67, P = 0.005). Creatinine elevation was observed in 9 patients (9.2%). Body weight ≥40 kg and homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 were risk factors of creatinine elevation (OR = 8.48, 95% CI = 1.7–43.57, P = 0.010 and OR = 14.17, 95% CI = 1.34–150.35, P = 0.028). Our results indicate that functional genetic variants of enzymes to metabolize and transport deferasirox are associated with drug-related toxicities. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results as the pharmacogenetic biomarkers of deferasirox.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064114
PMCID: PMC3667856  PMID: 23737969
4.  Pharmacogenetics Meets Metabolomics: Discovery of Tryptophan as a New Endogenous OCT2 Substrate Related to Metformin Disposition 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(5):e36637.
Genetic polymorphisms of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2), encoded by SLC22A2, have been investigated in association with metformin disposition. A functional decrease in transport function has been shown to be associated with the OCT2 variants. Using metabolomics, our study aims at a comprehensive monitoring of primary metabolite changes in order to understand biochemical alteration associated with OCT2 polymorphisms and discovery of potential endogenous metabolites related to the genetic variation of OCT2. Using GC-TOF MS based metabolite profiling, clear clustering of samples was observed in Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis, showing that metabolic profiles were linked to the genetic variants of OCT2. Tryptophan and uridine presented the most significant alteration in SLC22A2-808TT homozygous and the SLC22A2-808G>T heterozygous variants relative to the reference. Particularly tryptophan showed gene-dose effects of transporter activity according to OCT2 genotypes and the greatest linear association with the pharmacokinetic parameters (Clrenal, Clsec, Cl/F/kg, and Vd/F/kg) of metformin. An inhibition assay demonstrated the inhibitory effect of tryptophan on the uptake of 1-methyl-4-phenyl pyrinidium in a concentration dependent manner and subsequent uptake experiment revealed differential tryptophan-uptake rate in the oocytes expressing OCT2 reference and variant (808G>T). Our results collectively indicate tryptophan can serve as one of the endogenous substrate for the OCT2 as well as a biomarker candidate indicating the variability of the transport activity of OCT2.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0036637
PMCID: PMC3348126  PMID: 22590580
5.  Pharmacogenetic Warfarin Dose Refinements Remain Significantly Influenced by Genetic Factors after One Week of Therapy 
Thrombosis and Haemostasis  2011;107(2):232-240.
Summary
Introduction
By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once INR response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6–11 after therapy initiation.
Materials and Methods
An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centers on 3 continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6–11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that “effective” dose constituted a treatment response index.
Results
Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R2 was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G→A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R2= 69.1% (P<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week.
Conclusions
A pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy.
doi:10.1160/TH11-06-0388
PMCID: PMC3292349  PMID: 22186998
warfarin; VKORC1; CYP2C9; pharmacogenetic
6.  Association between Genetic Polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and Outcomes in Breast Cancer Patients with Tamoxifen Treatment 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2011;26(8):1007-1013.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 and outcomes in breast cancer patients with tamoxifen treatment. We evaluated the CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms in 766 breast cancer patients. Among them, 110 patients whose samples were prospectively collected before surgery and treated with tamoxifen were included to evaluate the association between CYP2D6 and outcomes. The genotypes of CYP2D6 were categorized as extensive metabolizer (EM), intermediate metabolizer (IM), and poor metabolizer (PM) according to the activity score. The clinicopathologic features of 110 patients were not significantly different among the three groups except for the T-stage and nodal status. The high T-stage and axillary metastasis were more frequent in the PM group. While recurrence-free and overall survival in the PM group was poorer than the other groups, there was no significant difference between the EM and the IM group. The difference between the PM and the other groups on univariate analysis disappeared on multivariate analysis. These conflicting results suggest that the clinical value of CYP2D6 polymorphisms is still unclear and more large-sized and comprehensively designed trials are necessary.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2011.26.8.1007
PMCID: PMC3154335  PMID: 21860550
Breast Neoplasms; Cytochrome p-450 CYP2D6; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Survival Analysis; Tamoxifen

Results 1-6 (6)