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author:("Seok, hen")
1.  Microtubule-associated protein tau is essential for long-term depression in the hippocampus 
The microtubule-associated protein tau is a principal component of neurofibrillary tangles, and has been identified as a key molecule in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. However, it is unknown how a protein that is primarily located in axons is involved in a disease that is believed to have a synaptic origin. To investigate a possible synaptic function of tau, we studied synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus and found a selective deficit in long-term depression (LTD) in tau knockout mice in vivo and in vitro, an effect that was replicated by RNAi knockdown of tau in vitro. We found that the induction of LTD is associated with the glycogen synthase kinase-3-mediated phosphorylation of tau. These observations demonstrate that tau has a critical physiological function in LTD.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0144
PMCID: PMC3843876  PMID: 24298146
Alzheimer's disease; hippocampus; synaptic plasticity; long-term depression; tau
2.  Acute stress causes rapid synaptic insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors to facilitate long-term potentiation in the hippocampus 
Brain  2013;136(12):3753-3765.
The neuroendocrine response to episodes of acute stress is crucial for survival whereas the prolonged response to chronic stress can be detrimental. Learning and memory are particularly susceptible to stress with cognitive deficits being well characterized consequences of chronic stress. Although there is good evidence that acute stress can enhance cognitive performance, the mechanism(s) for this are unclear. We find that hippocampal slices, either prepared from rats following 30 min restraint stress or directly exposed to glucocorticoids, exhibit an N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation. We demonstrate that the mechanism involves an NMDA receptor and PKA-dependent insertion of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors into synapses. These then trigger the additional NMDA receptor-independent form of LTP during high frequency stimulation.
doi:10.1093/brain/awt293
PMCID: PMC3859225  PMID: 24271563
long-term potentiation; metaplasticity; glucocorticoids; glutamate receptor; calcium
3.  The Insect Peptide Coprisin Prevents Clostridium difficile-Mediated Acute Inflammation and Mucosal Damage through Selective Antimicrobial Activity▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(10):4850-4857.
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis are typically treated with vancomycin or metronidazole, but recent increases in relapse incidence and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of C. difficile indicate the need for new antibiotics. We previously isolated coprisin, an antibacterial peptide from Copris tripartitus, a Korean dung beetle, and identified a nine-amino-acid peptide in the α-helical region of it (LLCIALRKK) that had antimicrobial activity (J.-S. Hwang et al., Int. J. Pept., 2009, doi:10.1155/2009/136284). Here, we examined whether treatment with a coprisin analogue (a disulfide dimer of the nine peptides) prevented inflammation and mucosal damage in a mouse model of acute gut inflammation established by administration of antibiotics followed by C. difficile infection. In this model, coprisin treatment significantly ameliorated body weight decreases, improved the survival rate, and decreased mucosal damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. In contrast, the coprisin analogue had no apparent antibiotic activity against commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which are known to inhibit the colonization of C. difficile. The exposure of C. difficile to the coprisin analogue caused a marked increase in nuclear propidium iodide (PI) staining, indicating membrane damage; the staining levels were similar to those seen with bacteria treated with a positive control for membrane disruption (EDTA). In contrast, coprisin analogue treatment did not trigger increases in the nuclear PI staining of Bifidobacterium thermophilum. This observation suggests that the antibiotic activity of the coprisin analogue may occur through specific membrane disruption of C. difficile. Thus, these results indicate that the coprisin analogue may prove useful as a therapeutic agent for C. difficile infection-associated inflammatory diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00177-11
PMCID: PMC3186999  PMID: 21807975
4.  A novel mechanism of hippocampal LTD involving muscarinic receptor-triggered interactions between AMPARs, GRIP and liprin-α 
Molecular Brain  2009;2:18.
Background
Long-term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus can be induced by activation of different types of G-protein coupled receptors, in particular metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and muscarinic acethycholine receptors (mAChRs). Since mGluRs and mAChRs activate the same G-proteins and isoforms of phospholipase C (PLC), it would be expected that these two forms of LTD utilise the same molecular mechanisms. However, we find a distinct mechanism of LTD involving GRIP and liprin-α.
Results
Whilst both forms of LTD require activation of tyrosine phosphatases and involve internalisation of AMPARs, they use different molecular interactions. Specifically, mAChR-LTD, but not mGluR-LTD, is blocked by peptides that inhibit the binding of GRIP to the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 and the binding of GRIP to liprin-α. Thus, different receptors that utilise the same G-proteins can regulate AMPAR trafficking and synaptic efficacy via distinct molecular mechanisms.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that mAChR-LTD selectively involves interactions between GRIP and liprin-α. These data indicate a novel mechanism of synaptic plasticity in which activation of M1 receptors results in AMPAR endocytosis, via a mechanism involving interactions between GluA2, GRIP and liprin-α.
doi:10.1186/1756-6606-2-18
PMCID: PMC2701934  PMID: 19534762

Results 1-4 (4)