A subset of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) on therapy with interferon beta (IFNβ) develop neutralising anti-drug antibodies (ADA) resulting in reduced, or loss of, therapeutic efficacy. The aims were to characterise the relative contributions of anti-IFNβ antibody isotypes to drug neutralising activity, ability of these antibodies to cross-react with endogenous IFNβ, to form immune complexes and activate complement. IFNβ-specific ADA were measured in plasma from RRMS patients treated with IFNβ1a (Rebif®). Neutralisation of endogenous and therapeutic IFNβ by ADA was determined by IFNβ bioassay. IFNβ-ADA profile was predominantly comprised of IgG1 and IgG4 antibody isotypes. The contribution of IgG4-ADA towards neutralising activity was found to be minimal. Neutralising IFNβ-ADA blocks endogenous IFNβ activity. ADA interaction with therapeutic IFNβ results in immune complex formation and complement activation. In summary, IgG1 and IgG4 IFNβ-ADA have the ability to neutralise therapeutic and endogenous protein and to activate complement.
•IgG4 and IgG1 contributes to IFNβ-ADA profile•Neutralising IFNβ-ADA cross reacts and blocks endogenous IFNβ activity.•ADA-IFNβ results in IC formation and complement activation
Interferon beta;; Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis;; Immunogenicity;; Anti-drug antibody;; Neutralising antibody;; Complement
Epidemic Clostridium difficile (027/BI/NAP1) rapidly emerged in the past decade as the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. However, the key moments in the evolutionary history leading to its emergence and subsequent patterns of global spread remain unknown. Here we define the global population structure of C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 based on whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. We demonstrate that two distinct epidemic lineages, FQR1 and FQR2, not one as previously thought, emerged in North America within a relatively short period after acquiring the same fluoroquinolone resistance mutation and a highly-related conjugative transposon. The two epidemic lineages displayed distinct patterns of global spread, and the FQR2 lineage spread more widely leading to healthcare outbreaks in the UK, continental Europe and Australia. Our analysis identifies key genetic changes linked to the rapid trans-continental dissemination of epidemic C. difficile 027/BI/NAP1 and highlights the routes by which it spreads through the global healthcare system.
30% of epilepsy patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are not fully controlled by therapy. The drug transporter hypothesis for refractory epilepsy proposes that P-gp is over expressed at the epileptic focus with a role of P-gp in extruding AEDs from the brain. However, there is controversy regarding whether all AEDs are substrates for this transporter. Our aim was to investigate transport of phenytoin, lamotrigine and carbamazepine by using seven in-vitro transport models. Uptake assays in CEM/VBL cell lines, oocytes expressing human P-gp and an immortalised human brain endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3) were carried out. Concentration equilibrium transport assays were performed in Caco-2, MDCKII ±P-gp and LLC-PK1±P-gp in the absence or presence of tariquidar, an inhibitor of P-gp. Finally, primary porcine brain endothelial cells were used to determine the apparent permeability (Papp) of the three AEDs in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors. We detected weak transport of phenytoin in two of the transport systems (MDCK and LLC-PK1 cells transfected with human P-gp) but not in the remaining five. No P-gp interaction was observed for lamotrigine or carbamazepine in any of the seven validated in-vitro transport models. Neither lamotrigine nor carbamazepine was a substrate for P-gp in any of the model systems tested. Our data suggest that P-gp is unlikely to contribute to the pathogenesis of refractory epilepsy through transport of carbamazepine or lamotrigine.
The role of antibiotics in treating mild or moderate exacerbations in patients with acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. The aims were to: (i) describe patient characteristics associated with acute exacerbations amongst a representative COPD population, (ii) explore the relationship between COPD severity and outcomes amongst patients with exacerbations, and (iii) quantify variability by general practice in prescribing of antibiotics for COPD exacerbations.
A cohort of 62,747 patients with COPD was identified from primary care general practices (GP) in England, and linked to hospital admission and death certificate data. Exacerbation cases were matched to three controls and characteristics compared using conditional logistic regression. Outcomes were compared using incidence rates and Cox regression, stratified by disease severity. Variability of prescribing at the GP level was evaluated graphically and by using multilevel models.
COPD severity was found to be associated with exacerbation and subsequent mortality (very severe vs. mild, odds ratio for exacerbation 2.12 [95%CI 19.5–2.32]), hazard ratio for mortality 2.14 [95%CI 1.59–2.88]). Whilst 61% of exacerbation cases were prescribed antibiotics, this proportion varied considerably between GP practices (interquartile range, 48–73%). This variation is greater than can be explained by patient characteristics alone.
There is significant variability between GP practices in the prescribing of antibiotics to COPD patients experiencing exacerbations. Combined with a lack of evidence on the effects of treatment, this supports the need and opportunity for a large scale pragmatic randomised trial of the prescribing of antibiotics for COPD patients with exacerbations, in order to clarify their effectiveness and long term outcomes whilst ensuring the representativeness of subjects.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Disease exacerbation; Clinical practice variation; Anti-bacterial agents; Primary health care; General practice
Nevirapine exhibits marked interpatient variability in pharmacokinetics. CYP2B6 activity and demographic factors are important, but there are a few data on drug transporters for nevirapine. ABCC10 (MRP7) is an efflux transporter highly expressed in liver, intestine, and peripheral blood cells. We investigated whether nevirapine is a substrate for ABCC10 and whether genetic variants contribute to variability in nevirapine plasma concentrations.
Accumulation of nevirapine was assessed in parental and ABCC10-transfected HEK293 cells (HEK293-ABCC10), CD4+ cells, and monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy volunteers (n =8). ABCC10 small interfering RNA studies were also conducted. DNA samples with paired plasma drug concentrations were available from 163 HIV-infected patients receiving nevirapine-containing regimens. Sequenom was used to screen 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms in ABCC10. Linear regression models were used to identify factors independently associated with nevirapine plasma concentration.
Nevirapine accumulation was 37% lower in HEK293-ABCC10 cells compared with parental HEK293 cells (P =0.02), and this was reversed by cepharanthine (an ABCC10 inhibitor). After small interfering RNA knockdown of ABCC10, there was an increase in accumulation of nevirapine in CD4 cells (32%; P = 0.03) and monocyte-derived macrophages (38%; P =0.04). Marked differences in the haplotype structure of ABCC10 was observed between White and Black patients in the cohort. In Whites, an exonic single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2125739) was significantly associated with nevirapine plasma concentration (P =0.02). Multivariate regression analysis identified carriage of a composite genotype of ABCC10 rs2125739 and CYP2B6 516G > T (P = 0.001), time post dose (P = 0.01) and BMI (P = 0.07) to be independently associated with nevirapine plasma concentrations.
Nevirapine is a substrate for ABCC10 and genetic variants influence its plasma concentrations. ABCC10 in lymphocytes and macrophages may also contribute to variability in intracellular permeation of nevirapine. Further studies are required to determine the clinical implications of these findings.
ABCC10; CD4+ lymphocyte; drug efflux transporter; HIV; monocyte-derived macrophage; nevirapine; single nucleotide polymorphism
Human leukocyte antigen genotyping of 272 Malawian HIV patients receiving nevirapine-containing regimens (of whom 117 had nevirapine hypersensitivity) has shown that HLA-C*04:01 increases the risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis, with an odds ratio of 5.17 (95% confidence interval, 2.39–11.18).
Background. The nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine is the cornerstone of treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in many sub-Saharan African countries. However, nevirapine is associated with a 6%–10% risk of developing a hypersensitivity reaction, with different phenotypes, including the blistering conditions Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Our aim was to identify predictive human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers that are associated with nevirapine hypersensitivity.
Methods. We identified 117 HIV-infected Malawian adults with nevirapine hypersensitivity (15 drug-induced liver injury [DILI], 33 SJS/TEN, 20 hypersensitivity syndrome, and 46 nevirapine-induced rash plus 3 with both DILI and SJS phenotype) and 155 age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched nevirapine-exposed controls. HLA typing for 5 loci (A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1) was undertaken using a sequence-based high-resolution protocol. Logistic regression analysis included CD4+ cell count as a covariate.
Results. HLA-C*04:01 was found to markedly increase the risk for SJS (odds ratio [OR] = 17.52; 95% confidence interval, 3.31–92.80) and all hypersensitivity phenotypes (OR = 2.64; 95% CI, 1.13–6.18) when compared to the baseline rare allele group in a binary logistic regression model. The OR for absolute risk of SJS/TEN associated with carriage of HLA-C*04:01 was 5.17 (95% CI, 2.39–11.18). Positive predictive value was 2.6% and negative predictive value was 99.2%. In addition, a number of alleles within the HLA-DQB1 loci protected against nevirapine-induced hypersensitivity phenotypes.
Conclusions. Our study has identified HLA-C*04:01 carriage as a risk factor for nevirapine-induced SJS/TEN in a Malawian HIV cohort. Validation of these findings in a larger cohort of patients and mechanistic investigation of the pathogenesis are required.
nevirapine; hypersensitivity; Stevens-Johnson syndrome; human leukocyte antigen; genetics
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) are effective for obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) because they concomitantly target obesity and dysglycaemia. Considering the high prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with T2DM, we determined the impact of 6 months’ GLP-1 RA therapy on intrahepatic lipid (IHL) in obese, T2DM patients with hepatic steatosis, and evaluated the inter-relationship between changes in IHL with those in glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), body weight, and volume of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT and SAT). We prospectively studied 25 (12 male) patients, age 50±10 years, BMI 38.4±5.6 kg/m2 (mean ± SD) with baseline IHL of 28.2% (16.5 to 43.1%) and HbA1c of 9.6% (7.9 to 10.7%) (median and interquartile range). Patients treated with metformin and sulphonylureas/DPP-IV inhibitors were given 6 months GLP-1 RA (exenatide, n = 19; liraglutide, n = 6). IHL was quantified by liver proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) and VAT and SAT by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment was associated with mean weight loss of 5.0 kg (95% CI 3.5,6.5 kg), mean HbA1c reduction of 1·6% (17 mmol/mol) (0·8,2·4%) and a 42% relative reduction in IHL (−59.3, −16.5%). The relative reduction in IHL correlated with that in HbA1c (ρ = 0.49; p = 0.01) but was not significantly correlated with that in total body weight, VAT or SAT. The greatest IHL reduction occurred in individuals with highest pre-treatment levels. Mechanistic studies are needed to determine potential direct effects of GLP-1 RA on human liver lipid metabolism.
To obtain reliable information about the incidence of adverse drug reactions, and identify potential areas where intervention may reduce the burden of ill-health.
Prospective observational study.
A large tertiary children’s hospital providing general and specialty care in the UK.
All acute paediatric admissions over a one year period.
Any medication taken in the two weeks prior to admission.
Occurrence of adverse drug reaction.
240/8345 admissions in 178/6821 patients admitted acutely to a paediatric hospital were thought to be related to an adverse drug reaction, giving an estimated incidence of 2.9% (95% CI 2.5, 3.3), with the reaction directly causing, or contributing to the cause, of admission in 97.1% of cases. No deaths were attributable to an adverse drug reaction. 22.1% (95% CI 17%, 28%) of the reactions were either definitely or possibly avoidable. Prescriptions originating in the community accounted for 44/249 (17.7%) of adverse drug reactions, the remainder originating from hospital. 120/249 (48.2%) reactions resulted from treatment for malignancies. The drugs most commonly implicated in causing admissions were cytotoxic agents, corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, vaccines and immunosuppressants. The most common reactions were neutropenia, immunosuppression and thrombocytopenia.
Adverse drug reactions in children are an important public health problem. Most of those serious enough to require hospital admission are due to hospital-based prescribing, of which just over a fifth may be avoidable. Strategies to reduce the burden of ill-health from adverse drug reactions causing admission are needed.
Some patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy undergo therapeutic resection of the epileptic focus. At least 12 large-scale microarray studies on brain tissue from epilepsy surgery have been published over the last 10 years, but they have failed to make a significant impact upon our understanding of pharmacoresistance, because (1) doubts have been raised about their reproducibility, (2) only a small number of the gene expression changes found in each microarray study have been independently validated and (3) the results of different studies have not been integrated to give a coherent picture of the genetic changes involved in epilepsy pharmacoresistance. To overcome these limitations, we (1) assessed the reproducibility of the microarray studies by calculating the overlap between lists of differentially regulated genes from pairs of microarray studies and determining if this was greater than would be expected by chance alone, (2) used an inter-study cross-validation technique to simultaneously verify the expression changes of large numbers of genes and (3) used the combined results of the different microarray studies to perform an integrative analysis based on enriched gene ontology terms, networks and pathways. Using this approach, we respectively (1) demonstrate that there are statistically significant overlaps between the gene expression changes in different publications, (2) verify the differential expression of 233 genes and (3) identify the biological processes, networks and genes likely to be most important in the development of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Our analysis provides novel biologically plausible candidate genes and pathways which warrant further investigation to assess their causal relevance.
There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines.
To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction.
Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions). Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method.
Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction.
Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence between parents and clinicians in their reasoning for linking children's symptoms to medicines could be a starting point for improved communication.
Warfarin is a highly effective anticoagulant however its effectiveness relies on maintaining INR in therapeutic range. Finding the correct dose is difficult due to large inter-individual variability. Two genes, CYP2C9 and VKORC1, have been associated with this variability, leading to genotype-guided dosing tables in warfarin labeling. Nonetheless, it remains unclear how genotypic information should be used in practice. Navigating the literature to determine how genotype will influence warfarin response in a particular patient is difficult, due to significant variation in patient ethnicity, outcomes investigated, study design, and methodological rigor. Our systematic review was conducted to enable fair and accurate interpretation of which variants affect which outcomes, in which patients, and to what extent.
A comprehensive search strategy was applied and 117 studies included. Primary outcomes were stable dose, time to stable dose and bleeding events. Methodological quality was assessed using criteria of Jorgensen and Williamson and data synthesized in meta-analyses using advanced methods. Pooled effect estimates were significant in most ethnic groups for CYP2C9*3 and stable dose (mutant types requiring between 1.1(0.7–1.5) and 2.3 (1.6–3.0)mg/day). Effect estimates were also significant for VKORC1 and stable dose for most ethnicities, although direction differed between asians and non-asians (mutant types requiring between 0.8(0.4–1.3) and 1.5(1.1–1.8)mg/day more in asians and between 1.5(0.7–2.2) and 3.1(2.7–3.6)mg/day less in non-asians). Several studies were excluded due to inadequate data reporting. Assessing study quality highlighted significant variability in methodological rigor. Notably, there was significant evidence of selective reporting, of outcomes and analysis approaches.
Genetic associations with warfarin response vary between ethnicities. In order to achieve unbiased estimates in different populations, a high level of methodological rigor must be maintained and studies should report sufficient data to enable inclusion in meta-analyses. We propose minimum reporting requirements, suggest methodological guidelines and provide recommendations for reducing the risk of selective reporting.
Premature infants are frequently exposed to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Novel urinary biomarkers may provide a non-invasive means for the early identification of aminoglycoside-related proximal tubule renal toxicity, to enable adjustment of treatment and identification of infants at risk of long-term renal impairment. In this proof-of-concept study, urine samples were collected from 41 premature neonates (≤32 weeks gestation) at least once per week, and daily during courses of gentamicin, and for 3 days afterwards. Significant increases were observed in the three urinary biomarkers measured (Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG)) during treatment with multiple courses of gentamicin. When adjusted for potential confounders, the treatment effect of gentamicin remained significant only for KIM-1 (mean difference from not treated, 1.35 ng/mg urinary creatinine; 95% CI 0.05–2.65). Our study shows that (a) it is possible to collect serial urine samples from premature neonates, and that (b) proximal tubule specific urinary biomarkers can act as indicators of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity in this age group. Further studies to investigate the clinical utility of novel urinary biomarkers in comparison to serum creatinine need to be undertaken.
Background. Tenofovir (TFV) causes kidney tubular dysfunction (KTD) in some patients, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Genetic variants in TFV transporters are implicated; we explored whether ABCC10 transports TFV and whether ABCC10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with KTD.
Methods. TFV accumulation was assessed in parental and ABCC10-transfected HEK293 cells (HEK293-ABCC10), CD4+ cells and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Substrate specificity was confirmed by cepharanthine (ABCC10 inhibitor) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) studies. Fourteen SNPs in ABCC10 were genotyped in human immunodeficiency virus–positive patients with KTD (n = 19) or without KTD (controls; n = 96). SNP and haplotype analysis was performed using Haploview.
Results. TFV accumulation was significantly lower in HEK293-ABCC10 cell lines than in parental HEK293 cells (35% lower; P = .02); this was reversed by cepharanthine. siRNA knockdown of ABCC10 resulted in increased accumulation of TFV in CD4+ cells (18%; P = .04) and MDMs (25%; P = .04). Two ABCC10 SNPs (rs9349256: odds ratio [OR], 2.3; P = .02; rs2125739, OR, 2.0; P = .05) and their haplotype (OR, 2.1; P = .05) were significantly associated with KTD. rs9349256 was associated with urine phosphorus wasting (P = .02) and β2 microglobulinuria (P = .04).
Conclusions. TFV is a substrate for ABCC10, and genetic variability within the ABCC10 gene may influence TFV renal tubular transport and contribute to the development of KTD. These results need to be replicated in other cohorts.
Background & Aims
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI), especially from antimicrobial agents, is an important cause of serious liver disease. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (AC) is a leading cause of idiosyncratic DILI, but little is understood about genetic susceptibility to this adverse reaction.
We performed a genome-wide association study using 822,927 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers from 201 White European and US cases of AC-DILI and 532 population controls, matched for genetic background.
AC-DILI was associated with many loci in the major histocompatibility complex. The strongest effect was with a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II SNP (rs9274407, P=4.8×10−14), which correlated with rs3135388, a tag SNP of HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 that was previously associated with AC-DILI. Conditioned on rs3135388, rs9274407 is still significant (P=1.1×10−4). An independent association was observed in the class I region (rs2523822, P=1.8×10−10), related to HLA-A*0201. The most significant class I and II SNPs showed statistical interaction (P=0.0015). High-resolution HLA genotyping (177 cases and 219 controls) confirmed associations of HLA-A*0201 (P=2×10−6) and HLA-DQB1*0602 (P=5×10−10), and their interaction (P=0.005). Additional, population-dependent effects were observed in HLA alleles with nominal significance. In an analysis of auto-immunerelated genes, rs2476601 in the gene PTPN22 was associated (P=1.3×10−4).
Class I and II HLA genotypes affect susceptibility to AC-DILI, indicating the importance of the adaptive immune response in pathogenesis. The HLA genotypes identified will be useful in studies of the pathogenesis of AC-DILI, but have limited utility as predictive or diagnostic biomarkers because of the low positive-predictive values.
Hepatotoxicity; GWAS; pharmacogenomics; MHC; Side Effect
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is one of the most common adverse reactions leading to product withdrawal post-marketing. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified a number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles associated with DILI; however, the cellular and chemical mechanisms are not fully understood.
To study these mechanisms, we established an HLA-typed cell archive from 400 healthy volunteers. In addition, we utilized HLA genotype data from more than four million individuals from publicly accessible repositories such as the Allele Frequency Net Database, Major Histocompatibility Complex Database and Immune Epitope Database to study the HLA alleles associated with DILI. We utilized novel in silico strategies to examine HLA haplotype relationships among the alleles associated with DILI by using bioinformatics tools such as NetMHCpan, PyPop, GraphViz, PHYLIP and TreeView.
We demonstrated that many of the alleles that have been associated with liver injury induced by structurally diverse drugs (flucloxacillin, co-amoxiclav, ximelagatran, lapatinib, lumiracoxib) reside on common HLA haplotypes, which were present in populations of diverse ethnicity.
Our bioinformatic analysis indicates that there may be a connection between the different HLA alleles associated with DILI caused by therapeutically and structurally different drugs, possibly through peptide binding of one of the HLA alleles that defines the causal haplotype. Further functional work, together with next-generation sequencing techniques, will be needed to define the causal alleles associated with DILI.
In this prospective cohort study, we have undertaken a comprehensive evaluation of clinical parameters along with variation in 29 genes (including CYP2C9 and VKORC1) to identify factors determining interindividual variability in warfarin response.
Consecutive patients (n = 311) were followed up prospectively for 26 weeks. Several outcomes chosen to capture both warfarin efficacy and toxicity were assessed. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were undertaken to assess the combined effect of clinical and genetic factors.
CYP2C9 was the most important gene determining initial anticoagulant control, whereas VKORC1 was more important for stable anticoagulation. Novel associations with some clinical outcomes were found with single nucleotide polymorphisms in the cytochrome 450 genes CYP2C18 and CYP2C19, which were independent of the associations observed with CYP2C9 and in genes encoding CYP3A5, protein S and clotting factor V, although the variability explained by these genes was small. On the basis of the results of microcosting, adverse events were shown to be a significant predictor of total cost.
Accurate prediction of warfarin dose requirement needs to take into account multiple genetic and environmental factors, the contributions of which vary in the induction and maintenance phases of treatment.
dosing algorithms; haemorrhage; pharmacogenetics; variability; warfarin
By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once INR response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6–11 after therapy initiation.
Materials and Methods
An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centers on 3 continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6–11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that “effective” dose constituted a treatment response index.
Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R2 was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G→A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R2= 69.1% (P<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week.
A pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy.
warfarin; VKORC1; CYP2C9; pharmacogenetic
A mechanistic understanding of the relationship between the chemistry of drug antigen formation and immune function is lacking. Thus, mass spectrometric methods were employed to detect and fully characterize circulating antigens derived from piperacillin in patients undergoing therapy and the nature of the drug derived-epitopes on protein which can function as an antigen to stimulate T-cells. Albumin modification with piperacillin in vitro resulted in the formation of two distinct haptens, one formed directly from piperacillin and a second in which the dioxopiperazine ring had undergone hydrolysis. Modification was time- and concentration-dependent, with selective modification of Lys541 observed at low concentrations, whereas at higher concentrations up to 13/59 lysine residues were modified, four of which (Lys190, 195, 432 and 541) were detected in patients’ plasma. Piperacillin-specific T-lymphocyte responses (proliferation, cytokines and granzyme-B release) were detected ex vivo with cells from hypersensitive patients, and analysis of incubation medium showed that modification of the same lysine residues in albumin occurred in situ. The antigenicity of piperacillin-modified albumin was confirmed by stimulation of T-cells with characterized synthetic conjugates. Analysis of minimally-modified T-cell stimulatory albumin conjugates revealed peptide sequences incorporating Lys190, 432 and 541 as principal functional epitopes for T-cells. This study has characterized the multiple haptenic structures on albumin in patients, and showed that they constitute functional antigenic determinants for T-cells.
To develop and test a new adverse drug reaction (ADR) causality assessment tool (CAT).
A comparison between seven assessors of a new CAT, formulated by an expert focus group, compared with the Naranjo CAT in 80 cases from a prospective observational study and 37 published ADR case reports (819 causality assessments in total).
Main Outcome Measures
Utilisation of causality categories, measure of disagreements, inter-rater reliability (IRR).
The Liverpool ADR CAT, using 40 cases from an observational study, showed causality categories of 1 unlikely, 62 possible, 92 probable and 125 definite (1, 62, 92, 125) and ‘moderate’ IRR (kappa 0.48), compared to Naranjo (0, 100, 172, 8) with ‘moderate’ IRR (kappa 0.45). In a further 40 cases, the Liverpool tool (0, 66, 81, 133) showed ‘good’ IRR (kappa 0.6) while Naranjo (1, 90, 185, 4) remained ‘moderate’.
The Liverpool tool assigns the full range of causality categories and shows good IRR. Further assessment by different investigators in different settings is needed to fully assess the utility of this tool.
Carbamazepine causes various forms of hypersensitivity reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe blistering reactions. The HLA-B★1502 allele has been shown to be strongly correlated with carbamazepine-induced Stevens–Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS–TEN) in the Han Chinese and other Asian populations but not in European populations.
We performed a genomewide association study of samples obtained from 22 subjects with carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, 43 subjects with carbamazepine-induced maculopapular exanthema, and 3987 control subjects, all of European descent. We tested for an association between disease and HLA alleles through proxy single-nucleotide polymorphisms and imputation, confirming associations by high-resolution sequence-based HLA typing. We replicated the associations in samples from 145 subjects with carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions.
The HLA-A★3101 allele, which has a prevalence of 2 to 5% in Northern European populations, was significantly associated with the hypersensitivity syndrome (P = 3.5×10−8). An independent genomewide association study of samples from subjects with maculopapular exanthema also showed an association with the HLA-A★3101 allele (P = 1.1×10−6). Follow-up genotyping confirmed the variant as a risk factor for the hypersensitivity syndrome (odds ratio, 12.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27 to 121.03), maculopapular exanthema (odds ratio, 8.33; 95% CI, 3.59 to 19.36), and SJS–TEN (odds ratio, 25.93; 95% CI, 4.93 to 116.18).
The presence of the HLA-A★3101 allele was associated with carbamazepine-induced hypersensitivity reactions among subjects of Northern European ancestry. The presence of the allele increased the risk from 5.0% to 26.0%, whereas its absence reduced the risk from 5.0% to 3.8%. (Funded by the U.K. Department of Health and others.)
Efavirenz is extensively metabolized by CYP2B6, and associations between CYP2B6 polymorphisms and plasma efavirenz exposure have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate CYP2B6 haplotype structure and functional consequences in a Latin American population.
Patients and methods
Two hundred and nineteen patients were recruited at Fundación Arriarán, Chile, between September and December 2008. Plasma efavirenz concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Genotyping for 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a minor allele frequency of >0.05 in the HapMap CEU population at intervals of ∼1 kb across the CYP2B6 locus was conducted using Sequenom iPLEX MALDI-TOF.
Thirteen SNPs passed quality control and, of these, statistically significant associations (P < 0.001) with plasma efavirenz concentrations were observed for 11. Pairwise tagging SNP analysis (R2 > 0.8) identified 3 SNPs (rs10403955, rs2279345 and rs8192719) representative of the 11 associated SNPs. A composite genetic model of these three alleles was constructed, and an association between carriers of four to six of these alleles and the risk of efavirenz plasma concentrations >4 µg/mL was identified with an odds ratio of 48.1 (95% confidence interval: 13.5–207.7). This represents a positive predictive value of 80.9% and a negative predictive value of 91.8%, with sensitivity of 57.9% and specificity of 97.2%.
A composite genetic model of CYP2B6 SNPs in a Chilean HIV-positive cohort may have value in predicting concentrations of efavirenz associated with a higher likelihood of CNS toxicity. Further investigation of the functional basis of these associations is now required.
antiretrovirals; pharmacokinetics; genetics; single nucleotide polymorphisms
Community-associated Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) appears to be an increasing problem. Reported carriage rates by C.difficile are debatable with suggestions that primary asymptomatic carriage is associated with decreased risk of subsequent diarrhoea. However, knowledge of potential reservoirs and intestinal carriage rates in the community, particularly in the elderly, the most susceptible group, is limited. We have determined the presence of C.difficile in the faeces of a healthy elderly cohort living outside of long-term care facilities (LCFs) in the United Kingdom.
Faecal samples from 149 community-based healthy elderly volunteers (median age 81 years) were screened for C.difficile using direct (Brazier's CCEY) and enrichment (Cooked Meat broth) culture methods and a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) immunoassay. Isolates were PCR-ribotyped and analysed for toxin production and the presence of toxin genes.
Of 149 faecal samples submitted, six (4%) were found to contain C.difficile. One particular sample was positive by both the GDH immunoassay and direct culture, and concurrently produced two distinct strain types: one toxigenic and the other non-toxigenic. The other five samples were only positive by enrichment culture method. Overall, four C.difficile isolates were non-toxigenic (PCR-ribotypes 009, 026 (n = 2) and 039), while three were toxigenic (PCR-ribotypes 003, 005 and 106). All individuals who had a positive culture were symptom-free and none of them had a history of CDI and/or antibiotics use in the 3 month period preceding recruitment.
To our knowledge, this is the first study of the presence of C.difficile in healthy elderly community-dwelling individuals residing outside of LCFs. The observed carriage rate is lower than that reported for individuals in LCFs and interestingly no individual carried the common epidemic strain PCR-ribotype 027 (NAP1/BI). Further follow-up of asymptomatic carriers in the community, is required to evaluate host susceptibility to CDI and identify dynamic changes in the host and microbial environment that are associated with pathogenicity.
Up to 14% of Malawian adults die during the intensive phase of tuberculosis treatment. In a prospective cohort of 199 Malawian adults with microbiologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis, clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between those who died or deteriorated with those who had an uneventful recovery. Baseline tumor necrosis factor alpha responses to stimulation with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis and lipopolysaccharide were reduced among the 22 patients with poor outcome (P = .017). Low body mass index (P = .002) and elevated respiratory rate (P = .01) at tuberculosis diagnosis independently predicted poor outcome. Validation of a clinical score identifying high-risk individuals is warranted, together with further investigation of immunological derangements.
Alcohol dependence affects approximately 3% of the English population, and accounts for significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Only 5.6% of alcohol-dependent individuals ever access specialist treatment and only a small percentage ever seek treatment. As people who are alcohol dependent are more likely to have experienced health problems leading to frequent attendance at acute hospitals it would seem both sensible and practical to ensure that this setting is utilised as a major access point for treatment, and to test the effectiveness of these treatments.
This is a randomised controlled trial with a primary hypothesis that extended brief interventions (EBI) delivered to alcohol-dependent patients in a hospital setting by an Alcohol Specialist Nurse (ASN) will be effective when compared to usual care in reducing overall alcohol consumption and improving on the standard measures of alcohol dependence. Consecutive patients will be screened for alcohol misuse in the Emergency Department (ED) of a district general hospital. On identification of an alcohol-related problem, following informed written consent, we aim to randomize 130 patients per group. The ASN will discharge to usual clinical care all control group patients, and plan a programme of EBI for treatment group patients. Follow-up interview will be undertaken by a researcher blinded to the intervention at 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is level of alcohol dependence as determined by the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) score. Secondary outcome measures include; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, health-related quality of life measures, service utilisation, and patient experience. The trial will also allow an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of EBI in an acute hospital setting. In addition, patient experience will be assessed using qualitative methods.
This paper presents a protocol for a RCT of EBI delivered to alcohol dependent patients by an ASN within an ED. Importantly; the trial will also seek to understand patients' perceptions and experiences of being part of a RCT and of receiving this form of intervention.
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