IgE-dependent activation of mast cells and basophils through the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) is involved in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced immune responsiveness in atopic diseases like atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine FcεRI gene polymorphisms are associated with AD in Korean patients, and analyzed the relevance of FcεRI gene polymorphisms and serum IgE levels. We conducted a case-control association analysis (175 patients and 56 controls) of Korean subjects. Genotyping was performed using the TaqMan fluorogenic 5' nuclease assay, and serum levels of IgE were measured using a fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. We found that there were no significant relationships between FcεRI and AD, although there were trends towards an association between the 66T>C (rs2251746) polymorphism and total serum IgE levels in the Korean AD patients. In conclusion, while the 66T>C (rs2251746) of the FcεRIα polymorphism may be linked to AD and higher serum IgE levels, polymorphisms in the FcεRIβ gene did not confer susceptibility to AD in our patient sample.
Atopic dermatitis; FcεRIα Polymorphism; FcεRIβ Polymorphism; Immunoglobulin E
Filaggrin is a key protein that facilitates the formation of skin barrier by forming a stratum corneum. Mutations in the gene encoding filaggrin (FLG) have recently been reported in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV). Interestingly, there are ethnic differences between FLG mutations identified in Asians and Europeans, and few FLG mutations are overlapping between Chinese and Japanese IV patients.
The aim of this study was to investigative the genetic polymorphism of FLG in Korean IV patients.
Genomic DNA was extracted from whole venous blood specimen of Korean patients with IV and a control group, and the full sequence of FLG was determined via overlapping long-range polymerase chain reaction method.
Analysis of base sequence previously unreported reveal new nonsense mutation p.Y1767X in a Korean IV patient, and additional new single nucleotide polymorphisms.
On the basis of this study, it is anticipated that analysis of FLG gene sequence be extended to other dermatoses associated with FLG, such as atopic dermatitis.
Filaggrin; Genetics; Ichthyosis vulgaris; Mutation; Polymorphisms
Short stature is sometimes seen in children with atopic dermatitis (AD); however, the topic has never been studied systematically. Objective: The aim of this study was to show whether AD itself affects stature in children and to evaluate the influence of other relevant factors such as genetic background, diet restrictions, and sleep disturbance on the stature of children with AD.
The aim of this study was to show whether AD itself affects stature in children and to evaluate the influence of other relevant factors such as genetic background, diet restrictions, and sleep disturbance on the stature of children with AD.
The study population included Korean children 7 to 8 years of age who live in one district of Seoul, Korea. We used a questionnaire as an investigating tool to survey genetic backgrounds, environmental factors, and comorbidities. Student's t-test and linear regression were employed for statistical analysis.
In univariate analysis, the average stature in the AD group was short compared with the normal control group. Parental stature, dietary habit, and sleep patterns were also relevant factors with respect to stature. However, in multivariate analysis, AD itself had no influence on stature. Significant correlations were found for such factors as parental height, sleep disturbance, presence of asthma, and dietary restrictions, in decreasing magnitude.
These results suggest that AD itself may not be the causative factor for short stature in children with AD. Therefore, consideration of other relevant factors related to short stature in patients with AD will be important for the proper management of the disease.
Atopic dermatitis; Diet restriction; Sleep disturbance; Stature
Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea.
Enterobius vermicularis; environment; risk factor; kindergarten
Chronic autoimmune inflammation, which is commonly observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disrupts the delicate balance between bone resorption and formation causing thedestruction of the bone and joints. We undertook this study to verify the effects of natural grape-seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), an antioxidant, on chronic inflammation and bone destruction. GSPE administration ameliorated the arthritic symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), which are representative of cartilage and bone destruction. GSPE treatment reduced the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells and osteoclast activity and increased differentiation of mature osteoblasts. Receptor activator of NFκB ligand expression in fibroblasts from RA patients was abrogated with GSPE treatment. GSPE blocked human peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived osteoclastogenesis and acted as an antioxidant. GSPE improved the arthritic manifestations of CIA mice by simultaneously suppressing osteoclast differentiation and promoting osteoblast differentiation. Our results suggest that GSPE may be beneficial for the treatment of inflammation-associated bone destruction.
In order to know the effect of pre-existing Trichinella spiralis infection on experimentally induced intestinal inflammation and immune responses, we induced colitis in T. spiralis-infected mice and observed the severity of colitis and the levels of Th1, Th2, and regulatory cytokines and recruitment of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T (regulatory T; Treg) cells. Female C57BL/6 mice were infected with 250 muscle larvae; after 4 weeks, induction of experimental colitis was performed using 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). During the induction period, we observed severity of colitis, including weight loss and status of stool, and evaluated the disease activity index (DAI). A significantly low DAI and degree of weight loss were observed in infected mice, compared with uninfected mice. In addition, colon length in infected mice was not contracted, compared with uninfected mice. We also observed a significant increase in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IFN-γ, in spleen lymphocytes treated with DSS; however, such an increase was not observed in infected mice treated with DSS. Of particular interest, production of regulatory cytokines, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, in spleen lymphocytes showed a significant increase in mice infected with T. spiralis. A similar result was observed in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Subsets of the population of Treg cells in MLN and spleen showed significant increases in mice infected with T. spiralis. In conclusion, T. spiralis infection can inhibit the DSS-induced colitis in mice by enhancing the regulatory cytokine and Treg cells recruitment.
Trichinella spiralis; dextran sulfate sodium (DSS); CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T (Treg) cells; intestinal inflammation
White fat cells secrete adipokines that induce inflammation and obesity has been reported to be characterized by high serum levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prototype of inflammatory arthritis, but the relationship between RA and obesity is controversial. We made an obese inflammatory arthritis model: obese collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). C57BL/6 mice were fed a 60-kcal high fat diet (HFD) from the age of 4 weeks and they were immunized twice with type II collagen (CII). After immunization, the obese CIA mice showed higher arthritis index scores and histology scores and a more increased incidence of developing arthritis than did the lean CIA mice. After treatment with CII, mixed lymphocyte reaction also showed CII-specific response more intensely in the obese CIA mice than lean CIA. The anti-CII IgG and anti-CII IgG2a levels in the sera of the obese CIA mice were higher than those of the lean CIA mice. The number of Th17 cells was higher and the IL-17 mRNA expression of the splenocytes in the obese CIA mice was higher than that of the lean CIA mice. Obese CIA mice also showed high IL-17 expression on synovium in immunohistochemistry. Although obesity may not play a pathogenic role in initiating arthritis, it could play an important role in amplifying the inflammation of arthritis through the Th1/Th17 response. The obese CIA murine model will be an important tool when we investigate the effect of several therapeutic target molecules to treat RA.
arthritis, experimental; inflammation; mice; obesity; Th17 cells
The study was undertaken to investigate the interrelation of toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin (IL)-17 in the salivary glands of patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) and to determine the role of TLR and IL-17 in the pathophysiology of pSS.
The expressions of various TLRs, IL-17 and the cytokines involved in Th17 cell differentiation including IL-6, IL-23, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β were examined by immunohistochemistry in salivary glands of pSS patients. The IL-17 producing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) were examined by flow cytometry and confocal staining in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBCs) and salivary glands of pSS patients. After PBMCs were treated with TLR specific ligands, the induction of IL-17 and IL-23 was determined using real-time PCR and ELISA. The signaling pathway that mediates the TLR2 stimulated production of IL-17 and IL-23 was investigated by using treatment with specific signaling inhibitors.
We showed that TLR2, TLR4, TLR6, IL-17 and the cytokines associated with Th17 cells were highly expressed in salivary glands of pSS patients but not in controls. The expressions of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 were observed in the infiltrating mononuclear cells and ductal epithelial cells, whereas IL-17 was mainly observed in infiltrating CD4+ T cells. The number of IL-17 producing CD4+ T cells was significantly higher in pSS patients both in PBMCs and minor salivary glands. The stimulation of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR6 additively induced the production of IL-17 and IL-23 from the PBMCs of pSS patients especially in the presence of TLR2 stimulation. IL-6, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB) pathways were implicated in the TLR2 stimulated IL-17 and IL-23.
Our data demonstrate that TLR2 ligation induces the production of IL-23/IL-17 via IL-6, STAT3 and NF-kB pathway in pSS. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that target TLR/IL-17 pathway might be strong candidates for treatment modalities of pSS.
BellaGen™ is an injectable acellular dermal matrix granule derived from donated human skin tissue that was recently developed for soft tissue augmentation. Its use has been sporadically reported in penile girth enhancement procedures. Many cases of complications have been reported after injecting acellular dermal matrices like AlloDerm or SureDerm™ but few reports on complications associated with BellaGen™ injection. We report here on penile skin inflammation and necrosis following augmentation phalloplasty with BellaGen™, which developed 3 days after the injection and persisted for more than 2 weeks. The patient had a 15 year history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and he was treated with oral antibiotics and wet dressings with KMNO4 solution to combine preservation of the remaining penile soft tissue with debridement of avascular tissue. The lesion improved with this treatment, but the patient experienced pain for about 2 weeks. All patients should be informed of the potential complications with the use of injectable acellular dermal matrices before treatment. Patient selection for augmentation is also important to have the most desirable results.
AlloDerm; Dermal matrix; Necrosis
We have reported that a 24 kDa protein (22U homologous; As22U) of Anisakis simplex larvae could elicit several Th2-related chemokine gene expressions in the intestinal epithelial cell line which means that As22U may play a role as an allergen. In order to determine the contribution of As22U to allergic reactions, we treated mice with 6 times intra-nasal application of recombinant As22U (rAs22U). In the group challenged with rAs22U and ovalbumin (OVA), the number of eosinophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was significantly increased, as compared to the group receiving only OVA. In addition, mice treated with rAs22U and OVA showed significantly increased airway hyperresponsiveness. Thus, severe inflammation around the airway and immune cell recruitment was observed in mice treated with rAs22U plus OVA. The levels of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 cytokines in the BALF increased significantly after treatment with rAs22U and OVA. Similarly, the levels of anti-OVA specific IgE and IgG1 increased in mice treated with rAs22U and OVA, compared to those treated only with OVA. The Gro-α (CXCL1) gene expression in mouse lung epithelial cells increased instantly after treatment with rAs22U, and allergy-specific chemokines eotaxin (CCL11) and thymus-and-activation-regulated-chemokine (CCL17) gene expressions significantly increased at 6 hr after treatment. In conclusion, rAs22U may induce airway allergic inflammation, as the result of enhanced Th2 and Th17 responses.
Anisakis simplex; As22U; allergic airway inflammation; excretory secretory protein
Osteoarthritis (OA) is an age-related joint disease that is characterized by degeneration of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Oxidative stress is considered one of the pathophysiological factors in the progression of OA. We investigated the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is an antioxidant, on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritis of the knee joint of rat, which is an animal model of human OA. GSPE (100 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg) or saline was given orally three times per week for 4 weeks after the MIA injection. Pain was measured using the paw withdrawal latency (PWL), the paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) and the hind limb weight bearing ability. Joint damage was assessed using histological and microscopic analysis and microcomputerized tomography. Matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13) and nitrotyrosine were detected using immunohistochemistry. Administration of GSPE to the MIA-treated rats significantly increased the PWL and PWT and this resulted in recovery of hind paw weight distribution (P < 0.05). GSPE reduced the loss of chondrocytes and proteoglycan, the production of MMP13, nitrotyrosine and IL-1β and the formation of osteophytes, and it reduced the number of subchondral bone fractures in the MIA-treated rats. These results indicate that GSPE is antinociceptive and it is protective against joint damage in the MIA-treated rat model of OA. GSPE could open up novel avenues for the treatment of OA.
antioxidants; grape seed proanthocyanidins; inflammation; interleukin-1β; osteoarthritis
Cutaneous metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma are extremely rare. When present, metastasis typically signifies disseminated disease with a poor prognosis. We report a case of an 80-year-old male with gastric cancer who presented with a single, erythematous plaque on the left palm, a very rare site for skin metastasis. Results of a skin biopsy demonstrated that the cutaneous metastasis originated from the stomach. This report emphasized the need for appropriate investigation into newly appearing, unusual, or persistent skin lesions.
Cutaneous metastasis; Gastric cancer; Palm
In order to get a better understanding of the role of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in type 2 helper T (Th2) cell responses against Trichinella spiralis infection, we analyzed Th2 responses in T. spiralis-infected PAR2 knockout (KO) mice. The levels of the Th2 cell-secreted cytokines, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were markedly reduced in the PAR2 KO mice as compared to the wild type mice following infection with T. spiralis. The serum levels of parasite-specific IgE increased significantly in the wild type mice as the result of T. spiralis infection, but this level was not significantly increased in PAR2 KO mice. The expression level of thymic stromal lymphopoietin, IL-25, and eotaxin gene (the genes were recently known as Th2 response initiators) of mouse intestinal epithelial cells were increased as the result of treatment with T. spiralis excretory-secretory proteins. However, the expression of these chemokine genes was inhibited by protease inhibitor treatments. In conclusion, PAR2 might involve in Th2 responses against T. spiralis infection.
Trichinella spiralis; protease-activated receptor 2; IL-25; thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP)
Many immune down-regulatory molecules have been isolated from parasites, including cystatin (cystain protease inhibitor). In a previous study, we isolated and characterized Type I cystatin (CsStefin-1) of the liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. To investigate whether the CsStefin-1 might be a new host immune modulator, we induced intestinal inflammation in mice by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) and treated them with recombinant CsStefin-1 (rCsStefin-1). The disease activity index (DAI) increased in DSS only-treated mice. In contrast, the DAI value was significantly reduced in rCsStefin-1-treated mice than DSS only-treated mice. In addition, the colon length of DSS only-treated mice was shorter than that of rCsStefin-1 treated mice. The secretion levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were significantly increased by DSS treatment, but the level of TNF-α in MLNs was significantly decreased by rCsStefin-1 treatment. IL-10 production in both spleen and MLNs was significantly increased, and IL-10+F4/80+ macrophage cells were significantly increased in the spleen and MLNs of rCsStefin-1 treated mice after DSS treatment. In conclusion, rCsStefin-1 could reduce the intestinal inflammation occurring after DSS treatment, these effects might be related with recruitment of IL-10 secreting macrophages.
Clonorchis sinensis; inflammatory bowel disease; cystatin; dextran sodium sulfate (DSS); IL-10+F4/80+ macrophages
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a key negative regulator of immune responses and has been implicated in tumor tolerance, autoimmune disease and asthma. IDO was detected in the joint synovial tissue in the inflammatory microenvironment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but IDO expression in joint synovial tissue is not sufficient to overcome the inflamed synovial environment. This study aimed to unravel the mechanisms involving the failure to activate tolerogenic IDO in the inflamed joint. We demonstrate that both poly (I:C) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induce expression of IDO in synovial fibroblasts. However, inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, TNF-α, IL-12, IL-23 and IL-16 did not induce IDO expression. Poly (I:C) appeared to induce higher IDO expression than did LPS. Surprisingly, toll-like receptor (TLR)4-mediated IDO expression was upregulated after depletion of myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) in synovial fibroblasts using small interfering RNA (siRNA). IDO, TLR3 and TLR4 were highly expressed in synovial tissue of RA patients compared with that of osteoarthritis patients. In addition, RA patients with severe disease activity had higher levels of expression of IDO, TLR3 and TLR4 in the synovium than patients with mild disease activity. These data suggest that upregulation of IDO expression in synovial fibroblasts involves TLR3 and TLR4 activation by microbial constituents. We showed that the mechanisms responsible for IDO regulation primarily involve MyD88 signaling in synovial fibroblasts, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated knockdown of MyD88.
indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3,-dioxygenase; myeloid differentiation factor 88; rheumatoid arthritis; TICAM1 protein, human; toll-like receptors
The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of arthritis. We conducted this study to determine the effect of interleukin (IL)-17 on the expression and production of RAGE in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The role of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activator 1 (Act1) in IL-17-induced RAGE expression in RA-FLS was also evaluated.
RAGE expression in synovial tissues was assessed by immunohistochemical staining. RAGE mRNA production was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Act-1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was produced and treated to evaluate the role of Act-1 on RAGE production.
RAGE, IL-17, and Act-1 expression increased in RA synovium compared to osteoarthritis synovium. RAGE expression and production increased by IL-17 and IL-1β (*P <0.05 vs. untreated cells) treatment but not by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in RA-FLS. The combined stimuli of both IL-17 and IL-1β significantly increased RAGE production compared to a single stimulus with IL-17 or IL-1β alone (P <0.05 vs. 10 ng/ml IL-17). Act-1 shRNA added to the RA-FLS culture supernatant completely suppressed the enhanced production of RAGE induced by IL-17.
RAGE was overexpressed in RA synovial tissues, and RAGE production was stimulated by IL-17 and IL-1β. Act-1 contributed to the stimulatory effect of IL-17 on RAGE production, suggesting a possible inhibitory target for RA treatment.
Angiogenesis, which is a critical step in the initiation and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), involves pro-angiogenic factors, including interleukin (IL)-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We investigated the role of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) in the regulation of pro-angiogenic factors in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).
FLS were isolated from RA synovial tissues and stimulated with the TLR3 ligand, poly (I:C). The levels of VEGF and IL-8 in the culture supernatants were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and the mRNA levels were assessed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression patterns of VEGF and IL-8 in the RA synovium and osteoarthritis (OA) synovium were compared using immunohistochemistry.
The expression levels of TLR3, VEGF, and IL-8 were significantly higher in the RA synovium than in the OA synovium. VEGF and IL-8 production were increased in the culture supernatants of RA FLS stimulated with poly (I:C), and the genes for these proteins were up-regulated at the transcriptional level after poly (I:C) treatment. Treatment with inhibitors of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), i.e., pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and parthenolide, abrogated the stimulatory effect of poly (I:C) on the production of VEGF and IL-8 in RA FLS.
Our results suggest that the activation of TLR3 in RA FLS promotes the production of proangiogenic factors, in a process that is mediated by the NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, targeting the TLR3 pathway may be a promising approach to preventing pathologic angiogenesis in RA.
Toll-like receptor 3; Arthritis, rheumatoid; Vascular endothelial growth factor; Interleukin-8; Synovial fibroblast
This study was undertaken to identify the intracellular signaling pathway involved in induction of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fibroblasts.
Human RA synovial fibroblasts were treated with concanavalin A (ConA), various cytokines, and inhibitors of signal transduction molecules. The production of MIF by synovial fibroblasts was measured in culture supernatants by ELISA. The expression of MIF mRNA was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase in synovial fibroblasts was confirmed using Western blotting. The expression of MIF and p38 MAP kinase in RA synovium was determined using dual immunohistochemistry.
The production of MIF by RA synovial fibroblasts increased in a dose-dependent manner after ConA stimulation. MIF was also induced by interferon-γ, CD40 ligand, interleukin-15, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and transforming growth factor-β. The production of MIF by RA synovial fibroblasts was significantly reduced after inhibition of p38 MAP kinase. The expression of MIF and p38 MAP kinase was upregulated in the RA synovium compared with the osteoarthritis synovium.
These results suggest that MIF production was induced through a p38 MAP-kinase-dependent pathway in RA synovial fibroblasts.
Macrophage, migration-inhibitory factors; Arthritis rheumatoid; Synovial fibroblast; p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of IL-16 in the rheumatoid synovium and the role of inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands in IL-16 production by fibroblastlike synoviocytes (FLS) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Immunohistochemical staining was performed with a monoclonal antibody to IL-16 in synovial tissues from patients with RA and likewise in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). FLS were isolated from RA synovial tissues and stimulated with IL-15, IL-1β, IFN-γ, and IL-17. The IL-16 mRNA level was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR and real time (RT) PCR and a comparison was made between IL-16 mRNA levels produced by RA-FLS and OA-FLS. Production of IL-16 was identified by a western blot assay, and IL-16 production after stimulation by specific ligands of TLR2 and TLR4 was assessed by RT-PCR. While immunohistochemical staining demonstrated strong expression of IL-16 mRNA in synovial tissues from patients with RA, similar findings were not present in the OA group. Moreover, mRNA expression of IL-16 by RA-FLS increased after treatment with IL-17 but not with IL-15, IL-1β, and IFN-γ. Specifically, IL-17 increased IL-16 mRNA level by RA-FLS and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, IL-17 did not stimulate IL-16 production in OA-FLS. Peptidoglycan, a selective TLR2 ligand, also increased production of IL-16 by RA-FLS dosedependently, whereas LPS, a selective TLR4 ligand, had no such stimulatory effect. The results from our data demonstrate that IL-17 and TLR2 ligands stimulate the production of IL-16 by RA-FLS.
interleukin-16; interleukin-17; rheumatoid arthritis; synovial membrane; Toll-like receptors
NS398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, is known to inhibit the growth of COX-2 expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The present study investigated whether the cytotoxic effect of NS398 was COX-2 dependent and whether caspases were involved in NS398-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Materials and Methods
The expressions of COX-2 in SNU 423 and SNU 449 hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were examined using RT-PCR and Western blot. The cytotoxic effect of NS398 was measured using MTT in the presence or absence of caspase inhibitors. The distribution of the cell cycle and extent of apoptosis were analyzed using flow cytometry and a Cell Death Elisa kit, respectively.
The expression of COX-2 was observed in SNU423 cells, but not in SNU 449 cells. NS398 treatment resulted in both dose-and time-dependent growth inhibitions, with increases in apoptotic cells in both cell lines. Treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD- fmk, or the caspase-3 inhibitor, Ac-DMQD-CHO, showed no attenuation of the cytotoxic effect of NS398 in either cell line.
This study demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of NS398 was independent of COX-2 expression. Caspases were also shown not to be involved in NS398-induced apoptosis in either SNU 423 or SNU 449 Korean HCC cell lines. Our data suggests the feasibility of preventing hepatocellular carcinoma with the use of COX-2 inhibitors needs to be carefully evaluated.
Apoptosis; Cyclooxygenase 2; Hepatocellular carcinoma; NS398
Inflammatory mediators have been recognized as being important in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interleukin (IL)-17 is an important regulator of immune and inflammatory responses, including the induction of proinflammatory cytokines and osteoclastic bone resorption. Evidence for the expression and proinflammatory activity of IL-17 has been demonstrated in RA synovium and in animal models of RA. Although some cytokines (IL-15 and IL-23) have been reported to regulate IL-17 production, the intracellular signaling pathways that regulate IL-17 production remain unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in the regulation of IL-17 production in RA. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with RA (n = 24) were separated, then stimulated with various agents including anti-CD3, anti-CD28, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. IL-17 levels were determined by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. The production of IL-17 was significantly increased in cells treated with anti-CD3 antibody with or without anti-CD28 and PHA (P < 0.05). Among tested cytokines and chemokines, IL-15, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and IL-6 upregulated IL-17 production (P < 0.05), whereas tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-18 or transforming growth factor-β did not. IL-17 was also detected in the PBMC of patients with osteoarthritis, but their expression levels were much lower than those of RA PBMC. Anti-CD3 antibody activated the PI3K/Akt pathway; activation of this pathway resulted in a pronounced augmentation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) DNA-binding activity. IL-17 production by activated RA PBMC is completely or partly blocked in the presence of the NF-κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and the PI3K/Akt inhibitor wortmannin and LY294002, respectively. However, inhibition of activator protein-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 did not affect IL-17 production. These results suggest that signal transduction pathways dependent on PI3K/Akt and NF-κB are involved in the overproduction of the key inflammatory cytokine IL-17 in RA.
interleukin-17; nuclear factor κB; PI3K/Akt pathway; peripheral blood mononuclear cells; rheumatoid arthritis
Recent studies of the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have revealed that both synovial fibroblasts and T cells participate in the perpetuation of joint inflammation as dynamic partners in a mutual activation feedback, via secretion of cytokines and chemokines that stimulate each other. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-17, a major Th1 cytokine produced by activated T cells, in the activation of RA synovial fibroblasts. Transcripts of IL-17R (IL-17 receptor) and IL-17RB (IL-17 receptor B) were present in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA patients. IL-17R responded with increased expression upon in vitro stimulation with IL-17, while the level of IL-17RB did not change. IL-17 enhanced the production of IL-6 and IL-8 in FLS, as previously shown, but did not affect the synthesis of IL-15. IL-17 appears to be a stronger inducer of IL-6 and IL-8 than IL-15, and even exerted activation comparable to that of IL-1β in RA FLS. IL-17-mediated induction of IL-6 and IL-8 was transduced via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and NF-κB, while CD40 ligation and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) are not likely to partake in the process. Together these results suggest that IL-17 is capable of more than accessory roles in the activation of RA FLS and provide grounds for targeting IL-17-associated pathways in therapeutic modulation of arthritis inflammation.
fibroblast-like synoviocytes; IL-17; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; rheumatoid arthritis