Search tips
Search criteria

Results 1-10 (10)

Clipboard (0)

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
1.  Pathogen-induced binding of the soybean zinc finger homeodomain proteins GmZF-HD1 and GmZF-HD2 to two repeats of ATTA homeodomain binding site in the calmodulin isoform 4 (GmCaM4) promoter 
Nucleic Acids Research  2007;35(11):3612-3623.
Calmodulin (CaM) is involved in defense responses in plants. In soybean (Glycine max), transcription of calmodulin isoform 4 (GmCaM4) is rapidly induced within 30 min after pathogen stimulation, but regulation of the GmCaM4 gene in response to pathogen is poorly understood. Here, we used the yeast one-hybrid system to isolate two cDNA clones encoding proteins that bind to a 30-nt A/T-rich sequence in the GmCaM4 promoter, a region that contains two repeats of a conserved homeodomain binding site, ATTA. The two proteins, GmZF-HD1 and GmZF-HD2, belong to the zinc finger homeodomain (ZF-HD) transcription factor family. Domain deletion analysis showed that a homeodomain motif can bind to the 30-nt GmCaM4 promoter sequence, whereas the two zinc finger domains cannot. Critically, the formation of super-shifted complexes by an anti-GmZF-HD1 antibody incubated with nuclear extracts from pathogen-treated cells suggests that the interaction between GmZF-HD1 and two homeodomain binding site repeats is regulated by pathogen stimulation. Finally, a transient expression assay with Arabidopsis protoplasts confirmed that GmZF-HD1 can activate the expression of GmCaM4 by specifically interacting with the two repeats. These results suggest that the GmZF-HD1 and –2 proteins function as ZF-HD transcription factors to activate GmCaM4 gene expression in response to pathogen.
PMCID: PMC1920248  PMID: 17485478
2.  Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-Triggered Immunity Is Compromised under C-Limited Growth 
Molecules and Cells  2014;38(1):40-50.
In the interaction between plants and pathogens, carbon (C) resources provide energy and C skeletons to maintain, among many functions, the plant immune system. However, variations in C availability on pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) triggered immunity (PTI) have not been systematically examined. Here, three types of starch mutants with enhanced susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 hrcC were examined for PTI. In a dark period-dependent manner, the mutants showed compromised induction of a PTI marker, and callose accumulation in response to the bacterial PAMP flagellin, flg22. In combination with weakened PTI responses in wild type by inhibition of the TCA cycle, the experiments determined the necessity of C-derived energy in establishing PTI. Global gene expression analyses identified flg22 responsive genes displaying C supply-dependent patterns. Nutrient recycling-related genes were regulated similarly by C-limitation and flg22, indicating re-arrangements of expression programs to redirect resources that establish or strengthen PTI. Ethylene and NAC transcription factors appear to play roles in these processes. Under C-limitation, PTI appears compromised based on suppression of genes required for continued biosynthetic capacity and defenses through flg22. Our results provide a foundation for the intuitive perception of the interplay between plant nutrition status and pathogen defense.
PMCID: PMC4314131  PMID: 25387755
Arabidopsis; carbon; defense; energy; flg22; NAC; starch; PAMP; Pseudomonas; PTI
3.  Rice Small C2-Domain Proteins Are Phosphorylated by Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 
Molecules and Cells  2013;35(5):381-387.
We previously reported that OsERG1 and OsERG3 encode rice small C2-domain proteins with different biochemical properties in Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding assays. OsERG1 exhibited Ca2+-dependent phospholipid binding, which was not observed with OsERG3. In the present study, we show that both OsERG1 and OsERG3 proteins exhibit oligomerization properties as determined by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and glutaraldehyde cross-linking experiments. Furthermore, in vitro phosphorylation assays reveal the phosphorylation of OsERG1 and OsERG3 by a rice calcium-dependent protein kinase, OsCDPK5. Our mutation analysis on putative serine phosphorylation sites shows that the first serine (Ser) at position 41 of OsERG1 may be an essential residue for phosphorylation by OsCDPK5. Mutation of Ser41 to alanine (OsERG1S41A) and aspartate (OsERG1S41D) abolishes the ability of OsERG1 to bind phospholipids regardless of the presence or absence of Ca2+ ions. In addition, unlike the OsERG1 wild-type form, the mutant OsERG1 (S41A)::smGFP construct lost the ability to translocate from the cytosol to the plasma membrane in response to calcium ions or fungal elicitor. These results indicate that Ser41 may be essential for the function of OsERG1.
PMCID: PMC3887858  PMID: 23456295
Ca2+/phospholipid-binding; calcium-dependent protein kinase; oligomerization; phosphorylation; small C2-domain protein
4.  Constitutive Expression of Mammalian Nitric Oxide Synthase in Tobacco Plants Triggers Disease Resistance to Pathogens 
Molecules and Cells  2012;34(5):463-471.
Nitric oxide (NO) is known for its role in the activation of plant defense responses. To examine the involvement and mode of action of NO in plant defense responses, we introduced calmodulin-dependent mammalian neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), which controls the CaMV35S promoter, into wild-type and NahG tobacco plants. Constitutive expression of nNOS led to NO production and triggered spontaneous induction of leaf lesions. Transgenic plants accumulated high amounts of H2O2, with catalase activity lower than that in the wild type. nNOS transgenic plants contained high levels of salicylic acid (SA), and they induced an array of SA-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and/or ethylene (ET)-related genes. Consequently, NahG co-expression blocked the induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-associated genes in transgenic plants, implying SA is involved in NO-mediated induction of SAR genes. The transgenic plants exhibited enhanced resistance to a spectrum of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Our results suggest a highly ranked regulatory role for NO in SA-, JA-, and/or ET-dependent pathways that lead to disease resistance.
PMCID: PMC3887790  PMID: 23124383
nitric oxide (NO); nitric oxide synthase (NOS); plant defense signaling; reactive oxygen species; salicylic acid
5.  The role of Arabidopsis MYB2 in miR399f-mediated phosphate-starvation response 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2013;8(3):e23488.
In plants, microRNA399 (miR399) is a major regulator of phosphate (Pi) homeostasis by way of post-transcriptional mechanisms including transcript cleavage and transcriptional repression. Although miRNA genomic organization, biogenesis, and mode of action in plants are known, the regulatory mechanisms affecting miRNAs are poorly understood. We have shown that AtMYB2 functions as a transcriptional activator for miR399f expression in the context of phosphate homeostasis. AtMYB2 directly binds to a MYB-binding site in the promoter of the miR399f precursor and regulates miR399f expression. In addition, AtMYB2 transcripts are induced under Pi deficiency. The overexpression of AtMYB2 affects root system architecture (RSA), indicated by suppression of primary root growth and enhanced development of root hairs. AtMYB2 and miR399f are expressed and localized in the same tissues under Pi limitation. This study establishes that AtMYB2 regulates Pi-starvation responses (PSR) by activating of miR399f transcript, suggesting that an analysis of this miRNA promoter could reveal the existence and extent of crosstalk with other signaling mechanisms.
PMCID: PMC3676519  PMID: 23333957
Arabidopsis MYB2; microRNA399; phosphate; phytohormones; signaling
6.  SUMO and SUMOylation in Plants 
Molecules and Cells  2011;32(4):305-316.
The traditional focus on the central dogma of molecular biology, from gene through RNA to protein, has now been replaced by the recognition of an additional mechanism. The new regulatory mechanism, post-translational modifications to proteins, can actively alter protein function or activity introducing additional levels of functional complexity by altering cellular and sub-cellular location, protein interactions and the outcome of biochemical reaction chains. Modifications by ubiquitin (Ub) and ubiquitin-like modifiers systems are conserved in all eukaryotic organisms. One of them, small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is present in plants. The SUMO mechanism includes several isoforms of proteins that are involved in reactions of sumoylation and de-sumoylation. Sumoylation affects several important processes in plants. Outstanding among those are responses to environmental stresses. These may be abiotic stresses, such as phosphate deficiency, heat, low temperature, and drought, or biotic stressses, as well including defense reactions to pathogen infection. Also, the regulations of flowering time, cell growth and development, and nitrogen assimilation have recently been added to this list. Identification of SUMO targets is material to characterize the function of sumoylation or desumoylation. Affinity purification and mass spectrometric identification have been done lately in plants. Further SUMO noncovalent binding appears to have function in other model organisms and SUMO interacting proteins in plants will be of interest to plant biologists who dissect the dynamic function of SUMO. This review will discuss results of recent insights into the role of sumoylation in plants.
PMCID: PMC3887640  PMID: 21912873
Arabidopsis; SUMO; sumoylation
7.  Identification and Molecular Properties of SUMO-Binding Proteins in Arabidopsis 
Molecules and Cells  2011;32(2):143-151.
Reversible conjugation of the small ubiquitin modifier (SUMO) peptide to proteins (SUMOylation) plays important roles in cellular processes in animals and yeasts. However, little is known about plant SUMO targets. To identify SUMO substrates in Arabidopsis and to probe for biological functions of SUMO proteins, we constructed 6xHis-3xFLAG fused AtSUMO1 (HFAtSUMO1) controlled by the CaMV35S promoter for transformation into Arabidopsis Col-0. After heat treatment, an increased sumoylation pattern was detected in the transgenic plants. SUMO1-modified proteins were selected after two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) image analysis and identified using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We identified 27 proteins involved in a variety of processes such as nucleic acid metabolism, signaling, metabolism, and including proteins of unknown functions. Binding and sumoylation patterns were confirmed independently. Surprisingly, MCM3 (At5G46280), a DNA replication licensing factor, only interacted with and became sumoylated by AtSUMO1, but not by SUMO1ΔGG or AtSUMO3. The results suggest specific interactions between sumoylation targets and particular sumoylation enzymes.
PMCID: PMC3887670  PMID: 21607647
Arabidopsis; mass spectrometry; proteomics; SUMO binding proteins; Sumoylation
8.  A NAC transcription factor and SNI1 cooperatively suppress basal pathogen resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana 
Nucleic Acids Research  2012;40(18):9182-9192.
Transcriptional repression of pathogen defense-related genes is essential for plant growth and development. Several proteins are known to be involved in the transcriptional regulation of plant defense responses. However, mechanisms by which expression of defense-related genes are regulated by repressor proteins are poorly characterized. Here, we describe the in planta function of CBNAC, a calmodulin-regulated NAC transcriptional repressor in Arabidopsis. A T-DNA insertional mutant (cbnac1) displayed enhanced resistance to a virulent strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 (PstDC3000), whereas resistance was reduced in transgenic CBNAC overexpression lines. The observed changes in disease resistance were correlated with alterations in pathogenesis-related protein 1 (PR1) gene expression. CBNAC bound directly to the PR1 promoter. SNI1 (suppressor of nonexpressor of PR genes1, inducible 1) was identified as a CBNAC-binding protein. Basal resistance to PstDC3000 and derepression of PR1 expression was greater in the cbnac1 sni1 double mutant than in either cbnac1 or sni1 mutants. SNI1 enhanced binding of CBNAC to its cognate PR1 promoter element. CBNAC and SNI1 are hypothesized to work as repressor proteins in the cooperative suppression of plant basal defense.
PMCID: PMC3467076  PMID: 22826500
9.  Consequences of SOS1 deficiency 
Plant Signaling & Behavior  2010;5(6):766-768.
As much as there is known about the function of the sodium/proton antiporter SOS1 in plants, recent studies point towards a more general role for this protein. The crucial involvement in salt stress protection is clearly one of its functions—confined to the N-terminus, but the modular structure of the protein includes a segment with several domains that are functionally not studied but comprise more than half of the protein's length. Additional functions of the protein appear to be an influence on vesicle trafficking, vacuolar pH and general ion homeostasis during salt stress. Eliminating SOS1 leads to the expression of genes that are not strictly salinity stress related. Functions that are regulated in sos1 mutants included pathogen responses, and effects on circadian rhythm.
PMCID: PMC3001585  PMID: 20505347
Arabidopsis thaliana; SOS1 deficiency; crosstalk; calcium-channels; proton gradients; biotic stress
10.  Variation in Molybdenum Content Across Broadly Distributed Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana Is Controlled by a Mitochondrial Molybdenum Transporter (MOT1) 
PLoS Genetics  2008;4(2):e1000004.
Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential micronutrient for plants, serving as a cofactor for enzymes involved in nitrate assimilation, sulfite detoxification, abscisic acid biosynthesis, and purine degradation. Here we show that natural variation in shoot Mo content across 92 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions is controlled by variation in a mitochondrially localized transporter (Molybdenum Transporter 1 - MOT1) that belongs to the sulfate transporter superfamily. A deletion in the MOT1 promoter is strongly associated with low shoot Mo, occurring in seven of the accessions with the lowest shoot content of Mo. Consistent with the low Mo phenotype, MOT1 expression in low Mo accessions is reduced. Reciprocal grafting experiments demonstrate that the roots of Ler-0 are responsible for the low Mo accumulation in shoot, and GUS localization demonstrates that MOT1 is expressed strongly in the roots. MOT1 contains an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence and expression of MOT1 tagged with GFP in protoplasts and transgenic plants, establishing the mitochondrial localization of this protein. Furthermore, expression of MOT1 specifically enhances Mo accumulation in yeast by 5-fold, consistent with MOT1 functioning as a molybdate transporter. This work provides the first molecular insight into the processes that regulate Mo accumulation in plants and shows that novel loci can be detected by association mapping.
Author Summary
Plants must acquire all the mineral nutrients they require for survival from the complex chemical and biological environment of the soil. A better understanding of the way plants do this would not only allow improvements in sustainable agricultural productivity, but could also improve human health through enhancement of the nutritional quality of foods. One such essential mineral nutrient required by plants is molybdenum (Mo), which is needed as a cofactor in several critical biochemical reactions, including the utilization of nitrogen from the soil. By searching through numerous natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), we were able to identify a DNA deletion that drives the natural variation in Mo accumulation observed in these populations. This deletion reduces expression of a gene (MOT1) that the authors establish to encode a mitochondrially localized molybdenum transporter. Loss of expression of MOT1 in the roots of Arabidopsis causes a significant reduction in whole plant Mo accumulation, though the mechanism by which this Mo transporter regulates whole plant Mo from the mitochondria remains to be established.
PMCID: PMC2265440  PMID: 18454190

Results 1-10 (10)