AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnostic and therapeutic transgastric (TG) peritoneoscopic interventions with a forward-viewing endoscopic ultrasound (FV-EUS).
METHODS: This prospective endoscopic experimental study used an animal model. Combined TG peritoneoscopic interventions and EUS examination of the intra-abdominal organs were performed using an FV-EUS on 10 animal models (1 porcine and 9 canine). The procedures carried out include EUS evaluation and endoscopic biopsy of intraperitoneal organs, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA), and argon plasma coagulation (APC) for hemostatic control. The animals were kept alive for 7 d, and then necropsy was performed to evaluate results and complications.
RESULTS: In all 10 animals, TG peritoneoscopy, followed by endoscopic biopsy for the liver, spleen, abdominal wall, and omentum, was performed successfully. APC helped control minor bleeding. Visualization of intra-abdominal solid organs with real-time EUS was accomplished with ease. Intraperitoneal EUS-FNA was successfully performed on the liver, spleen, and kidney. Similarly, a successful outcome was achieved with EUS-RFA of the hepatic parenchyma. No adverse events were recorded during the study.
CONCLUSION: Peritoneoscopic natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) interventions through FV-EUS were feasible in providing evaluation and performing endoscopic procedures. It promises potential as a platform for future EUS-based NOTES.
Forward-viewing endoscopic ultrasound; Oblique-viewing endoscopic ultrasound; Endoscopic ultrasound guided intervention; Peritoneoscopy; Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery
AIM: To determine the technical feasibility and safety of an endoscopic gastrojejunostomy with a pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) technique using a T-anchoring device in a porcine survival model.
METHODS: An endoscopic gastrojejunostomy with a pure NOTES technique using a T-anchoring device was performed on 10 healthy female minipigs weighing approximately 40 kg each under general anesthesia. All procedures were performed with a transgastric approach using a 2-channel therapeutic endoscope.
RESULTS: The transgastric gastrojejunostomy was technically successful in all cases. A total of four to six stitched pairs of a T-anchoring device were used to secure the anastomosis. The median time required to enter the peritoneal cavity and pull the small bowel into the stomach was 34 min (range: 19-41 min); the median time required to suture the anastomosis was 67 min (range: 44-78 min). An obstruction of the efferent limb occurred in one case, and a rupture of the anastomosis site occurred in another case. As a result, the functional success rate was 80% (8/10). Small bowel adhesion to the stomach and liver occurred in one case, but the anastomosis was intact without leakage or obstruction.
CONCLUSION: A transgastric gastrojejunostomy with a T-anchoring device may be safe and technically feasible. A T-anchoring device may provide a simple and effective endoscopic suturing method.
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery; Endoscopy; Pigs; Aanastomosis
AIM: To investigate the long-term outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CDS) with a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent (FCSEMS).
METHODS: From April 2009 to August 2010, 15 patients with distal malignant biliary obstructions who were candidates for alternative techniques for biliary decompression due to a failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were included. These 15 patients consisted of 8 men and 7 women and had a median age of 61 years (range: 30-91 years). The underlying causes of the distal malignant biliary obstruction were pancreatic cancer (n = 9), ampulla of Vater cancer (n = 2), renal cell carcinoma (n = 1), advanced gastric cancer (n = 1), lymphoma (n = 1), and duodenal cancer (n = 1).
RESULTS: The technical success rate of EUS-CDS with an FCSEMS was 86.7% (13/15), and functional success was achieved in 100% (13/13) of those cases. In two patients, the EUS-CDS failed because an FCSEMS with a delivery device could not be passed into the common bile duct. The mean duration of stent patency was 264 d. Early adverse events developed in three patients (3/13, 23.1%), including self-limited pneumoperitoneum in two patients and cholangitis requiring stent reposition in one patient. During the follow-up period (median: 186 d, range: 52-388 d), distal stent migration occurred in four patients (4/13, 30.8%). In 3 patients, the FCSEMS could be reinserted through the existing choledochoduodenal fistula tract.
CONCLUSION: EUS-CDS with an FCSEMS is technically feasible and can lead to effective palliation of distal malignant biliary obstructions after failed ERCP.
Bile duct obstruction; Drainage; Endosonography; Self-expandable metallic stent; Neoplasms
AIM: To compare small sphincterotomy combined with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (SES + ELBD) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for large bile duct stones.
METHODS: We compared prospectively SES + ELBD (group A, n = 27) with conventional EST (group B, n = 28) for the treatment of large bile duct stones (≥ 15 mm). When the stone could not be removed with a normal basket, mechanical lithotripsy was performed. We compared the rates of complete stone removal with one session and application of mechanical lithotripsy.
RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the mean largest stone size (A: 20.8 mm, B: 21.3 mm), bile duct diameter (A: 21.4 mm, B: 20.5 mm), number of stones (A: 2.2, B: 2.3), or procedure time (A: 18 min, B: 19 min) between the two groups. The rates of complete stone removal with one session was 85% in group A and 86% in group B (P = 0.473). Mechanical lithotripsy was required for stone removal in nine of 27 patients (33%) in group A and nine of 28 patients (32%, P = 0.527) in group B.
CONCLUSION: SES + ELBD did not show significant benefits compared to conventional EST, especially for the removal of large (≥ 15 mm) bile duct stones.
Sphincterotomy; Endoscopic; Balloon dilatation; Cholelithiasis; Lithotripsy
Transgastric endoscopic necrosectomy has been recently introduced as the effective and alternative management of infected pancreatic necrosis and pancreatic abscess. However, up to 40% of patients who undergo endoscopic necrosectomy may need an additional percutaneous approach for subsequent peripancreatic fluid collection or non-resolution of pancreatic necrosis. This percutaneous approach may lead to persistent pancreatocutaneous fistula, which remains a serious problem and usually requires prolonged hospitalization, or even open-abdominal surgery. We describe the first case of pancreatocutaneous fistula and concomitant abdominal wall defect following transgastric endoscopic necrosectomy and percutaneous drainage, which were endoscopically closed with fibrin glue injection via the necrotic cavity.
Fibrin glue; Pancreatocutaneous fistula; Infected pancreatic necrosis; Pancreatic abscess; Endoscopic necrosectomy
Although several groups have demonstrated the usefulness of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), there is still concern about frequent serious adverse events. We performed this study to determine the technical feasibility and safety of pure NOTES with a transgastric approach in a porcine model from the endoscopist's point of view.
Diagnostic peritoneoscopy, liver biopsy, salpingo-oophorectomy, and Fallopian tube ligation with a transgastric approach using a two-channel therapeutic endoscope were performed in 10 healthy female minipigs. These procedures were performed in two acute models and eight survival models in consecutive order.
The technical success rate was 100% for peritoneoscopy (10/10), liver biopsy (5/5), salpingo-oophorectomy (10/10), and Fallopian tube ligation (10/10). Eight cases of adverse events occurred, including one case of splenic injury, one case of bleeding after liver biopsy, two cases of small bowel adhesion after salpingo-oophorectomy, two cases of hematoma at the salphingo-oophorectomy site, and two cases of partial dehiscence at the gastric closure site. The gastric puncture site was closed with seven to eight hemoclips in four cases and two hemoclips and an endoloop in four cases.
The use of pure NOTES for peritoneoscopy, liver biopsy, salpingo-oophorectomy, and Fallopian tube ligation may be technically feasible, but considerable adverse events can occur during or after the procedure. Further studies utilizing specialized techniques overcome several limitations of pure NOTES are therefore necessary.
Natural orifice endoscopic surgery; Endoscopy; Swine
The placement of self expandable metal stent (SEMS) is one of the palliative therapeutic options for patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a covered SEMS versus the conventional plastic stent.
We retrospectively evaluated 44 patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction who were treated with a covered SEMS (21 patients) or a plastic stent (10 Fr, 23 patients). We analyzed the technical success rate, functional success rate, early complications, late complications, stent patency and survival rate.
There was one case in the covered SEMS group that had failed technically, but was corrected successfully using lasso. Functional success rates were 90.5% in the covered SEMS group and 91.3% in the plastic stent group. There was no difference in early complications between the two groups. Median patency of the stent was significantly prolonged in patients who had a covered SEMS (233.6 days) compared with those who had a plastic stent (94.6 days) (p=0.006). During the follow-up period, stent occlusion occurred in 11 patients of the covered SEMS group. Mean survival showed no significant difference between the two groups (covered SEMS group, 236.9 days; plastic stent group, 222.3 days; p=0.182).
The patency of the covered SEMS was longer than that of the plastic stent and the lasso of the covered SEMS was available for repositioning of the stent.
Malignant biliary obstruction; Self-expandable metal stent; Plastic stent
With the progress of product development, single-step endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided transmural drainage can overcome some disadvantages of the blind or two-step procedures used in the treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts. We therefore evaluated the technical feasibility, efficacy, and safety of single-step EUS-guided transmural drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts.
Endoscopic drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts was performed in 47 patients (median age, 46 years; range, 38 years to 59 years; 40 men) by using interventional echoendoscopes with a single-step device suitable for ballooning, bougination, and plastic-stent insertion.
Endoscopic stent placement was successful in 42 patients (89%; transgastric approach, 34/38; transduodenal approach, 8/9) and failed in 5 patients because of acute angulation (n=4) or small cyst (n=1). The volume of the pseudocyst was reduced by more than 90% or it disappeared completely in all of 41 patients (100%), based on a mean follow-up period of 17 months (range, 11 months to 20 months). The overall recurrence rate was 12% (5/41) after improvement by the procedure. Minor complications (one case of bleeding, three cases of pneumoperitoneum, and one case of peritonitis) occurred after the procedure in five patients (11%), but there were no major complications.
Single-step EUS-guided transmural drainage can be used to treat pancreatic pseudocysts with acceptable feasibility, efficacy, and safety.
Drainage; Endoscopic ultrasonography; Pancreatic pseudocyst
Bile-duct invasion is rare in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We report a case that received peroral direct cholangioscopy (PDCS)-guided endoscopic biopsy and photodynamic treatment (PDT) for recurrent HCC with intraductal tiny nodular tumor growth. A 64-year-old woman presented with recurrent right upper-quadrant pain. Six months previously she had been diagnosed with HCC with bile-duct invasion in the right anterior segment and had received right anterior segmentectomy. On pathological examination, the margin of resection was clear, but macroscopic bile-duct invasion was noted. On admission, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed a 0.5-cm-sized polypoid mass at the hilar portion. ERCP-guided biopsy failed, and an ampullary stricture was noted. PDCS-guided endoscopic biopsy was thus performed, and histopathology of the retrieved specimen revealed HCC. The patient submitted to PDT. There was no procedure-related complication. After 1 month of PDT the polypoid lesion and scar change at the hilar lesion had disappeared.
Peroral direct cholangioscopy; Photodynamic treatment; Recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma; Intraductal growth
Endoscopic necrosectomy was introduced as a safe and effective treatment modality for infected pancreatic necrosis. Although there have been many reports of endoscopic drainage of retroperitoneal pancreatic necrosis, the optimal endoscopic management of pancreatic necrosis extending to the noncontagious retroperitoneal and peritoneal spaces has yet to be established. We report herein a patient with infected pancreatic necrosis with noncontagious retroperitoneal and peritoneal extension who was treated successfully by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided multiple cystogastrostomy and endoscopic necrosectomy. EUS-guided multitransgastric necrosectomy may be technically feasible and effective for the management of infected pancreatic necrosis with noncontagious retroperitoneal and peritoneal extension that demonstrates suitable anatomy. Further studies to assess the efficacy and safety of this technique are needed before its routine clinical use can be recommended.
Infected pancreatic necrosis; Pancreatitis; Endoscopic necrosectomy; Endoscopic ultrasound; Transmural drainage
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the mucosa-tracking technique is effective for improving precutting-related pancreatitis and the sustained failure of bile duct cannulation in precut papillotomy (PP) with the Iso-Tome (MTW Endoskopie).
From September 2004 to June 2006, PP was performed with the Iso-Tome if biliary cannulation failed by conventional methods for approximately 5 minutes. The pink intrapapillary mucosa (PIPM) exposed by PP was tracked and classified into four groups: fully exposed and oriented to the direction of the bile duct (group A) or the pancreatic duct (group B), partially exposed (group C), or unexposed (group D). The success rate of bile duct cannulation (SRBC), the procedure time required for successful bile duct cannulation (PTBC), and the complications in the first session were compared between the mucosa-exposed groups (MEGs; group A, B, and C) and the mucosa-unexposed group (MUEG; group D).
A total of 59 patients (25 females, 34 males) with a mean age of 65.2 years were enrolled. The MEGs and MUEG comprised 52 (88.1%) and 7 (11.9%) patients, respectively. SRBC in the first session was 86.4% (51/59) in total and 92.3% (48/52) in the MEGs, compared to only 42.9% (3/7) in the MUEG (p=0.005). The mean PTBC in the MEGs and MUEG was 8.7 minutes and 16.3 minutes, respectively (p=0.23). Complications occurred in 6.8% of the patients (4/59; all pancreatitis); there were no differences between the MEGs (5.8%, 3/52) and MUEG (14.3%, 1/7; p=0.41). All four patients with pancreatitis were managed medically.
The mucosa-tracking technique in PP with the Iso-Tome is a feasible and useful method of enhancing SRBC. PIPM is an important endoscopic landmark for successful PP.
Precut papillotomy; Iso-Tome; Mucosatracking technique; Pink intrapapillary mucosa
Postoperative biliary stricture is a relatively rare but serious complication of biliary surgery. Although Rouxen-Y hepaticojejunostomy or choledochojejunostomy are well-established and fundamental therapeutic approaches, their postoperative morbidity and mortality rates have been reported to be up to 33% and 13%, respectively. Recent studies suggest that percutaneous transhepatic intervention is an effective and less invasive therapeutic modality compared with traditional surgical treatment. Compared with fluoroscopic intervention, percutaneous with cholangioscopy may be more useful in biliary strictures, as it can provide visual information regarding the stricture site. We recently experienced two cases complete membranous occlusion of the bilioenteric anastomosis and successfully treated both patients using percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy.
Bile duct obstruction; Postoperative complications
We aimed to evaluate survival time and prognostic factors in patients with advanced unresectable cholangiocarcinoma who have not received surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy.
A total of 1,377 patients, who were diagnosed with primary cholangiocarcinoma between 1996 and 2002, were reviewed retrospectively according to the following inclusion criteria: histologically proven primary adenocarcinoma arising from the bile-duct epithelium, advanced unresectable stages, no severe comorbidity that can affect survival time, and no history of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy.
Of the 1,377 cases reviewed, 330 patients complied with the inclusion criteria and were thus eligible to participate in this study; 203 had intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 127 had hilar cholangiocarcinoma. The overall survival time of the entire cohort (n=330) was median 3.9 months (range; 0.2 to 67.1). The survival time was significantly shorter in the intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma group (3.0±5.3 months) than in the hilar cholangiocarcinoma group (5.9±10.1 months; Kaplan-Meier survival analysis). Multivariate analysis revealed that distant metastasis was a poor prognostic factor for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (p< 0.001), baseline serum albumin >3.0 g/dL was a favorable prognostic factor (p=0.02), and baseline serum carcinoembryonic antigen level >30 ng/mL was a poor prognostic factor for hilar cholangiocarcinoma (p=0.01).
The median survival of advanced unresectable cholangiocarcinoma is dismal.
Cholangiocarcinoma; Natural history; Carcinoembryonic antigen
Although endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been introduced and its use has been increasing in Korea, there have not been many reports about its performance. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of EUS-FNA without on-site cytopathologist in establishing the diagnosis of solid pancreatic and peripancreatic masses from a single institution in Korea.
Medical records of 139 patients who underwent EUS-FNA for pancreatic and peripancreatic solid mass in the year 2007, were retrospectively reviewed. By comparing cytopathologic diagnosis of FNA with final diagnosis, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were determined, and factors influencing the accuracy as well as complications were analyzed.
One hundred twenty out of 139 cases had final diagnosis of malignancy. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of EUS-FNA were 82%, 89%, and 83%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values were 100% and 46%, respectively. As for factors influencing the accuracy of FNA, lesion size was marginally significant (p-value 0.08) by multivariate analysis.
EUS-FNA performed without on-site cytopathologist was found to be accurate and safe, and thus EUS-FNA should be a part of the standard management algorithm for pancreatic and peripancreatic mass.
EUS-FNA; Pancreatic neoplasms; Peripancreatic mass; Diagnostic accuracy
We report here on an extremely rare case of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts that was associated with choledocholithiasis, and this malady was visualized by employing the minimum intensity projection images with using multi-detector row CT. The presence of duplicated extrahepatic bile ducts with a proximal communication, and the ducts were joined distally and they subsequently formed a single common bile duct, has not been previously reported.
Bile ducts, abnormalities; Bile ducts, calculi; Computed tomography (CT), minimum intensity projection
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a peculiar type of chronic pancreatitis whose pathogenesis involves autoimmune mechanisms. The steroid responsiveness has a significant impact on the diagnosis of AIP because patients with AIP and pancreatic cancer share many clinical features. This review focuses on the treatment and relapse of AIP. The goal of AIP treatment is remission of symptoms, serology, radiologic changes, or histology, which also applies to relapse. Although it is generally agreed that steroids should be offered to AIP patients with active disease, there is no standardized steroid regimen for AIP and no consensus on the dose and duration of steroid induction and tapering schedule, and optimal duration and dose of maintenance therapy. Obtaining a consensus on the optimal treatment regimen is very important to reducing the relapse rate. In this review, we discuss the treatment regimens used in many centers.
Autoimmune pancreatitis; Treatment; Relapse
Duodenal perforations caused by biliary prostheses are not uncommon, and they are potentially life threatening and require immediate treatment. We describe an unusual case of aortic aneurysm and rupture which occurred after retroperitoneal aortoduodenal fistula formation as a rare complication caused by biliary metallic stent-related duodenal perforation. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing a lethal complication of a bleeding, aortoduodenal fistula and caused by biliary metallic stent-induced perforation.
Stents; Retroperitoneal perforation; Aortic aneurysm; Fistula
The TRIM5α proteins of humans and some Old World monkeys have been shown to block infection of particular retroviruses following virus entry into the host cell. Infection of most New World monkey cells by the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac) is restricted at a similar point. Here we examine the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5α orthologs from humans, apes, Old World monkeys, and New World monkeys. Chimpanzee and orangutan TRIM5α proteins functionally resembled human TRIM5α, potently restricting infection by N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) and moderately restricting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Notably, TRIM5α proteins from several New World monkey species restricted infection by SIVmac and the SIV of African green monkeys, SIVagm. Spider monkey TRIM5α, which has an expanded B30.2 domain v3 region due to a tandem triplication, potently blocked infection by a range of retroviruses, including SIVmac, SIVagm, HIV-1, and N-MLV. Tandem duplications in the TRIM5α B30.2 domain v1 region of African green monkeys are also associated with broader antiretroviral activity. Thus, variation in TRIM5α proteins among primate species accounts for the observed patterns of postentry restrictions in cells from these animals. The TRIM5α proteins of some monkey species exhibit dramatic lengthening of particular B30.2 variable regions and an expanded range of susceptible retroviruses.