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author:("Oh, doyen")
1.  A case of oxaliplatin-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia 
Blood research  2014;49(1):61-64.
Oxaliplatin is a platinum compound used in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies. It is known to evoke a drug-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, which has not been reported in Korea. We describe a 53-year-old man who developed oxaliplatin-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia during chemotherapy for colon cancer. Oxaliplatin-dependent IgG platelet antibodies were detected in his serum on flow cytometry. He was treated with immunoglobulin and corticosteroids without any complications. Physicians should consider oxaliplatin-induced immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, when a sudden, isolated thrombocytopenia develops during chemotherapy with oxaliplatin.
PMCID: PMC3974961  PMID: 24724069
Oxaliplatin; Thrombocytopenia; Immune; Drug-dependent platelet antibody
2.  Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism, 2nd Edition: Korean Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(2):164-171.
In 2010, we proposed the first Korean Guidelines for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE). It was applicable to Korean patients, by modifying the contents of the second edition of the Japanese guidelines for the prevention of VTE and the 8th edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. From 2007 to 2011, we conducted a nationwide study regarding the incidence of VTE after major surgery using the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database. In addition, we have considered the 9th edition of the ACCP Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines, published in 2012. It emphasized the importance of clinically relevant events as opposed to asymptomatic outcomes with preferences for both thrombotic and bleeding outcomes. Thus, in the development of the new Korean guidelines, three major points were addressed: 1) the new guidelines stratify patients into 4 risk groups (very low, low, moderate, and high) according to the actual incidence of symptomatic VTE from the HIRA databases; 2) the recommended optimal VTE prophylaxis for each group was modified according to condition-specific thrombotic and bleeding risks; 3) guidelines are intended for general information only, are not medical advice, and do not replace professional medical care and/or physician advice.
Graphical Abstract
PMCID: PMC3923992  PMID: 24550640
Guideline; Prevention; Venous Thromboembolism; Bleeding
3.  Characterization of anti-factor VIII antibody in a patient with acquired hemophilia A 
Blood research  2013;48(1):58-62.
Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a bleeding disorder caused by the development of an auto-antibody against endogenous factor VIII (FVIII). In this study, the epitope of the autoantibody was identified in a 67-year-old female patient with AHA. A prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (77.4 s) that failed to correct in an incubation mixing test (68.2 s), a decreased FVIII activity, and a high FVIII inhibitor (14.6 Bethesda units/mL) were observed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the antibody belonged to the immunoglobulin G4 subclass. An immunoblotting assay revealed the light chain (A3/C1/C2 domain) of FVIII as the binding region of the antibody. The bleeding experienced by our patient resulted from the interference of FVIII binding to both FIX by anti-A3 antibodies and phospholipids and von Willebrand factor by anti-C2 antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Korea characterizing an autoantibody in the context of AHA.
PMCID: PMC3624998  PMID: 23589798
Acquired hemophilia A; Factor VIII autoantibody; Epitope
4.  A case of transfusion-related acute lung injury induced by anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies in acute leukemia 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(4):302-306.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that occurs during or within 6 hours after transfusion. Risk factors for TRALI, which is relatively common in critically ill patients, include recent surgery, hematologic malignancy, and sepsis. Here, we report a case of TRALI induced by anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) class II antibodies (HLA-DR) occurring after transfusion of platelet concentrates in a patient with acute leukemia. Although most patients with TRALI show improvement within 48-96 hours, our patient's condition rapidly worsened, and he did not respond to supportive treatment. TRALI is a relatively common and serious adverse transfusion reaction that requires prompt diagnosis and management.
PMCID: PMC3538804  PMID: 23320011
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI); Transfusion; Anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) antibody
5.  A Trp33Arg Mutation at Exon 1 of the MYH9 Gene in a Korean Patient with May-Hegglin Anomaly 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(3):662-666.
In this report, we describe a Korean patient with May-Hegglin anomaly from a mutation of the MYH9 gene. The proband was a 21-year-old man with thrombocytopenia. He did not have a bleeding tendency. His neutrophil count was normal at 7490/mm3; however, the neutrophils contained abnormal basophilic inclusions in their cytoplasm. The platelet count was decreased at 15000/mm3 with giant platelets. Coagulation test results were not remarkable. Direct sequencing of MYH9 revealed that he was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 1, which was a 97T>A substitution mutation affecting codon 33, substituting tryptophan with arginine (Trp33Arg). Family study showed that both of his parents had normal phenotype and genotypes, indicating a de novo occurrence of the mutation in the proband.
PMCID: PMC3343441  PMID: 22477015
May-Hegglin anomaly; MYH9; thrombocytopenia; Korean
6.  Asymptomatic pneumatosis intestinalis following chemotherapy for B lymphoblastic leukemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities in an adolescent patient 
Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is a rare condition characterized by multiple pneumocysts in the submucosa or subserosa of the bowel. Here, we report a rare case of asymptomatic PI after chemotherapy induction in an 18-yr-old man with B lymphoblastic leukemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities. The patient was treated conservatively and recovered without complications. The possibility of PI should be considered as a complication during or after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies. Conservative treatment should be considered unless there are complications, including peritonitis, bowel perforation, and severe sepsis.
PMCID: PMC3317476  PMID: 22479281
Pneumatosis intestinalis; B lymphoblastic leukemia with recurrent genetic abnormalities; Chemotherapy
7.  Prognostic significance of microRNA gene polymorphisms in patients with surgically resected colorectal cancer 
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small 19- to 22-nucleotide sequences of RNA that participate in the regulation of cell differentiation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis. Although single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in miRNA regions are considered unlikely to be functionally important, nucleotide variations within the sequences of primary (pri)- or precursor (pre)-miRNAs may affect miRNA processing and ultimately result in the modification of miRNA expression. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between four SNPs in pre-miRNA genes and the survival of colorectal cancer patients. A total of 407 colorectal patients were consecutively enrolled. DNA was extracted from blood specimens, and the hsa-mir-146aC>G, hsa-mir-149C>T, hsa-mir-196a2C>T and hsa-mir-499A>G polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP. We were unable to identify independent prognostic SNPs for colorectal cancer. However, the heterozygous TC genotype of the 196a2C>T polymorphism was a significant risk factor for the overall survival of rectal cancer patients (HR=3.554, 95% CI 1.296–9.747, p=0.014). Further large-population studies are warranted to define the 196a2C>T polymorphism as a prognostic factor of rectal cancer.
PMCID: PMC3440809  PMID: 22977632
colorectal cancer; microRNA; polymorphism; prognosis
8.  Current Status of the Korean Venous Thromboembolism Registry 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(4):558-561.
The Korean venous thromboembolism (VTE) registry, which was initiated by the Working Parties of Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis, and the Korean Society of Hematology, is a web-based multicenter registry ( for recruiting consecutive VTE patients. The aim of the registry is to prospectively collect data on the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of VTE from a large, unselected cohort of patients, and to provide data on the true incidence and management of VTE in the real-world. By the end of 2007, the starting year of the registry, 840 patients were registered. By the end of 2008, 1,121 were registered, with 1,289 by the end of 2009, and 1,463 by April 2010 from 11 hospitals. The first report on the epidemiologic characteristics of 596 consecutive VTE patients was released in October 2007.
PMCID: PMC3104447  PMID: 21623595
Venous thromboembolism; registry; Korean
9.  ADAMTS13 Gene Mutations in Children with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(3):530-534.
We investigated ADAMTS13 activity as well as the ADAMTS13 gene mutation in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Eighteen patients, including 6 diarrhea-negative (D-HUS) and 12 diarrhea-associated HUS (D+HUS) patients, were evaluated. The extent of von Willebrand factor (VWF) degradation was assayed by multimer analysis, and all exons of the ADAMTS13 gene were PCR-amplified using Taq DNA polymerase. The median and range for plasma activity of ADAMTS13 in 6 D-HUS and 12 D+HUS patients were 71.8% (22.8-94.1%) and 84.9% (37.9-119.9%), respectively, which were not statistically significantly different from the control group (86.4%, 34.2-112.3%) (p>0.05). Five ADAMTS13 gene mutations, including 2 novel mutations [1584+2T>A, 3941C>T (S1314L)] and 3 polymorphisms (Q448E, P475S, S903L), were found in 2 D-HUS and one D+HUS patients, which were not associated with deficiency of ADAMTS13 activity. Whether these mutations without reduced ADAMTS13 activity are innocent bystanders or predisposing factors in HUS remains unanswered.
PMCID: PMC3101045  PMID: 21488199
ADAMTS13; mutation; hemolytic uremic syndrome; children
10.  Korean Guidelines for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(11):1553-1559.
This guideline focuses on the primary prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Korea. The guidelines should be individualized and aim at patients scheduled for major surgery, as well as patients with a history of trauma, high-risk pregnancy, cancer, or other severe medical illnesses. Currently, no nation-wide data on the incidence of VTE exist, and randomized controlled trials aiming at the prevention of VTE in Korea have yielded few results. Therefore, these guidelines were based on the second edition of the Japanese Guidelines for the Prevention of VTE and the eighth edition of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. These guidelines establish low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups, and recommend appropriate thromboprophylaxis for each group.
PMCID: PMC2966990  PMID: 21060742
Guideline; Prevention; Venous Thromboembolism
11.  Association of endothelial nitric oxide synthase polymorphisms with coronary artery disease in Korean individuals with or without diabetes mellitus 
Polymorphisms of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene have been implicated in various diseases, but their roles as risk factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with regard to coronary artery disease (CAD) are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the association of the genotypes and haplotypes of eNOS polymorphisms in CAD with T2DM. A case-control study was performed to evaluate the genotypes and haplotypes of the eNOS polymorphisms (-786T>C, 4a4b and 894G>T) in 192 CAD patients and 196 controls. The same population was also re-organized upon the status of T2DM. The genotypes of eNOS -786T>C, 4a4b and 894G>T polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found that eNOS -786TC+CC and 4a4b+4a4a genotypes were significantly prevalent in the diabetic controls and the diabetic CAD patients compared to the non-diabetic controls or non-diabetic CAD patients, respectively. The frequency of the -786C-4a-894G haplotype was significantly greater in the diabetic CAD patients (p=0.001) and diabetic controls (p=0.023) compared to the non-diabetic controls, whereas the haplotype of -786T-4b-894G was less prevalent in the diabetic CAD patients compared to the non-diabetic controls (p=0.018). Significant associations of the genotypes and the haplotypes were consistently observed in the T2DM group compared to non-DM group, regardless of CAD status. Our finding suggests that the eNOS -786T>C and 4a4b polymorphisms and the -786C-4a-894G haplotype are risk factors for T2DM, whereas the haplotype of -786T-4b-894G has a protective effect against the development of T2DM.
PMCID: PMC3445891  PMID: 22993595
coronary artery disease; endothelial nitric oxide synthase; haplotype; polymorphism; type 2 diabetes mellitus
12.  Association of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C) Polymorphisms and Haplotypes with Silent Brain Infarction and Homocysteine Levels in a Korean Population 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2010;51(2):253-260.
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the main regulatory enzyme for homocysteine metabolism. In the present study, we evaluated whether the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C gene polymorphisms are associated with SBI and plasma homocysteine concentration in a Korean population.
Materials and Methods
We enrolled 264 patients with SBI and 234 healthy controls in South Korea. Fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations were measured, and genotype analysis of the MTHFR gene was carried out.
The plasma tHcy levels were significantly higher in patients with SBI than in healthy controls. Despite a significant association between the MTHFR 677TT genotype and hyperhomocysteinemia, the MTHFR 677C>T genotypes did not appear to influence susceptibility to SBI. However, odds ratios of the 1298AC and 1298AC + CC genotypes for the 1298AA genotype were significantly different between SBI patients and normal controls. The frequencies of 677C-1298A and 677C-1298C haplotypes were significantly higher in the SBI group than in the control group.
This study demonstrates that the MTHFR 1298A>C polymorphism is a risk factor for SBI in a Korean population. The genotypes of 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms interact additively, and increase the risk of SBI in Korean subjects.
PMCID: PMC2824873  PMID: 20191019
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase; polymorphism; haplotype; silent brain infarction
13.  Gender-specific Association between Polymorphism of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF 936C > T) Gene and Patients with Stomach Cancer 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(5):783-791.
Angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth, progression, and metastasis of tumors. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) overexpression has been associated with advanced stage and poor survival in several cancers. We investigated the present case-control study to determine whether there is an association between the VEGF 936C > T polymorphism and stomach cancer.
Patients and Methods
The association of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the VEGF gene with stomach cancer development was evaluated in a case-control study of 154 Korean stomach cancer patients. Genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis.
Our results revealed significant association of T allele-bearing genotypes with increased risk for stomach cancer development. Genotype frequencies of the VEGF 936C > T polymorphisms were significantly different between patient and control groups (CT, AOR: 2.007, 95% CI: 1.277 - 3.156, TT, AOR: 4.790, 95% CI: 1.174 - 19.539, CT + TT, AOR: 2.147, 95% CI: 1.382 - 3.337). When stratified by gender and age, genotype frequencies were significantly different for stomach cancer in women and in patients younger than 55 years (in women, CT, OR: 3.049, 95% CI: 1.568 - 5.930, CT+TT, OR: 3.132, 95% CI: 1.638 - 5.990; in < 55 years, CT, OR: 3.306, 95% CI: 1.413 - 7.732, CT + TT, OR: 3.967, 95% CI: 1.729 - 9.104). In addition, this association partially remained in cases with intestinal and diffuse-type stomach cancer.
Our present study suggests that the VEGF 936C > T polymorphism is a susceptibility factor for stomach cancer, at least in Korean.
PMCID: PMC2615376  PMID: 18972599
Stomach cancer; polymorphism; vascular endothelial growth factor; Korean
14.  High-dose Immunoglobulin Infusion for Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Refractory to Plasma Exchange and Steroid Therapy 
The outcomes of the treatment of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) have been shown to be improved by the administration of plasma exchange. However, treatment options are currently limited for cases refractory to plasma exchange. The autoantibodies that block the activity of ADAMTS13 have been demonstrated to play a role in the pathogenesis of TTP; therefore, high-dose immunoglobulin, which can neutralize these autoantibodies, may be useful for refractory TTP. However, successful treatment with high-dose immunoglobulin for TTP refractory to plasma exchange and corticosteroids has yet to be reported in Korea. Herein, we describe a refractory case which was treated successfully with high-dose immunoglobulin. A 29-year-old male diagnosed with TTP failed to improve after plasma exchange coupled with additional high-dose corticosteroid therapy. As a salvage treatment, we initiated a 7-day regimen of high-dose immunoglobulin (400 mg/kg) infusions, which resulted in a complete remission, lasting up to the last follow-up at 18 months. High-dose immunoglobulin may prove to be a useful treatment for patients refractory to plasma exchange; it may also facilitate recovery and reduce the need for plasma exchange.
PMCID: PMC2686967  PMID: 18787371
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Plasma Exchange; Glucocorticoids; Immunoglobulin
15.  Frequency of Pro475Ser Polymorphism of ADAMTS13 Gene and Its Association with ADAMTS-13 Activity in the Korean Population 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2008;49(3):405-408.
The in vitro study suggested that proline to serine polymorphism in codon 475 (C1423T) of the A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease with ThromboSpondin type 1 repeats-13 (ADAMTS-13) gene is related to reduced activity of ADAMTS-13. In this study, the frequency of the Pro475Ser polymorphism in Koreans was studied and plasma ADAMTS-13 activity was measured to find out whether this polymorphism contributes to decreased ADAMTS-13 activity in Koreans.
Patients and Methods
The frequency of the C1423T allele of the ADAMTS13 gene was studied along with measuring plasma ADAMTS-13 activity in 250 healthy Korean individuals.
The allele frequency of C1423T polymorphism was 4%, and the median activity of CT type was 107 (69 - 143)%, which was lower than in controls with the CC genotype [118 (48 - 197)%, (p = 0.021)].
Therefore, the Pro475Ser polymorphism seems to be popular in the Korean population, and attenuates ADAMTS-13 plasma activity.
PMCID: PMC2615352  PMID: 18581589
ADAMTS-13; polymorphism; thrombotic thromobocytopenic purpura
16.  Influence of Combined Methionine Synthase (MTR 2756A > G) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR 677C > T) Polymorphisms to Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Korean Patients with Ischemic Stroke 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2007;48(2):201-209.
Methionine synthase (MTR) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) are the main regulatory enzymes for homocysteine metabolism. The present case-control study was conducted to determine whether there is an association between the MTR 2756A > G or MTHFR 677C > T polymorphism and plasma homocysteine concentration in Korean subjects with ischemic stroke.
Materials and Methods
DNA samples of 237 patients who had an ischemic stroke and 223 age and sex-matched controls were studied. MTR 2756A > G and MTHFR 677C > T genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
Frequencies of mutant alleles for MTR and MTHFR polymorphisms were not significantly different between the controls and cases. The patient group, however, had significantly higher homocysteine concentrations of the MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotypes than the control group (p = 0.04 for MTR, p = 0.01 for MTHFR). The combined MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.04) and the homocysteine concentrations of the patient group were also higher than those of the controls. In addition, the genotype distribution was significant in the MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.008) and combined MTR 2756AA and MTHFR 677TT genotype (p = 0.03), which divided the groups into the top 20% and bottom 20% based on their homocysteine levels.
The results of the present study demonstrate that the MTR 2756A > G and MTHFR 677C > T polymorphisms interact with elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) levels, leading to an increased risk of ischemic stroke.
PMCID: PMC2628129  PMID: 17461517
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR); methionine synthase (MTR); ischemic stroke; hyperhomocysteinemia; polymorphism
17.  Perioperative Anticoagulation in Patients with Mechanical Heart Valves Undergoing Elective Surgery: Results of a Survey Conducted among Korean Physicians 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2005;46(1):66-72.
The optimal perioperative anticoagulation management in patients on warfarin therapy is poorly defined due to the lack of randomized trials. Because guidelines are heterogeneous, it was hypothesized that "treatment strategies are not uniform in clinical practice". Between February 2003 and May 2003, a questionnaire with 4 different clinical scenarios was distributed to physicians by e-mail, or direct contact was made by a survey monitor. Two scenarios described the cases of patients with a mechanical heart valve (MHV) in the mitral position, with additional risk factors for a systemic embolism; one undergoing major (scenario 1) and the other minor surgery (scenario 3). Two scenarios described patients with an aortic MHV; one undergoing major (scenario 2) and the other minor (scenario 4) surgery. Different preoperative and postoperative management options were offered. The treatment options for all scenarios were the same. Of the 90 questionnaires distributed, 52 (57.8%) were returned. Hospitalization for full-dose intravenous unfractionated heparin (IV UH) was the most commonly selected strategy in the preoperative phase for scenarios 1 (59%), 2 (42%) and 3 (44%). In scenario 4, 34% chose IV UH. Outpatient, full-dose, subcutaneous UH or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) was the most selected option in the postoperative phase for all scenarios, with the exception of number 4 (52.9% in scenario 1, 34% in scenario 2, 32%, in scenario 3 and 28% in scenario 4). Even among expert clinicians, the management of perioperative anticoagulation is heterogeneous. In particular, the definition of risk categories and the optimal intensity of antithrombotic drugs need to be defined by well-designed prospective studies.
PMCID: PMC2823059  PMID: 15744807
Perioperative anticoagulation; mechanical heart valve
18.  High dose therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation as a first line treatment for multiple myeloma: a Korean Multicenter Study. 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2003;18(5):673-678.
We conducted a phase II multicenter trial to estimate the response and survival of patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma to high dose melphalan therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Eligible patients who had undergone induction with vincristine, adriamycin and dexamethasone (VAD) should have adequate cardiac, pulmonary and renal function (creatinine <2 mg/dL). Melphalan at 200 mg/m2 was used as a conditioning regimen. Eighty patients were enrolled from 13 centers. The median age of the patients was 53 yr (range; 20 to 68 yr). The initial stage was IA/IIA/IIB/IIIA/IIIB in 3/8/1/54/14 patients, respectively. Beta2-microglobulin, CRP and LDH were increased in 74, 42 and 34% of the patients examined. Cytogenetic data were available in 30 patients, and 6 patients showed numeric or structural abnormalities. Two therapy-related mortalities occurred from infection. Among the 78 evaluable patients, CR/PR/MR/NC/PD were achieved in 48/26/2/1/1 patients, respectively. After a median follow-up of 30 months, the median overall and event-free survivals were 66 months (95% CI: 20-112) and 24 months (95% CI: 18-29), respectively. This study verifies the efficacy and feasibility of high dose melphalan therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.
PMCID: PMC3055099  PMID: 14555819
19.  Umbilical Cord Blood Therapy Potentiated with Erythropoietin for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio)  2012;31(3):581-591.
Allogeneic umbilical cord blood (UCB) has therapeutic potential for cerebral palsy (CP). Concomitant administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) may boost the efficacy of UCB, as it has neurotrophic effects. The objectives of this study were to assess the safety and efficacy of allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO in children with CP. Children with CP were randomly assigned to one of three parallel groups: the pUCB group, which received allogeneic UCB potentiated with rhEPO; the EPO group, which received rhEPO and placebo UCB; and the Control group, which received placebo UCB and placebo rhEPO. All participants received rehabilitation therapy. The main outcomes were changes in scores on the following measures during the 6 months treatment period: the gross motor performance measure (GMPM), gross motor function measure, and Bayley scales of infant development-II (BSID-II) Mental and Motor scales (18). F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET/CT) and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were acquired at baseline and followed up to detect changes in the brain. In total, 96 subjects completed the study. Compared with the EPO (n = 33) and Control (n = 32) groups, the pUCB (n = 31) group had significantly higher scores on the GMPM and BSID-II Mental and Motor scales at 6 months. DTI revealed significant correlations between the GMPM increment and changes in fractional anisotropy in the pUCB group. 18F-FDG-PET/CT showed differential activation and deactivation patterns between the three groups. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between groups. In conclusion, UCB treatment ameliorated motor and cognitive dysfunction in children with CP undergoing active rehabilitation, accompanied by structural and metabolic changes in the brain. Stem Cells2013;31:581–591
PMCID: PMC3744768  PMID: 23281216
Umbilical cord blood; Erythropoietin; Cerebral palsy; Clinical trial; Function

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