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1.  Hemodynamic Tandem Intracranial Lesions on Magnetic Resonance Angiography in Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy 
Background
Hemodynamic tandem intracranial lesions (TILs) on intracranial magnetic resonance angiography, which develop flow dependently, have been overlooked clinically in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. As they represent severe baseline hemodynamic compromise at the segment, they may be associated with distinctive clinical outcomes.
Methods and Results
We assessed 304 consecutive carotid endarterectomy cases treated over 3 years. Included cases had both preoperative and postoperative intracranial 3‐dimensional time‐of‐flight magnetic resonance angiography, of which signal intensities are flow dependent, and postoperative diffusion‐weighted imaging (≤3 days following carotid endarterectomy). Preoperative TILs in the ipsilateral intracranial arteries were evaluated by the presence of nonexclusive components: focal stenosis (>50%), diffuse stenosis (>50%), and decreased signal intensities (>50%). The components showing postoperative normalization were considered hemodynamic. TILs with hemodynamic components were defined as hemodynamic TILs, while others as consistent TILs. Baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes were analyzed among 3 groups: no TILs, consistent TILs, and hemodynamic TILs. Preoperative TILs were identified in 104 (34.2%) cases; 54 (17.8%) had hemodynamic components. Diffuse stenosis and decreased signal intensities were usually reversed postoperatively. Patients with hemodynamic TILs tended to have severe proximal carotid stenosis and recent strokes (≤14 days). For the outcome, hemodynamic TILs were independently associated with the advent of postoperative ischemic lesions on diffusion‐weighted imaging (odds ratio: 2.50; 95% CI, 1.20–5.20).
Conclusions
In patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy, a significant number of preoperative TILs demonstrated hemodynamic components, which were reversed postoperatively. The presence of such components was distinctively associated with the postoperative incidence of new ischemic lesions.
doi:10.1161/JAHA.116.004153
PMCID: PMC5121513  PMID: 27702804
carotid endarterectomy; complication; intracranial stenosis; magnetic resonance angiography; Cardiovascular Surgery; Cerebrovascular Disease/Stroke; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
2.  Preoperative Coronary Stenosis Is a Determinant of Early Vascular Outcome after Carotid Endarterectomy 
Background and Purpose
The benefit of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is directly influenced by the risk of perioperative adverse outcomes. However, patient-level risks and predictors including coronary stenosis are rarely evaluated, especially in Asian patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the vascular risk factors underlying CEA, including coronary stenosis, and postoperative outcome.
Methods
One hundred and fifty-three consecutive CEAs from our hospital records were included in this analysis. All patients underwent coronary computed tomography angiography before CEA. Data were analyzed to determine the vascular outcomes in patients with mild-to-moderate vs. severe coronary stenosis and high vs. standard operative risk, based on the criteria for high operative risk defined in the Stenting and Angioplasty with Protection in Patients at High Risk for Endarterectomy (SAPPHIRE) trial. The vascular outcome was defined as the occurrence of postoperative (≤30 days) stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or death.
Results
An adverse vascular outcome occurred in 8 of the 153 CEAs, with 6 strokes, 2 MIs, and 3 deaths. The vascular outcome differed significantly between the groups with mild-to-moderate and severe coronary stenosis (p=0.024), but not between the high- and standard-operative-risk groups (stratified according to operative risk as defined in the SAPPHIRE trial). Multivariable analysis adjusting for potent predictors revealed that severe coronary stenosis (odds ratio, 6.87; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-39.22) was a significant predictor of the early vascular outcome.
Conclusions
Severe coronary stenosis was identified herein as an independent predictor of an adverse early vascular outcome.
doi:10.3988/jcn.2015.11.4.364
PMCID: PMC4596101  PMID: 26320844
carotid endarterectomy; coronary artery disease; coronary angiography; risk assessment
3.  Role of NADH: quinone oxidoreductase-1 in the tight junctions of colonic epithelial cells 
BMB Reports  2014;47(9):494-499.
NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is known to be involved in the regulation of energy synthesis and metabolism, and the functional studies of NQO1 have largely focused on metabolic disorders. Here, we show for the first time that compared to NQO1-WT mice, NQO1-KO mice exhibited a marked increase of permeability and spontaneous inflammation in the gut. In the DSS-induced colitis model, NQO1-KO mice showed more severe inflammatory responses than NQO1-WT mice. Interestingly, the transcript levels of claudin and occludin, the major tight junction molecules of gut epithelial cells, were significantly decreased in NQO1-KO mice. The colons of NQO1-KO mice also showed high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity, which are known to affect transcriptional regulation. Taken together, these novel findings indicate that NQO1 contributes to the barrier function of gut epithelial cells by regulating the transcription of tight junction molecules. [BMB Reports 2014;47(9): 494-499]
doi:10.5483/BMBRep.2014.47.9.196
PMCID: PMC4206724  PMID: 24393524
Barrier dysfunction of epithelial cells; Chromosome condensation; Claudin-1; Gut epithelial cell tight junction; Gut inflammation; Histone acetylation/deacetylation; NQO1 knockout mice; Occludin; Transcription
4.  Directed Evolution of Human Heavy Chain Variable Domain (VH) Using In Vivo Protein Fitness Filter 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98178.
Human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable domains (VH) are promising scaffolds for antigen binding. However, VH is an unstable and aggregation-prone protein, hindering its use for therapeutic purposes. To evolve the VH domain, we performed in vivo protein solubility selection that linked antibiotic resistance to the protein folding quality control mechanism of the twin-arginine translocation pathway of E. coli. After screening a human germ-line VH library, 95% of the VH proteins obtained were identified as VH3 family members; one VH protein, MG2x1, stood out among separate clones expressing individual VH variants. With further screening of combinatorial framework mutation library of MG2x1, we found a consistent bias toward substitution with tryptophan at the position of 50 and 58 in VH. Comparison of the crystal structures of the VH variants revealed that those substitutions with bulky side chain amino acids filled the cavity in the VH interface between heavy and light chains of the Fab arrangement along with the increased number of hydrogen bonds, decreased solvation energy, and increased negative charge. Accordingly, the engineered VH acquires an increased level of thermodynamic stability, reversible folding, and soluble expression. The library built with the VH variant as a scaffold was qualified as most of VH clones selected randomly were expressed as soluble form in E. coli regardless length of the combinatorial CDR. Furthermore, a non-aggregation feature of the selected VH conferred a free of humoral response in mice, even when administered together with adjuvant. As a result, this selection provides an alternative directed evolution pathway for unstable proteins, which are distinct from conventional methods based on the phage display.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098178
PMCID: PMC4043505  PMID: 24892548
5.  The Insect Peptide Coprisin Prevents Clostridium difficile-Mediated Acute Inflammation and Mucosal Damage through Selective Antimicrobial Activity▿ 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2011;55(10):4850-4857.
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis are typically treated with vancomycin or metronidazole, but recent increases in relapse incidence and the emergence of drug-resistant strains of C. difficile indicate the need for new antibiotics. We previously isolated coprisin, an antibacterial peptide from Copris tripartitus, a Korean dung beetle, and identified a nine-amino-acid peptide in the α-helical region of it (LLCIALRKK) that had antimicrobial activity (J.-S. Hwang et al., Int. J. Pept., 2009, doi:10.1155/2009/136284). Here, we examined whether treatment with a coprisin analogue (a disulfide dimer of the nine peptides) prevented inflammation and mucosal damage in a mouse model of acute gut inflammation established by administration of antibiotics followed by C. difficile infection. In this model, coprisin treatment significantly ameliorated body weight decreases, improved the survival rate, and decreased mucosal damage and proinflammatory cytokine production. In contrast, the coprisin analogue had no apparent antibiotic activity against commensal bacteria, including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, which are known to inhibit the colonization of C. difficile. The exposure of C. difficile to the coprisin analogue caused a marked increase in nuclear propidium iodide (PI) staining, indicating membrane damage; the staining levels were similar to those seen with bacteria treated with a positive control for membrane disruption (EDTA). In contrast, coprisin analogue treatment did not trigger increases in the nuclear PI staining of Bifidobacterium thermophilum. This observation suggests that the antibiotic activity of the coprisin analogue may occur through specific membrane disruption of C. difficile. Thus, these results indicate that the coprisin analogue may prove useful as a therapeutic agent for C. difficile infection-associated inflammatory diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00177-11
PMCID: PMC3186999  PMID: 21807975
6.  Codelivery of IL-7 Augments Multigenic HCV DNA Vaccine-induced Antibody as well as Broad T Cell Responses in Cynomolgus Monkeys 
Immune Network  2010;10(6):198-205.
Background
A crucial limitation of DNA vaccines is its weak immunogenicity, especially in terms of eliciting antibody responses in non-human primates or humans; therefore, it is essential to enhance immune responses to vaccination for the development of successful DNA vaccines for humans.
Methods
Here, we approached this issue by evaluating interleukin-7 (IL-7) as a genetic adjuvant in cynomolgus monkeys immunized with multigenic HCV DNA vaccine.
Results
Codelivery of human IL-7 (hIL-7)-encoding DNA appeared to increase DNA vaccine-induced antibody responses specific for HCV E2 protein, which plays a critical role in protecting from HCV infection. HCV-specific T cell responses were also significantly enhanced by codelivery of hIL-7 DNA. Interestingly, the augmentation of T cell responses by codelivery of hIL-7 DNA was shown to be due to the enhancement of both the breadth and magnitude of immune responses against dominant and subdominant epitopes.
Conclusion
Taken together, these findings suggest that the hIL-7-expressing plasmid serves as a promising vaccine adjuvant capable of eliciting enhanced vaccine-induced antibody and broad T cell responses.
doi:10.4110/in.2010.10.6.198
PMCID: PMC3026939  PMID: 21286380
IL-7; Adjuvant; HCV DNA vaccine; Non-human primates; Anti-E2 antibody; Broad T cell response

Results 1-6 (6)