A case-control study.
To examine several dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures, compared with a control group.
Overview of Literature
Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are a major cause of morbidity among postmenopausal women. There have been many reports of a decrease in the quality of life in patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures. However,few reports have analyzed which dimensions contribute to the decline in quality of life.
One thousand five hundred forty-five postmenopausal women aged 50 years and older from 17 study sites in nationwide hospitals were in enrolled in the study (between April 2008 and January 2009). HRQL was measured using the European Quality of Life 5 Domains (EQ-5D), and visual analogue scale (VAS).
The average VAS of the case group was 57.80, and that of the control group was 64.10 (p=0.001). All domains of the EQ-5D score were significantly worse in the case group (p=0.001). Among the case group, the average VAS of the 559 patients (45%) who were operated on was 56.8, and that of the remaining 680 patients (55%) who were treated conservatively was 58.6 (p=0.135). Among the case group, the averages of each EQ-5D domain of the 559 patients (45%) who were operated on were: 1.87 in mobility, 1.81 in self-care, 1.99 in usual activities, 2.11 in pain, and 1.62 in anxiety or depression. Those of the 680 patients (55%) who were treated conservatively were: 1.72 in mobility, 1.60 in self-care, 1.76 in usual activities, 1.98 in pain, and 1.57 in anxiety or depression. Except for the domain of anxiety or depression, scores for the other domains were all significantly worse in the patients who were operated on (p=0.001).
Health related quality of life in the patients with osteoporotic vertebral fractures was significantly worse in both the EQ-5D domains and VAS. Among the osteoporotic vertebral fracture patients, the patients who were operated on had a worse quality of life in EQ-5D.
Osteoporotic vertebral fracture; Health-related quality of life
Hematogeneous infectious spondylodiscitis usually occurs in older immunocompromised patients with other comorbidities. They are usually unable to undergo reconstructive anterior and posterior surgeries. Therefore, an alternative, less aggressive surgical method of transpedicular curettage and drainage was suggested. This study was designed to compare the surgical outcomes for the treatment of hematogeneous infectious spondylodiscitis between transpedicular curettage and drainage technique and conventional combined anterior and posterior surgery.
Materials and Methods:
Between January 2002 and July 2011, 26 patients underwent surgical treatment for hematogeneous infectious spondylodiscitis. The patients were classified into two groups depending on surgical modality: a transpedicular curettage and drainage (TCD) group and a combined anterior and posterior surgery (CAPS) group.
The TCD group consisted of 10 patients (mean age 68.0 years), and the CAPS group consisted of 16 patients (mean age 58.4 years). The mean postoperative followup periods were 36.9 (months) in the TCD group and 69.9 (months) in the CAPS group. The operation time was 180.6 ± 33.6 minutes in the TCD group and 332.7 ± 74.5 minutes in the CAPS group (P < 0.05). Postoperative independent ambulation began at postoperative 4.9 ± 2.4 days in the TCD group but at postoperative 15.1 ± 15.3 days in the CAPS group (P < 0.05). The postoperative hospital stays were 19.9 ± 7.8 days in the TCD group and 35.4 ± 33.3 days in the CAPS group (P < 0.05). The level of C-reactive proteins decreased significantly in both groups after surgery (P < 0.05).
Transpedicular curettage and drainage technique proved to be a useful technique for treating hematogeneous infectious spondylodiscitis in patients who were in poor heath with multiple comorbidities unable to undergo the conventional combined anterior and posterior surgery in a single day in terms of earlier ambulation, shorter hospitalization and similar clinical success rate.
Curettage; drainage; infectious; spondylodiscitis; transpedicular
Infective spondylodiscitis usually occurs in patients of older age, immunocompromisation, co-morbidity, and individuals suffering from an overall poor general condition unable to undergo reconstructive anterior and posterior surgeries. Therefore, an alternative, less aggressive surgical method is needed for these select cases of infective spondylodiscitis. This retrospective clinical case series reports our novel surgical technique for the treatment of infective spondylodiscitis.
Between January 2005 and July 2011, among 48 patients who were diagnosed with pyogenic lumbar spondylodiscitis or tuberculosis lumbar spondylodiscitis, 10 patients (7 males and 3 females; 68 years and 48 to 78 years, respectively) underwent transpedicular curettage and drainage. The mean postoperative follow-up period was 29 months (range, 7 to 61 months). The pedicle screws were inserted to the adjacent healthy vertebrae in the usual manner. After insertion of pedicle screws, the drainage pedicle holes were made through pedicles of infected vertebra(e) in order to prevent possible seeding of infective emboli to the healthy vertebra, as the same instruments and utensils are used for both pedicle screws and the drainage holes. A minimum of 15,000 mL of sterilized normal saline was used for continuous irrigation through the pedicular pathways until the drained fluid looked clear.
All patients' symptoms and inflammatory markers significantly improved clinically between postoperative 2 weeks and postoperative 3 months, and they were satisfied with their clinical results. Radiologically, all patients reached the spontaneous fusion between infected vertebrae and 3 patients had the screw pulled-out but they were clinically tolerable.
We suggest that our method of transpedicular curettage and drainage is a useful technique in regards to the treatment of infectious spondylodiscitic patients, who could not tolerate conventional combined anterior and posterior surgery due to multiple co-morbidities, multiple level infectious lesions and poor general condition.
Spondylodiscitis; Curettage; Drainage; Surgery; Transpedicular
The osteoporosis and lumbar canal stenosis, in elderly patients are under diagnosed and under reported. We report a cross sectional study to demonstrate the osteoporotic profile in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and to determine the proportion of patients with LSS who need to be treated for osteoporosis.
Materials and Methods:
One hundred and six postmenopausal patients with symptomatic LSS were evaluated for osteoporotic profile, which included lumbar and hip bone mineral density (BMD), serum vitamin D concentration, bone resorption and formation markers. Demographic and disease related variables were analyzed to identify the association with the risk of osteoporosis or osteopenia. Statistical analysis used were multivariate logistic regression with a forward stepwise procedure.
Twenty-four patients (22.6%) had osteoporosis and 60 (56.6%) had osteopenia. Overall, 84 patients (79.2%) with symptomatic LSS had osteoporosis or osteopenia. Fifty-nine patients (55.6%) had hypovitaminosis D. All bone turnover makers [alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, urinary-N-terminal telopeptide (u-NTx)] were demonstrated to be within normal range. Only age was associated with the risk of osteoporosis or osteopenia in the hip region. In the lumbar spine, all variables were not associated with osteoporosis or osteopenia. 44 patients (41.5%) required treatment for osteoporosis as per risk factors for osteoporosis. According to the guidelines from the Health Insurance Review Agency, however, only 20 patients (18.8% required) qualified for reimbursement for osteoporosis medications.
LSS is associated with osteopenia, osteoporosis, and hypovitaminosis D, which should prompt careful screening and treatment in cases of osteoporosis and osteoarthritis.
Bone mineral density; bone turnover marker; hypovitaminosis D; lumbar spinal stenosis; osteoporosis
The objective of this study was to evaluate of prevalence of co-existing spine and hip disease using initial screening kidney–ureter–bladder (KUB) radiograph in patients over 50 who underwent spinal surgery.
Materials and Methods:
The study subjects were 388 patients (male: female=117:271; mean age 62.0 years) who underwent spinal surgery between 2008 and 2010. We retrospectively reviewed the initial KUB radiographs used to diagnose the spine and hip disease. Depending on the extent of acetabular and hip joint visualization in KUB, we divided the subjects into three groups: Acetabulum, hip joint, and femoral neck visualization. The hip visualization rate was also assessed with respect to patient height. χ2 and logistic regression test were used for statistical analysis.
126 (32.5%) cases had significant hip pathology including hip osteoarthritis (Kellgren/Lawrence grade 3 in 123 cases, grade 4 in 3 cases) and avascular necrosis (1 case each of Ficat stage IIA and IIB), and 8 cases had other morphologic abnormalities. Regarding acetabulum–hip visualization in KUB, 7 (1.8%) cases had acetabulum visualization only, 16 (4.1%) had hip joint visualization, and 365 (94.1%) had femoral neck including lesser trochanter visualization. Patients were categorized into four groups according to height (less than 150 cm, 150–159 cm, 160–169 cm, greater than 170 cm). The hip visualization rates differed significantly among these four groups (P<0.05).
The prevalence of discernible hip pathology in patients who underwent spinal surgery was 32.5%. Hip joint visualization was excellent (98.2%) in KUB radiographs. Hence, spinal surgeons should pay attention to hip pathology in surgically indicated spinal patients.
Hip pathology; spinal surgery; elderly
The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanism of cellular proliferation of electromagnetic field (EMF) on human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells.
Materials and Methods
Human IVD cells were cultured three-dimensionally in alginate beads. EMF was exposed to IVD cells with 650Ω, 1.8 millitesla magnetic flux density, 60 Hz sinusoidal wave. Cultures were divided into a control and EMF group. Cytotoxicity, DNA synthesis and proteoglycan synthesis were measured by MTT assay, [3H]-thymidine, and [35S]-sulfate incorporation. To detect phenotypical expression, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) were performed for aggrecan, collagen type I, and type II mRNA expression. To assess action mechanism of EMF, IVD cells were exposed to EMF with NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA).
There was no cytotoxicity in IVD cells with the EMF group in MTT assay. Cellular proliferation was observed in the EMF group (p < 0.05). There was no difference in newly synthesized proteoglycan normalized by DNA synthesis between the EMF group and the control. Cultures with EMF showed no significant change in the expression of aggrecan, type I, and type II collagen mRNA compared to the control group. Cultures with NMMA (blocker of nitric oxide) or ASA (blocker of prostaglandin E2) exposed to EMF demonstrated decreased DNA synthesis compared to control cultures without NMMA or ASA (p < 0.05).
EMF stimulated DNA synthesis in human IVD cells while no significant effect on proteoglycan synthesis and chondrogenic phenotype expressions. DNA synthesis was partially mediated by nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2. EMF can be utilized to stimulate proliferation of IVD cells, which may provide efficient cell amplification in cell therapy to degenerative disc disease.
Electromagnetic fields; intervertebral disc; nitric oxide; prostaglandin E2
First, to examine the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and the halo phenomenon, and second, to investigate risk factors predisposing to the halo phenomenon and its correlation with clinical outcomes.
Overview of Literature
The few in vivo studies regarding the relationship between pedicle screw stability and BMD have shown conflicting results.
Forty-four female patients who underwent spine fusion surgery due to spinal stenosis were included in this study. The halo phenomenon and fusion state were evaluated through plain radiographs performed immediately after surgery and through the final outpatient follow-up examination. BMD, osteoarthritis grade in the hip and knee joints, and surgical outcome were also evaluated.
BMD was not related to the halo phenomenon, but age, absence of osteoarthritis in the knee, and non-union state were found to be significant risk factors for the halo phenomenon. However, the radiological halo phenomenon did not correlate with clinical outcome (visual analogue scale for back pain and leg pain).
The halo phenomenon is a simple phenomenon that can develop during follow-up after pedicle screw fixation. It does not influence clinical outcomes, and thus it is thought that hydroxyapatite coating screws, expandable screws, cement augmentation, and additional surgeries are not required, if their purpose is to prevent the halo phenomenon.
Halo phenomenon; Pedicle screw; Bone mineral density
To compare quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures (OVFs) who underwent vertebroplasty (VP) or kyphoplasty (KP).
Overview of Literature
Patient with OVFs who do not respond to conservative treatment can be treated with VP or ballon KP for faster pain relief. There are controversies on which procedure is more effective.
Five hundred twenty-eight postmenopausal women in nationwide hospitals with age of 50 years or older who underwent VP of KP for OVFs were enrolled in this study. Health related quality of life was measured using the European Quality of Life 5 Domains (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS).
In the VP group, average EQ-5D dimension was 1.95 in mobility, 1.86 in self care, 2.02 in usual activity, 2.19 in pain, 1.69 in anxiety or depression. In the KP group, average EQ-5D dimension was 1.83 in mobility, 1.78 in self care, 1.98 in usual activity, 2.03 in pain, 1.55 in anxiety or depression. Quality of life of KP group was significantly better than that of the VP group in mobility (p=0.016), pain (p=0.001), and anxiety or depression (p=0.008). Average EQ-5D index of the VP and the KP group was 0.353 (±0.472) and 0.485 (±0.357), respectively. The EQ-5D index of the KP group was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of the KP group. The difference of VAS between VP and KP group was not statistically significant (p=0.580).
Quality of life in patient with OVFs who underwent KP was significantly better than that of patients who underwent VP.
Osteoporotic spinal fracture; Vertebroplasty; Kyphoplasty; Quality of life
Teriparatide markedly increases bone formation and strength, while reducing the incidence of new-onset osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). In some countries, expenses for teriparatide use are covered by medical insurance for up to 6 months; however, the national medical insurance of the authors' country does not cover these expenses. This retrospective cohort study compared the therapeutic effects of teriparatide on the initial onset of a new OVCF after treatment of osteoporosis and/or related OVCFs with regard to therapeutic durations of longer than 3 months (LT3M) or shorter than 3 months (ST3M).
Materials and Methods
From May 2007 to February 2012, 404 patients who were prescribed and administered teriparatide and who could be followed-up for longer than 12 months were enrolled. They were divided into two groups depending on teriparatide duration: LT3M (n=132) and ST3M (n=272).
The group with the teriparatide duration of LT3M showed significantly less development of an initial OVCF within 1 year (p=0.004, chi-square). Duration of teriparatide use, body mass index, pre-teriparatide lowest spinal bone mineral density, and severity of osteoporosis significantly affected multiple regression analysis results (p<0.05). Survival analysis of first new-onset OVCFs demonstrated a significantly better survival rate for the LT3M group (log rank, p=0.005). Also, the ST3M group showed a higher odds ratio of 54.00 for development of an initial OVCF during follow-up than the LT3M group (Mantel-Haenzel common odds ratio, p=0.006).
At least one cyclic teriparatide administration is recommended to provide a protective effect against the initial onset of a new OVCF for up to one year after therapy.
Osteoporosis; teriparatide; duration; vertebral compression fracture
This study is to identify the characteristics of BMD and the related clinical consequences through a nationwide, consecutive, cross-sectional study. A total of 1,281 postmenopausal women was enrolled nationwide and underwent measurement for BMD using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Following the T-spine and L-spine plane radiography, they were evaluated for vertebral fracture by a semi-quantitative method using the Genant's method. Relationship between BMD and osteoporotic fracture and a degree of deformity in vertebral fracture, treatment history in osteoporosis and the EQ-5D was analyzed. The distribution of the normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis group was 25.9%, 37.0%, and 37.2% in lumbar spine, and 31.4%, 45.3%, and 23.3% in femur neck, respectively. BMD in subjects with symptomatic or asymptomatic vertebral fracture was significantly lower than those without fracture. The femur neck and total hip BMDs were significantly lower in hip fracture group (0.646 g/cm2 and 0.643 g/cm2, respectively) and wrist fracture group (0.661 g/cm2 and 0.712 g/cm2, respectively) than in subjects without fracture (0.721 g/cm2 and 0.712 g/cm2, respectively). The BMD was significantly lower with more severe degree of deformity in vertebral fracture and lower scores in mobility, usual activities and pain/discomfort of the EQ-5D. In Korean postmenopausal women, the prevalence of osteoporosis and vertebral, hip and wrist fracture increase and quality of life decreases with lower BMD.
Postmenopause; Women; Bone Density; Osteoporotic Fractures; EQ-5D
Vitamin D (vit-D) is essential for bone health, although many osteoporosis patients have low levels of 25-hydroxy-vit-D [25(OH)D]. This randomized, open-label study compared the effects of once weekly alendronate 70 mg containing 5600 IU vit-D3 (ALN/D5600) to alendronate 70 mg without additional vit-D (ALN) on the percent of patients with vit-D insufficiency [25(OH)D <15 ng/mL, primary endpoint] and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH, secondary endpoint) levels in postmenopausal, osteoporotic Korean women. Neuromuscular function was also measured. A total of 268 subjects were randomized. Overall, 35% of patients had vit-D insufficiency at baseline. After 16-weeks, there were fewer patients with vit-D insufficiency in the ALN/D5600 group (1.47%) than in the ALN group (41.67%) (p<0.001). Patients receiving ALN/D5600 compared with ALN were at a significantly decreased risk of vit-D insufficiency [odds ratio=0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00-0.08]. In the ALN/D5600 group, significant increases in serum 25(OH)D were observed at weeks 8 (9.60 ng/mL) and 16 (11.41 ng/mL), where as a significant decrease was recorded in the ALN group at week 16 (-1.61 ng/mL). By multiple regression analysis, major determinants of increases in serum 25(OH)D were ALN/D5600 administration, seasonal variation, and baseline 25(OH)D. The least squares mean percent change from baseline in serum PTH in the ALN/D5600 group (8.17%) was lower than that in the ALN group (29.98%) (p=0.0091). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in neuromuscular function. Overall safety was similar between groups. In conclusion, the administration of 5600 IU vit-D in the ALN/D5600 group improved vit-D status and reduced the magnitude of PTH increase without significant side-effects after 16 weeks in Korean osteoporotic patients.
Alendronate; vitamin-D; vitamin-D insufficiency; osteoporosis; parathyroid hormone
School screening allows for early detection and early treatment of scoliosis, with the purpose of reducing the number of patients requiring surgical treatment. Children between 10 and 14 years old are considered as good candidates for school screening tests of scoliosis. The purpose of the present study was to assess the epidemiological findings of idiopathic scoliosis in 11-year-old Korean adolescents.
Materials and Methods
A total of 37856 11-year-old adolescents were screened for scoliosis. There were 17110 girls and 20746 boys. Adolescents who were abnormal by Moiré topography were subsequently assessed by standardized clinical and radiological examinations. A scoliotic curve was defined as 10° or more.
The prevalence of scoliosis was 0.19% and most of the curves were small (10° to 19°). The ratio of boys to girls was 1:5.5 overall. Sixty adolescents (84.5%) exhibited single curvature. Thoracolumbar curves were the most common type of curve identified, followed by thoracic and lumbar curves.
The prevalence of idiopathic scoliosis among 11-year-old Korean adolescents was 0.19%.
Idiopathic scoliosis; 11-year-old adolescents; prevalence; Korea
This is a retrospective study.
To evaluate the effect of the dynamic rotational plate to the intervertebral foraminal and discal height after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.
Overview of Literature
There is no report regarding the changes of foraminal and discal height following cervical dynamic rotational plating.
We reviewed the outcomes of 30 patients (36 levels), who were followed-up for an average of 15 months (range, 12-57 months) after undergoing fusions with anterior cervical dynamic rotational plating for cervical radiculopathy, from March 2005 to February 2009. The changes of foraminal and intervertebral discal height of the operated levels were observed on oblique and lateral radiographs obtained at the preoperative, postoperative and follow-up examinations.
The foraminal and discal height increased sufficiently, immediately following the operation. However, follow-up results showed gradual decrease in the foraminal and discal height. After 6 months of the surgery, they showed little difference compared with the preoperative heights. However, clinically, patients showed improvements in radiating pain during the follow-up period.
Anterior cervical dynamic rotational plating was an effective treatment modality for cervical radiculopathy without the deterioration of the foraminal and intervertebral discal height.
Cervical spine; Cervical radiculopathy; Dynamic rotational plate
This study investigated the efficacy and safety of monthly risedronate, with and without cholecalciferol, on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels and bone markers in Korean patients with osteoporosis.
A randomized, double-blinded, prospective, 16-week clinical trial was conducted in ten hospitals. A total of 150 subjects with osteoporosis were randomized to one of the two treatment groups: RSDM+ (monthly risedronate 150 mg and cholecalciferol 30,000 IU combined in a single pill, n = 74) or RSDM (monthly risedronate 150 mg alone, n = 76). We measured serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and bone markers, as well as performing muscle-function tests at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment.
After 16 weeks, serum 25(OH)D levels significantly increased from 17.8 to 26.8 ng/mL in the RSDM+ group, but did not change in the RSDM group. The RSDM+ group exhibited significantly decreased serum PTH from 46 to 36.7 pg/mL, while the RSDM group showed a tendency for PTH to increase from 38 to 40.6 pg/mL. In both groups, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and C-terminal telopeptide rapidly declined, with significance at 16 weeks; there were no significant differences between the groups.
A once-monthly pill of risedronate and cholecalciferol provided equivalent antiresorptive efficacy to risedronate alone in terms of bone turnover and improved 25(OH)D levels over the 16-week treatment period without significant adverse events in Korean patients with osteoporosis.
bisphosphonate; cholecalciferol; bone markers; 25(OH)D
The cervical dynamic rotational plating system may induce bone graft subsidence, so it may cause loss of cervical lordosis. However there were few studies for alignments of cervical spines influencing the clinical results after using dynamic rotational plates. The purpose is to evaluate the effect of graft subsidence on cervical alignments due to the dynamic rotational cervical plates and correlating it with the clinical outcomes of patients undergoing anterior cervical fusion.
Materials and Methods
Thirty-three patients with disease or fracture underwent anterior cervical decompression and fusion using a dynamic rotational plate. The presence and extent of implant complications, graft subsidence, loss of lordosis were identified and Visual Analog Scale score (VAS score), Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (JOA score), clinical outcomes based on Odom's criteria were recorded.
Fusion was achieved without implant complications in all cases. The mean graft subsidence at 6 months after the surgery was 1.46 mm. The lordotic changes in local cervical angles were 5.85° which was obtained postoperatively. VAS score for radicular pain was improved by 5.19 and the JOA score was improved by 3. Clinical outcomes based on Odom's criteria showed sixteen excellent, ten good and two satisfactory results. There was no significant relationship between clinical outcomes and changes in the cervical angles.
Dynamic rotational anterior cervical plating provides comparable clinical outcomes to that of the reports of former static cervical platings. The loss of lordosis is related to the amount of graft settling but it is not related to the clinical outcomes.
Cervical alignment; subsidence; cervical fusion; dynamic rotational cervical plates
Although Denis classification is considered as one of most clinically useful schemes for the evaluation of spinal fracture, there is little documentation on the relationship between fracture pattern and the neurologic recovery. The purpose is to evaluate the correlation between the fracture patterns according to Denis classification and neurologic recovery.
Materials and Methods
The 38 patients (26 men and 12 women) in this series had an average follow-up of 47.1 months, and they were all managed surgically. Denis classification had been used prospectively to determine the fracture morphology. Frankel Scale and American Spinal Injury Association Spinal Cord Injury Assessment Form [American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) score] were obtained before surgery, after surgery and at the final follow-up.
The common injuries making neurologic deterioration were burst fracture and fracture-dislocation. The degree of neurologic deficits seen first and at the final follow-up was more severe in fracture-dislocation than burst fracture. The neurologic recovery was not different between burst fracture and fracture-dislocation, assessed by Frankel grading and ASIA scoring system. The neurologic recovery evaluated by ASIA score was not different between the lumbar and thoracic spinal fracture. The neurologic recovery assessed by Frankel grade was greater in the lumbar spinal fractures in than the thoracic spinal fractures.
The severity of initial and the final follow-up neurologic deficits were correlated with the fracture patterns according to Denis classification, but the neurologic recovery was not correlated.
Spine; fracture; Denis classification; neurologic recovery
In vitro experiment using human intervertebral disc (IVD) cells and adenovirus-therapeutic gene constructs.
To examine the biologic effect of “cocktail” therapeutic gene transfer to human IVD cells in three dimensional cultures.
Summary of Background Data
. Gene therapy is regarded as a potential option for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. Although various anabolic genes have previously been introduced for this purpose, cocktail gene transfer of anabolic genes to IVD cells has never been attempted.
Materials and Methods
Human IVDs were harvested during surgical disc procedures and cultured. We prepared recombinant adenovirus constructs bearing the TGF-β1 gene (Ad/TGF-β1), the IGF-1 gene (Ad/IGF-1), and the BMP-2 gene (Ad/BMP-2). Transgene expression was detected by luciferase assays, enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays, and Western blot analysis. Newly synthesized proteoglycan was measured by 35S-sulfate incorporation on Sephadex G-25M in PD 10 columns. Human IVD cells were transduced by single, double, and triple combination of Ad/TGF-β1, Ad/IGF-1, Ad/BMP-2 with an MOI of 75, then cultured three-dimensionally in alginate beads.
Transgene expression was detected at 18 hours after viral transduction. IVD cultures with Ad/TGF-β1, Ad/IGF-1, Ad/BMP-2 (MOI of 75) showed 2.9, 1.8, and 1.9 fold increases, respectively, in proteoglycan synthesis compared to control. Human IVD cultures with double gene combination (MOI of 75) showed 3.2 to 3.9 fold increases of proteoglycan synthesis. Lastly, Human IVD cultures with triple gene combination (TGF-β1+IGF-1+BMP-2 genes with an MOI of 75) transfer demonstrated 4.7 fold increase in proteoglycan synthesis compared control.
Combination or “cocktail” gene therapy offers a promising mechanism for maximizing matrix synthesis with low dose of adenoviral mixtures, circumventing systemic, local toxic effect, and immune response.
Gene Therapy; Intervertebral Disc; Proteoglycan
Hajdu-Cheney syndrome is a rare, autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia marked by acro-osteolysis of the distal phalanges and severe osteoporosis. Although there are more than 60 reports published to date, proper treatment and subsequent outcome have been scarce. Herein, we report a progress of anti-resorptive therapy with zoledronic acid, in a woman with Hajdu-Cheney syndrome. Results suggest that anti-resorptive therapy may be important in delaying the progress of osteoporosis and preventing fractures, but not necessarily acro-osteolysis itself.
Hajdu-Cheney Syndrome; osteoporosis; zoledronic acid
The objectives of this study are to describe the outcome of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients treated with Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) plus supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region for thoracic and lumbar deformity correction and fusion.
Materials and Methods
This is a case series of 13 patients treated with VATS plus lumbar mini-open surgery for AIS. A total of 13 patients requiring fusions of both the thoracic and lumbar regions were included in this study: 5 of these patients were classified as Lenke type 1A and 8 as Lenke type 5C. Fusion was performed using VATS up to T12 or L1 vertebral level. Lower levels were accessed via a small mini-incision in the lumbar area to gain access to the lumbar spine via the retroperitoneal space. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 1 year.
The average number of fused vertebrae was 7.1 levels. A significant correction in the Cobb angle was obtained at the final follow-up (p = 0.001). The instrumented segmental angle in the sagittal plane was relatively well-maintained following surgery, albeit with a slight increase. Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) scores were noted have significantly improved at the final follow-up (p < 0.05).
Indications for the use of VATS may be extended from patients with localized thoracic scoliosis to those with thoracolumbar scoliosis. By utilizing a supplementary minimal incision in the lumbar region, a satisfactory deformity correction may be accomplished with minimal post-operative scarring.
Scoliosis; VATS; mini-open retroperitoneal approach
We report here on a case of a 23-year-old male who received en block spondylectomy for a vertebral Ewing's sarcoma at our hospital. Nine days after surgery, he presented with severe back pain and motor weakness of the lower extremities. Based on the physical examination and the computed tomography scan, he was diagnosed with acute cauda equina syndrome that was caused by compression from an epidural hematoma. His neurological functions recovered after emergency evacuation of the hematoma. This case showed that extensive surgery for a malignant vertebral tumor has a potential risk of delayed epidural hematoma and acute cauda equina syndrome and this should be treated with emergency evacuation.
Epidural hematoma; Ewing's sarcoma; Spine; En block spondylectomy
This is a prospective randomized cohort study.
We intended to evaluate the efficacy of a 48 hour antibiotic microbial prophylaxis (AMP) protocol as compared with a 72 hour AMP protocol.
Overview of Literature
The current guideline for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) suggests the AMP should not exceed 24 hours after clean surgery like spinal surgery. But there exist some confusion in real clinical practice about the duration of postoperative antibiotic administration because the evidence of the guideline was not robust.
The subjects were 548 patients who underwent spinal surgery at our department from April 2007 to December 2008. The patients were classified into two groups according to the prophylaxis protocol: group A, for which AMP was employed for 72 hours postoperatively and group B, for which AMP was employed for 48 hours postoperatively. Five hundred two patients out of 548 patients were followed until 6 months postoperatively. The incidence of SSI in the two groups was analyzed.
The overall infection rate was 0.8%. There was no significant difference in infection rate between the two groups. The overall infection rate for the patients who underwent instrumented fusion was 0.9%. There was no significant difference in the infection rate between the patients of the two groups who underwent instrumented fusion.
AMP for 48 hours is as efficient as AMP for 72 hours.
Spine; Surgical site infection; Anti-bacterial agents
Retrospective comparative study.
To study and compare the surgical outcomes of muscular dystrophy (MD) and spinal muscle atrophy (SMA).
Overview of Literature
There are few reports that have evaluated and compared the surgical outcomes of MD and SMA patients.
The patients (n = 35) were divided into two groups: a MD group with 24 patients and a SMA group with 11 patients. The average follow-up period was 21 months. All patients were operated for scoliosis correction using posterior instrumentation and fusion. In the immediate postoperative period, all efforts were made to reduce the pulmonary complications using non-invasive positive pressure ventilation and a coughing assist devices. The patients were evaluated by radiograph in terms of the Cobb's angle, pelvic obliquity, T1 translation, thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. The pulmonary function and self-image satisfaction were also assessed.
There was a lower correction rate in the MD group (41.5%) than in the SMA group (48.3%), even though the curves were smaller in the MD group. The correction in the pelvic obliquity was significantly better in the SMA group (p = 0.03). The predicted vital capacity showed a 4% reduction in the MD group 1 year after surgery, while the SMA group showed a 10% reduction. The peak cough flow and end tidal PCO2 did not deteriorate and were well maintained. The average score for the improvement in self-image satisfaction postoperatively was 3.96 and 4.64 for the MD and SMA groups, respectively. The total complication rate was 45.7%; 14.3% of which were respiratory-related.
Surgical intervention for MD and SMA may be performed safely in patients with a very low forced vital capacity (< 30%) through aggressive preoperative and postoperative rehabilitation efforts.
Muscular dystrophy; Spinal muscular atrophy; Neuromuscular scoliosis; Surgical correction; Pulmonary function
The purpose of this study is to report the comparative results of thoracoscopic correction achieved via cantilever technique using a 4.5 mm thin rod and the poly-axial reduction screw technique using a 5.5 mm thick rod in Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS).
Materials and Methods
Radiographic data, Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) patient-based outcome questionnaires, and operative records were reviewed for forty-nine patients undergoing surgical treatment of scoliosis. The study group was divided into a 4.5 mm thin rod group (n = 24) and a 5.5 mm thick rod group (n = 25). The radiographic parameters that were analyzed included coronal curve correction, the most caudal instrumented vertebra tilt angle correction, coronal balance, and thoracic kyphosis.
The major curve was corrected from 49.8° and 47.2° pre-operatively to 24.5° and 18.8° at the final follow-up for the thin and thick rod groups, respectively (50.8% vs. 60.2% correction). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of kyphosis, coronal balance, or tilt angle at the time of the final follow-up. The mean number of levels fused was 6.2 in the thin rod group, compared with 5.9 levels in the thick rod group. There were no major intraoperative complications in either group.
Significant correction loss was observed in the thin rod system at the final follow-up though both groups had comparable correction immediately post-operative. Therefore, the thick rod with poly axial screw system helps to maintain post-operative correction.
Instrumentation; rod; scoliosis; thoracoscopic surgery
The lack of epidemiologic information on osteoporotic hip fractures hampers the development of preventive or curative measures against osteoporosis in South Korea. We conducted a population-based study to estimate the annual incidence of hip fractures. Also, we examined factors associated with post-fracture mortality among Korean elderly to evaluate the impact of osteoporosis on our society and to identify high-risk populations.
The Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database was used to identify the incidence of hip fractures, defined as patients having a claim record with a diagnosis of hip fracture and a hip fracture-related operation during 2003. The 6-month period prior to 2003 was set as a 'window period,' such that patients were defined as incident cases only if their first record of fracture was observed after the window period. Cox's proportional hazards model was used to investigate the relationship between survival time and baseline patient and provider characteristics available from the NHI data.
The age-standardized annual incidence rate of hip fractures requiring operation over 50 years of age was 146.38 per 100,000 women and 61.72 per 100,000 men, yielding a female to male ratio of 2.37. The 1-year mortality was 16.55%, which is 2.85 times higher than the mortality rate for the general population (5.8%) in this age group. The risk of post-fracture mortality at one year is significantly higher for males and for persons having lower socioeconomic status, living in places other than the capital city, not taking anti-osteoporosis pharmacologic therapy following fracture, or receiving fracture-associated operations from more advanced hospitals such as general or tertiary hospitals.
This national epidemiological study will help raise awareness of osteoporotic hip fractures among the elderly population and hopefully motivate public health policy makers to develop effective national prevention strategies against osteoporosis to prevent hip fractures.
Surgical treatment in the case of thoracolumbar burst fractures is very controversial. Posterior instrumentation is most frequently used, however, but the number of levels to be instrumented still remains a matter of debate.
Materials and Methods
A total of 94 patients who had a single burst fracture between T11 and L2 were selected and were managed using posterior instrumentation with anterior fusion when necessary. They were divided into three groups as follows; Group I (n = 28) included patients who were operated by intermediate segment fixation, Group II (n = 32) included patients operated by long segment fixation, and Group III (n = 34) included those operated by intermediate segment fixation with a pair of additional screws in the fractured vertebra. The mean follow-up period was twenty one months. The outcomes were analyzed in terms of kyphosis angle (KA), regional kyphosis angle (RA), sagittal index (SI), anterior height compression rate, Frankel classification, and Oswestry Disability Index questionnaire.
In Groups II and III, the correction values of KA, RA, and SI were much better than in Group I. At the final follow up, the correction values of KA (6.3 and 12.1, respectively) and SI (6.2 and 12.0, respectively) were in Groups II and III found to be better in the latter.
The intermediate segment fixation with an additional pair of screws at the fracture level vertebra gives results that are comparable or even better than long segment fixation and gives an advantage of preserving an extra mobile segment.
Thoracolumbar burst fracture; posterior instrumentation; intermediate segment fixation; fixation length; selective anterior fusion