To overcome the limitations of monomeric pH probes for acidic tumor environments, this study designed a mixed micelle pH probe composed of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-b- poly(L-histidine) (PHis) and PEG-b-poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), which is well-known as an effective antitumor drug carrier. Unlike monomeric histidine and PHis derivatives, the mixed micelles can be structurally destabilized by changes in pH, leading to a better pH sensing system in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The acidic pH-induced transformation of the mixed micelles allowed pH detection and pH mapping of 0.2–0.3 pH unit differences by pH-induced “on/off”-like sensing of NMR and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The micellar pH probes sensed pH differences in non-biological phosphate buffer and biological buffers such as cell culture medium and rat whole blood. In addition, the pH-sensing ability of the mixed micelles was not compromised by loaded doxorubicin. In conclusion, PHis-based micelles could have potential as a tool to simultaneously treat and map the pH of solid tumors in vivo.
pH imaging; poly(L-histidine); micelle pH probe; NMR; MRS
The surgical treatment of urethral stricture diseases is continually evolving. Although various surgical techniques are available for the treatment of anterior urethral stricture, no one technique has been identified as the method of choice. This article provides a brief updated review of the surgical options for the management of different sites and different types of anterior urethral stricture. This review also covers present controversies in urethral reconstruction. Among the various procedures available for treating urethral stricture, one-stage buccal mucosal graft urethroplasty is currently widely used. The choice of technique for urethroplasty for an individual case largely depends on the expertise of the surgeon. Therefore, urologists working in this field should keep themselves updated on the numerous surgical techniques to deal with any condition of the urethra that might surface at the time of surgery.
Urethra; Urethral stricture; Urethroplasty
To characterize changes in global protein expression in kidneys of transgenic rats overexpressing human selenoprotein M (SelM) in response to increased bioabivility of selenium (Sel), total proteins extracted from kidneys of 10-week-old CMV/hSelM Tg and wild-type rats were separated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and measured for changes in expression.
Ten and three proteins showing high antioxidant enzymatic activity were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in SelM-overexpressing CMV/hSelM Tg rats compared to controls based on an arbitrary 2-fold difference. Up-regulated proteins included LAP3, BAIAP2L1, CRP2, CD73 antigen, PDGF D, KIAA143 homolog, PRPPS-AP2, ZFP313, HSP-60, and N-WASP, whereas down-regulated proteins included ALKDH3, rMCP-3, and STC-1. After Sel treatment, five of the up-regulated proteins were significantly increased in expression in wild-type rats, whereas there were no changes in CMV/hSelM Tg rats. Only two of the down-regulated proteins showed reduced expression in wild-type and Tg rats after Sel treatment.
These results show the primary novel biological evidences that new functional protein groups and individual proteins in kidneys of Tg rats relate to Sel biology including the response to Sel treatment and SelM expression.
Antioxidative protein; Kidney; Selenium; Selenoprotein M; Transgenic rat
Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is known as the most common pruritic skin disease, is caused by epidermal barrier dysfunction, allergies, microwave radiation, histamine intolerance, and genetic defects. To investigate the therapeutic effects of fermented soycrud (FSC) on AD pathology, alteration of AD phenotypes induced by phthalic anhydride (PA) treatment was assessed by ear thickness analysis, measurement of immune-related organ weights, ELISA, and histological and pathological analyses of ICR mice after FSC treatment for 2 weeks. Except for water content, the concentrations of most major components were lower in FSC compared to common tofu (CMT). Thymus and lymph node weights were significantly reduced in ICR mice treated with PA+CMT or PA+FSC, whereas spleen and body weights were maintained. Elevation of ear thickness induced by PA treatment was rapidly diminished in the CMT- and FSC-treated groups, although there was no significant difference between the two groups. Furthermore, significant reduction of epidermal thickness was detected in both the PA+CMT- and PA+FSC-treated groups. However, IgE concentration and dermal thickness were reduced only by PA+FSC treatment, whereas PA+CMT treatment maintained levels comparable to PA+vehicle treatment. The number of infiltrated mast cells was higher in the PA+vehicle-treated group compared to the untreated control. Following CMT or FSC treatment, mast cell infiltration was slightly reduced, although the CMT-treated group showed greater cell numbers. These results indicate that FSC may significantly relieve the phenotypes of AD induced by PA treatment and should be considered as a potential candidate for AD therapy.
Atopic dermatitis; soycrud; phthalic anhydride; ear thickness; mast cells
In order to investigate the effects of a fermented soybean product (Chungkookjang, CKJ) on nerve growth factor (NGF) metabolism, NGF secretion ability and its related signaling pathway were analyzed in B35 neuronal cells and the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In B35 cells, the concentration of NGF significantly increased upon treatment with Taegwang (TG)-CKJ and Shinhwa (SH)-CKJ extracts compared with vehicle. Further, a significant increase in PC12 cell length as well as the phsophorylation levels of TrkA and Akt, which are members of a high affinity NGF receptor signaling pathway, were observed after treatment with TG-CKJ and SH-CKJ conditional medium (CM). On the other hand, there was no difference in activation of the NGF receptor p75NTR signaling pathway between vehicle and all CKJ treated groups. In Tg2576 mice showing early stage of AD, the concentrations of NGF in the serum and brain were reduced compared with those in Non-Tg mice. Treatment of Tg2576 mice with SH-CKJ, which contains high concentrations of total flavonoids and phenolic compounds, for 8 weeks dramatically recovered the NGF level to that of Non-Tg mice. Furthermore, the low phosphorylation levels of TrkA and Erk in the NGF receptor TrkA signaling pathway were rapidly recovered to those of Non-Tg mice after SH-CKJ treatment in vehicle treated Tg2576 mice, whereas the phosphorylation level of Akt was maintained at a constant level. These results suggest that CKJ may stimulate NGF secretion ability as well as the NGF receptor TrkA signaling pathway in PC12 cells and Tg2576 mice.
Nerver growth factor; Chungkookjang; signaling pathway; TrkA; Akt
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Red L. platyphylla (RLP) on calcium and glucose levels during insulin secretion. To achieve this, alteration of insulin and calcium concentrations was measured in rat insulinoma-1 (INS-1) cells and animal models in response to RLP treatment. In INS-1 cells, maximum secretion of insulin was detected upon treatment with 200 µg/mL of RLP for 20 min. Nifedipine, an L-type calcium channel blocker, effectively inhibited insulin secretion from INS-1 cells. Regarding calcium levels, the maximum concentration of intracellular calcium in INS-1 cells was obtained by treatment with 100 µg/mL of RLP, whereas this level was reduced under conditions of 200 µg/mL of RLP. Further, RLP-treated INS-1 cells showed a higher level of intracellular calcium than that of L. platyphylla (LP), Korea White Ginseng (KWG), or Korea Red Ginseng (KRG)-treated cells. This RLP-induced increase in intracellular calcium was abrogated but not completely abolished upon treatment with 40 µM nifedipine in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the insulin level was dramatically elevated upon co-treatment with high concentrations of glucose and RLP, whereas it was maintained at a low level in response to glucose and RLP co-treatment at low concentrations. In an animal experiment, the serum concentration of calcium increased or decreased upon RLP treatment according to glucose level compared to vehicle treatment. Therefore, these results suggest that insulin secretion induced by RLP treatment may be tightly correlated with calcium regulation, which suggests RLP is an excellent candidate for diabetes treatment.
Red Liriope Platyphylla; diabetes; insulin; calcium; glucose
A selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) type 3 receptor antagonist, ramosetron, inhibits stress-induced abnormal defecation in animals and is currently used as a therapeutic drug for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ramosetron on altered gastrointestinal (GI) transit.
Male guinea pigs weighing approximately 300 g were used. The effect of ramosetron was investigated on altered GI transit induced by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 5-HT, or mustard oil (MO). GI transit was evaluated by the migration of charcoal mixture from the pylorus to the most distal point, and expressed as a percentage (%) of charcoal migration (cm) of the total length of total small intestine (cm).
The average charcoal transit was 51.3 ± 20.1% in the control (vehicle) group, whereas in the ramosetron group charcoal moved 56.6 ± 21.9%, 46.9 ± 9.14% and 8.4 ± 5.6% of the total small intestine at the concentrations of 10, 30 and 100 µg/kg, respectively. GI transit after administration of TRH (100 µg/kg), 5-HT (10 mg/kg) or MO (10 mg/kg) was accelerated compared to vehicle (5-HT, 94.9 ± 9.22%; TRH, 73.4 ± 14.7%; MO, 81.0 ± 13.7%). Ramosetron inhibited GI transit altered by 5-HT, TRH or MO.
Ramosetron modulated GI transit. We suggest that ramosetron may be therapeutically useful for those with accelerated upper GI transit.
Gastrointestinal transit; Mustard oil; Ramosetron; Serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist; Thyrotropin-releasing hormone
Red Liriope platyphylla (RLP) produced by steaming process has been reported to enhance the secretion of insulin and nerve growth factor (NGF). However, there has been no report on the toxicity of RLP in the specific organs of mice. To investigate the toxic effect of RLP, we tried to observe a significant alteration on body weight, food/water intake, organ weight, liver pathology and kidney pathology in female ICR mice received 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg body weight/day of RLP via gavage for 10 days. Out of seven organs including brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and ovary, two organs (heart and lung) showed significantly decreased weights in the medium dosage RLP-treated group, whereas weights of other organs were maintained at constant levels in all dosage groups. In the liver toxicity analysis, no significant increase of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate amino-transferase (AST) were detected in any RLP-treated group compared to vehicle-treated group. The specific pathological changes induced by most of toxic compounds were not observed in the liver in microscopic examination. Furthermore, in the kidney toxicological analysis, a significant enhancement of the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration was detected in the high dosage RLP-treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. However, the serum creatinine (CA) concentration on the serum biochemistry as well as the pathological changes in microscopic examination were not significantly different between the vehicle- and RLP-treated groups. Therefore, these results suggest that RLP does not induce any specific toxicity in liver or kidney tissues of mice, although the BUN level slightly increased in 50.0 mg/kg of RLP-treated group.
Red Liriope platyphylla; steaming process; toxic effect; liver; kidney
A 67-year-old woman presented with memory impairment and behavioral changes. Brain MRI indicated hepatic encephalopathy. Abdominal CT scans revealed an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that consisted of two shunt tracts to the aneurysmal sac that communicated directly with the right hepatic vein. The large tract was successfully occluded by embolization using the newly available AMPLATZERTM Vascular Plug II and the small tract was occluded by using coils. The patient's symptoms disappeared after shunt closure and she remained free of recurrence at the 3-month follow-up evaluation.
Hepatic encephalopathy; Portosystemic shunt; Surgical; Embolization; Therapeutic
We describe two patients, with no previous history of vascular problems but poor lung function, who experienced septic shock due to bowel ischemia. Both were fed an enteral formula rich in fiber using a feeding tube and experienced septic shock with regular enteral feeding. Surgical finding showed hemorrhagic ischemia in the bowel. The pathologic finding suggests these changes may have been due to inspissations of bowel contents, which may put direct pressure on the mucosa of the bowel wall, leading to local impairment of mucosal and submucosal blood flow with subsequent bowel necrosis. Bowel ischemia may have been precipitated by an increased mesenteric blood flow requirement in combination with a metabolically stressed bowel. Patients in the intensive care unit fed a fiber-rich enteral formula may have inspissated bowel contents, leading to bowel ischemia, suggesting that the use of fiber-rich formula should be limited in patients at high-risk of bowel ischemia.
Enteral nutrition; Acute mesenteric ischemia; Intensive care units; Sepsis
Liriope platyphylla (LP) has long been regarded as a curative herb for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. To examine the therapeutic effects of Red LP (RLP) manufactured by steaming process on neurodegenerative disorders, significant alteration of the key factors influencing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) was detected in NSE/hAPPsw transgenic (Tg) mice after RLP treatment. The concentration of nerve growth factor (NGF) in serum increased in RLP-treated NSE/hAPPsw Tg mice compared with vehicle-treated Tg mice. However, downstream effectors of the NGF receptor signaling pathway, including TrkA and p75NTR proteins, were suppressed in RLP-treated NSE/hAPPsw Tg mice. Especially, Tg mice showed decreased levels of TrkA, p75NTR, and RhoA expression. Production of Aβ-42 peptides was lower in RLP-treated NSE/hAPPsw Tg mice than in vehicle-treated Tg mice. Further, analysis of γ-secretase components showed that Aβ-42 peptide expression was downregulated. Of the four components, the expression of APH-1 and Nicastrin (NCT) decreased in RLP-treated NSE/hAPPsw Tg mice, whereas expression of PS-2 and Pen-2 was maintained or increased within the same group. Overall, these results suggest that RLP can help relieve neurodegenerative diseases, especially AD, through upregulation of NGF secretion ability, activation of NGF signaling pathway, downregulation of Aβ-42 peptide deposition, and alteration of γ-secretase components.
Red L. platyphylla; NGF; NGF signaling pathway; Aβ-42; γ-secretase
Liriope platyphylla is a medical herb that has long been used in Korea and China to treat cough, sputum, neurodegenerative disorders, obesity, and diabetes. The aims of this study were to determine the antidiabetic and antiobesity effects of aqueous extract of L. platyphylla (AEtLP) through glucose and lipid regulation in both pre-diabetes and obesity stage of type II diabetes model. Two concentrations of AEtLP were orally administrated to OLETF (Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty) rats once a day for 2 weeks, after which changes in glucose metabolism and fat accumulation were measured. Abdominal fat mass dramatically decreased in AEtLP-treated OLETF rats, whereas glucose concentration slightly decreased in all AEtLP-treated rats. However, compared to vehicle-treated OLETF rats, only AEtLP10 (10% concentration)-treated OLETF rats displayed significant induction of insulin production, whereas AEtLP5 (5% concentration)-treated OLETF rats showed a lower level of insulin. Although serum adiponectin level increased in only AEtLP5-treated rats, significant alteration of lipid concentration was detected in AEtLP5-treated OLETF rats. Expression of Glut-1 decreased in all AEtLP-treated rats, whereas Akt phosphorylation increased only in AEtLP10-treated OLETF rats. Furthermore, the pattern of Glut-3 expression was very similar with that of Glut-1 expression, which roughly corresponded with the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-teminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Therefore, these findings suggest that AEtLP should be considered as a therapeutic candidate during pre-diabetes and obesity stage capable of inducing insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells, glucose uptake in liver cells, as well as a decrease in fat and lipid accumulation.
Liriope platyphylla; insulin; diabetes; glucose transporter; signaling pathway
Metnase (SETMAR) is a SET and transposase fusion protein that promotes in vivo end joining activity and mediates genomic integration of foreign DNA. Recent studies showed that Metnase retained most of the transposase activities, including 5’-terminal inverted repeat (TIR)-specific binding and assembly of paired end complex, and cleavage of the 5’-end of the TIR element. Here we show that R432 within the helix-turn-helix motif is critical for sequence-specific recognition, as the mutation R432A abolishes its TIR-specific DNA binding activity.Metnase possesses a unique DNA nicking and/or endonuclease activity that mediates cleavage of duplex DNA in the absence of the TIR sequence. While the HTH motif is essential for the Metnase-TIR interaction, it is not required for its DNA cleavage activity. The DDE-like motif is crucial for its DNA cleavage action as a point mutation at this motif (D483A) abolished its DNA cleavage activity. Together, our results suggest that Metnase’s DNA cleavage activity, unlike other eukaryotic transposase, is not coupled to its sequence-specific DNA binding.
Metnase; SETMAR; transposase; DNA binding; DNA cleavage; helix- turn-helix (HTH) motif; terminal-inverted repeats (TIR); DDE motif
Altered expression of neurotrophic factors as well as neuroinflammation is commonly associated with Major depressive disorder (MDD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate whether or not reserpine-induced MDD affects the expression of AD-related proteins, the expression of γ-secretase components and substrate were measured in brains of ICR mice following reserpine treatment for 15 days. In active avoidance test, total response time and peak slightly increased in the 2 mg/kg reserpine (RSP2)-treated group compared to vehicle-treated group (P<0.05). Expression and phosphorylation of MKP-1, which is a key factor in MDD pathology, were both higher in the RSP2-treated group than the vehicle- and 1 mg/kg reserpine (RSP1)-treated groups (P<0.02). Furthermore, full-length expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP) was enhanced in the RSP1 and RSP2-treated groups compared to the vehicle-treated group, whereas expression of γ-secretase components decreased (P<0.03). Among the three components of the γ-secretase complex, nicastrin protein underwent the largest decrease in expression, as detected by Western blotting (P<0.03). Therefore, the data presented here provide additional evidence about the pathological correlation between MDD and AD.
Major depressive disorder; Alzheimer's disease; reserpine; γ-secretase; APP
The drug resistance of microorganisms isolated from laboratory animals never treated with antibiotics is being reported consistently, while the number of laboratory animals used in medicine, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, agriculture, nutrition, and environmental and health science has increased rapidly in Korea. Therefore, this study examined the development of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from laboratory animals bred in Korea. A total of 443 isolates (7 species) containing 5 Sphingomonas paucimobilis, 206 Escherichia coli, 60 Staphylococcus aureus, 15 Staphylococcus epidermidis, 77 Enterococcus faecalis, 27 Citrobacter freundii, 35 Acinetobacter baumannii were collected from the nose, intestine, bronchus and reproductive organs of ICR mice and SD rats. Of these species, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus faecalis showed significant antimicrobial resistance according to the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) in E-test. In case of Acinetobacter baumannii, several isolates showed MIC values 16-128 µg/mL for cefazolin and cefoxitin, and higher resistance (128-512 µg/mL) to nitrofurantoin than that of standard type. Resistance to cefazolin, cefoxitin and nitrofurantoin was detected in 17.14, 20.00, and 8.57% of the Acinetobacter baumannii isolates, respectively. In addition, 44.1% of the Enterococcus faecalis isolates collected from the laboratory animals were resistant to oxacillin concentration of 16-32 µg/mL range, while MIC value of standard type was below oxacillin concentration of 6 µg/mL. These results suggest that in rodent species of laboratory animals, Acinetobacter baumannii are resistance to cefazolin, cefoxitin and nitrofurantoin, whereas those of Enterococcus faecalis were resistance to oxacillin.
Drug resistance; Enterococcus faecalis; Acinetobacter baumannii; oxacillin; nitrofurantoin
To identify the prevalence and clinical features of detrusor underactivity (DU) in elderly men and women presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).
Materials and Methods
We reviewed 1,179 patients aged over 65 years who had undergone a urodynamic study for LUTS with no neurological or anatomical conditions. DU was defined as a bladder contractility index <100 and a maximal flow rate (Qmax) ≤12 ml/s combined with a detrusor pressure at Qmax ≤10 cmH2O for men and women, respectively.
Of the patients, 40.2% of men and 13.3% of women were classified as having DU (p<0.001). Types of clinical symptoms were not significantly different between patients with and without DU. In men, whereas the prevalence of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) was constant across the age spectrum, the prevalence of DU and detrusor overactivity (DO) increased with age, and 46.5% of men with DU also had DO or BOO. In women, the prevalence of DU also increased with age, and the trend was more remarkable in women aged over 70 years. DU was accompanied by DO or urodynamic stress urinary incontinence (USUI) in 72.6% of the women with DU. Women with DU were found to have lower cystometric capacity and exhibited a greater incidence of reduced compliance than did women without DU.
DU was a common mechanism underlying LUTS in the elderly population, especially in men. One half of the men and three quarters of the women with DU also had other pathologies such as DO, BOO, or USUI.
Aged; Prevalence; Urinary bladder; Urination disorders; Urodynamics
To determine the prevalence and correlates of nocturia in Korean community-dwelling older men.
Materials and Methods
A study population of 439 Korean elderly men (≥65 years of age, including 299 men from a randomly sampled population) was sampled from residents of Seongnam, Korea. Standardized face-to-face interviews and questionnaires were performed. In-person interviews solicited sociodemographic information, medical history, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, and measurement of body mass index. Transrectal ultrasonography and laboratory tests including urinalysis and measurement of creatinine and prostate-specific antigen were performed. For the analysis of prevalence, 299 randomly sampled men were included. Men who answered the International Prostate Symptom Score questionnaire (n=424) were included in the analysis of the correlates of nocturia. Nocturia was defined as having to get up to urinate two or more times per night (≥2).
The overall prevalence of nocturia was 56.0% for community-dwelling older men. There was a significant correlation between age and the prevalence of nocturia (p<0.001). The univariate analysis revealed a significant association between nocturia and MMSE score (odds ratio [OR], 0.88; p<0.001), history of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (OR, 2.85; p=0.003), alpha-blocker usage (OR, 2.79; p=0.018), alcohol consumption (OR, 0.65; p=0.035), and smoking (OR, 0.58; p=0.025). Age, duration of education, MMSE score, and prostate volume were also significantly associated with nocturia. In the multivariate regression analysis using forward elimination, nocturia was significantly associated with a history of BPH and MMSE score.
The prevalence of nocturia was 56.0% in Korean community-dwelling older men. Nocturia was associated with age and a history of BPH. MMSE score was protective.
Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Nocturia; Prevalence
Objective: Tamoxifen is currently used for the treatment of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients, but acquired resistance to tamoxifen is a critical problem in breast cancer therapy. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a prototype of the newly developed HDAC inhibitor. The aim of this study is to investigate the anticancer effects of SAHA in tamoxifen-resistant MCF-7 (TAMR/MCF-7) cells.
Methods: Cytotoxicity, apoptosis and autophagic cell death induced by SAHA were studied. A TAMR/MCF-7 cells xenograft model was established to investigate the inhibitory effect of SAHA on tumor growth in vivo.
Results: SAHA inhibited the proliferation of TAMR/MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. SAHA significantly reduced the expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 and increased acetylated histone H3 and H4. Although SAHA induced G2/M phase arrest of cell cycle, apoptotic cell death was very low, which is correlated with the slight change in the activation of caspases and PARP cleavage. Interestingly, expression of the autophagic cell death markers, LC3-II and beclin-1, was significantly increased in TAMR/MCF-7 cells treated with SAHA. Autophagic cell death induced by SAHA was confirmed by acridine orange staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in TAMR/MCF-7 cells. In mice bearing the TAMR/MCF-7 cell xenografts, SAHA significantly reduced the tumor growth and weight, without apparent side effects.
Conclusion: These results suggest that SAHA can induce caspase-independent autophagic cell death rather than apoptotic cell death in TAMR/MCF-7 cells. SAHA-mediated autophagic cell death is a promising new strategy to treatment of tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer.
HDAC inhibitor; tamoxifen-resistant; breast cancer; apoptosis; autophagy.
Peroxiredoxin I (Prx I) is a member of the peroxiredoxins (Prxs) family, which are antioxidant enzymes that regulate various cellular process via intracellular oxidative signal pathways. In order to investigate the correlation between Prx I and the γ-secretase complex, which causes Alzheimer's disease (AD), the expression level of Prx I was firstly evaluated in an animal model for AD. NSE/hPen-2 transgenic (Tg) mice, which were used as animal model in this study, showed a high level of Pen-2 expression and accumulation of Aβ-42 peptides in the hippocampus of brain. The expression level of Prx I was significantly higher on the mRNA and protein level in the brain of this model, while not change in Prx VI expression was observed. Furthermore, to verify the effect of Prx I on the γ-secretase components in vitro, the expression level of these components was analyzed in the Prx I transfectants. Of the components of the γ-secretase complex, the expression of PS-2 and Pen-2 was lower in the transfectants overexpressing Prx I compared to the vector transfectants. However, the expression of APP, NCT and APH-1 did not change in Prx I transfectants. Therefore, these results suggested that the expression of Prx I may be induced by the accumulation of Aβ-42 peptides and the overexpression of Prx I in neuroblastoma cells may regulate the expression of γ-secretase components.
Peroxiredoxin I; γ-secretase complex; Alzheimer's disease; Aβ-42 peptides
In oriental medicine, Liriope platyphylla (LP) has long been regarded as a curative herb useful for the treatment of diabetes, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. The principal objective of this study was to assess the effects of steaming time and frequency for manufactured Red LP (RLP) on insulin secretion ability and insulin receptor signaling pathway. To achieve our goal, several types of LPs manufactured under different conditions were applied to INS cells and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic ICR mice, after which alterations in insulin concentrations were detected in the culture supernatants and sera. The optimal concentration for the investigation of insulin secretion ability was found to be 50 ug/mL of LP. At this concentration, maximum insulin secretion was observed in the INS cells treated with LP extract steamed for 3 h (3-SLP) with two repeated steps (3 h steaming and 24 h air-dried) carried out 9 times (9-SALP); no significant changes in viability were detected in any of the treated cells. Additionally, the expression and phosphorylation levels of most components in the insulin receptor signaling pathway were increased significantly in the majority of cells treated with steaming-processed LP as compared to the cells treated with LP prepared without steaming. With regard to glucose transporter (GLUT) expression, alterations of steaming time induced similar responses on the expression levels of GLUT-2 and GLUT-3. However, differences in steaming frequency were also shown to induce dose-dependent responses in the expression level of GLUT-2 only; no significant differences in GLUT-3 expression were detected under these conditions. Furthermore, these responses observed in vitro were similarly detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice. 24-SLP and 9-SALP treatment applied for 14 days induced the down-regulation of glucose concentration and upregulation of insulin concentration. Therefore, these results indicated that the steaming processed LP may contribute to the relief of diabetes symptoms and should be regarded as an excellent candidate for a diabetes treatment.
Liriope platyphylla; diabetes; steaming process; insulin; glucose
The title compound, C24H20Br2N2O4, is an 18-membered tricycle including two isoxazole rings. The asymmetric unit contains one half of the formula unit; a centre of inversion is located at the centroid of the compound. The dihedral angle between adjacent isoxazole and benzene rings is 84.0 (2)°. The compound displays intra- and intermolecular π–π stacking interactions between the isoxazole rings, the shortest centroid–centroid distances being 3.837 (3) and 3.634 (3) Å, respectively. The molecules are stacked in columns along the a axis with short Br⋯Br contacts [3.508 (1) Å].
To investigate the potential role of microRNA (miRNA) in the regulation of circadian rhythm, we performed microarray-based expression profiling study of both miRNA and mRNA in mouse liver for 48 h at 4-hour intervals. Circadian miRNA-mRNA target pair is defined as the pair both elements of which show circadian expression patterns and the sequence-based target relationship of which can be predicted. Circadian initiators, Clock and Bmal1, showed inversely correlated circadian expression patterns against their corresponding miRNAs, miR-181d and miR-191, targeting them. In contrast, circadian suppressors, Per, Cry, CKIe and Rev-erba, exhibited positively correlated circadian expression patterns to their corresponding miRNAs. Genomic location analysis revealed that intronic region showed higher abundance of cyclic than non-cyclic miRNAs targeting circadian genes while other (i.e., 3'-UTR, exon and intergenic) regions showed no difference. It is suggested that miRNAs are involved in the regulation of peripheral circadian rhythm in mouse liver by modulating Clock:Bmal1 complex. Identifying specific miRNAs and their targets that are critically involved in circadian rhythm will provide a better understanding of the regulation of circadian-clock system.
circadian rhythm; gene expression profiling; gene expression regulation; liver; mice; micro-RNA
Controlling Salmonella in integrated broiler operation is complicated because there are numerous potential sources of Salmonella contamination, including chicks, feed, rodents, wild poultry operations, and the processing plant. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of Salmonella through all phases of two integrated broiler operations and to determine the key areas related to the control of all known sources of infection. Two different Salmonella serotypes were observed at integrated broiler chicken company A. S. enteritidis, the predominant company A isolate, was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, broiler farms, and chicken slaughterhouse. At company B, a total of six different serotypes, S. heidelberg, S. senftenberg, S. enteritidis, S. blockley, S. gallinarum, and S. virchow, were detected. Although S. heidelberg was not found in the broiler farms, it was consistently found in the breeder farm, hatcheries, and chicken slaughterhouse. In addition, S. enteritidis was found in the hatcheries, broiler farm, and chicken slaughterhouse. In order to obtain the genetic clonality, 22 S. enteritidis isolates were digested with XbaI and analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrohporesis (PFGE). A difference in the PFGE pattern was found to be related to the origin of the integrated broiler operation. These data support the critical need to control Salmonella in breeder farms and hatcheries, and demonstrate important points related to the control of infection in large-scale poultry operations of Korea.
broiler; operation; Salmonella spp. slaughterhouse