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1.  Treatment of Hydrocephalus Associated with Neurosarcoidosis by Multiple Shunt Placement 
A 31-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to hydrocephalus with neurosarcoidosis. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunting was performed in the right lateral ventricle with intravenous methylprednisolone. Subsequently, after 4 months, additional ventriculo-peritoneal shunting in the left lateral ventricle was performed due to the enlarged left lateral ventricle and slit-like right lateral ventricle. After 6 months, he was re-admitted due to upward gaze palsy, and magnetic resonance image showed an isolated fourth ventricle with both the inlet and outlet of fourth ventricle obstructed by recurrent neurosarcoidosis. Owing to the difficulty of using an endoscope, we performed neuronavigator-guided ventriculo-peritoneal shunting via the left lateral transcerebellar approach for the treatment of the isolated fourth ventricle with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient was discharged with improved neurological status.
PMCID: PMC3483335  PMID: 23115677
Neurosarcoidosis; Hydrocephalus; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
2.  Terson Syndrome Caused by Intraventricular Hemorrhage Associated with Moyamoya Disease 
Terson syndrome was originally used to describe a vitreous hemorrhage arising from aneurysmal subrarachnoid hemorrhage. Terson syndrome can be caused by intracranial hemorrhage, subdural or epidural hematoma and severe brain injury but is extremely rare in intraventricular hemorrhage associated with moyamoya disease. A 41-year-old man presented with left visual disturbance. He had a history of intraventicular hemorrhage associated with moyamoya disease three months prior to admission. At that time he was in comatose mentality. Ophthalmologic examination at our hospital detected a vitreous hemorrhage in his left eye, with right eye remaining normal. Vitrectomy with epiretinal membrane removal was performed. After operation his left visual acuity was recovered. Careful ophthalmologic examination is mandatory in patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.
PMCID: PMC3424178  PMID: 22949967
Moyamoya disease; Terson syndrome; Intraventricular hemorrhage
3.  Acute Spontaneous Subdural Hematoma of Arterial Origin 
Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma (SDH) of arterial origin is very rare. We report a case of acute spontaneous SDH that showed contrast media extravasation from cortical artery on angiograms. A 58-year-old male patient developed sudden onset headache and right hemiparesis. Brain CT scan demonstrated acute SDH at left convexity. The patient was drowsy mentality on admission. He had no history of head trauma. Cerebral angiography was performed and revealed a localized extravasation of the contrast media from distal cortical MCA branch. After angiography, the patient deteriorated to comatose mentality. Decompressive craniectomy for removal of SDH was performed. We verified the arterial origin of the bleeding and coagulated the bleeding focus. The histological diagnosis was aneurysmal artery. He recovered after surgery with mild disability. In a case of acute spontaneous SDH, the possibility of a cortical artery origin should be considered.
PMCID: PMC3322214  PMID: 22500200
Acute subdural hematoma; Spontaneous; Cortical artery
4.  External Carotid Artery Angioplasty and Stenting Followed by Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Anastomosis 
A 31-year-old man presented with right hemiparesis, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small infarct at left basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography showed left cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and severe stenosis of the ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) with collateral cerebral circulation fed by ECAs. Based on the results of a functional evaluation of cerebral blood flow, we performed preventive ECA angioplasty and stenting for advanced ECA stenosis to ensure sufficient blood flow to the superficial temporal artery. Eight weeks later, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis was performed. His postoperative course was uneventful and no additional transient ischemic attacks have occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first report of preventive angioplasty and stenting for advanced narrowing of an ECA before STA-MCA anastomosis for ipsilateral ICA occlusion.
PMCID: PMC2796357  PMID: 20041061
Angioplasty; External carotid artery; Internal carotid artery; Middle cerebral artery
5.  Moyamoya-Like Vasculopathy in Neurosarcoidosis 
A 31-year-old man presented with dull headache and memory disturbance lasting for one week. Computed tomographic scans revealed acute hydrocephalus. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 53 leukocytes/mm3, with a mononuclear preponderance and no erythrocytes. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal enhancement. Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed supraclinoid occlusion of the right internal carotid artery, which resembled unilateral moyamoya disease. Neuroendoscopic biopsy of a lesion in the septum pellucidum revealed noncaseating granulomas, which was consistent with sarcoidosis. The patient was successfully managed with intravenous methylprednisolone and ventriculoperitoneal shunting. To our knowledge, this is the first case of moyamoya-like vasculopathy associated with neurosarcoidosis.
PMCID: PMC2640829  PMID: 19242573
Moyamoya disease; Neurosarcoidosis; Hydrocephalus
6.  Cavernous Malformation of the Optic Chiasm : Case Report 
Cavernous malformations (CMs) arising from the optic nerve and chiasm are extremely rare. The authors present a case of 39-year-old woman with CMs of the optic chiasm. She was referred due to sudden onset of bitemporal hemianopsia and headache, the so-called 'chiasmal apoplexy'. MRI findings suggested a diagnosis of hemorrhage and vascular malformation of the optic chiasm. Pterional craniotomy revealed an intrachiasmatic cavernous malformation with hemorrhage. The malformation was totally excised, but field deficits remained unchanged after surgery.
PMCID: PMC2588336  PMID: 19096699
Cavernous malformation; Optic chiasm; Apoplexy
7.  Fusiform Intracanalicular Ophthalmic Artery Aneurysm; Case Report and Review of Literature 
A 35-year-old man's vision had progressively deteriorated over a 3-month period. His left visual acuity was 5/20. Enhanced orbital computed tomographic (CT) scans revealed a fusiform dilatation of the ophthalmic artery in the left optic canal. Cerebral Angiography revealed a fusiform aneurysm on the left ophthalmic artery in the optic canal, measuring 6.2 × 4.6 mm in size. Four days after admission, visual acuity dropped to hand-motion. Endovascular treatment was chosen and a microcatheter was guided into the proximal segment of the ophthalmic artery. Using 4 detachable coils, parent artery occlusion was done. Three months after the intervention, the visual acuity in his left eye improved to 20/20. Dramatic recovery of visual acuity is exceptional with an ophthalmic artery trunk aneurysm. When an occlusion of the proximal ophthalmic artery is the only treatment option in such a situation, the endovascular occlusion of the proximal ophthalmic artery is quite feasible in the sense that it does not require any optic nerve manipulation.
PMCID: PMC2588290  PMID: 19096656
Detachable coil; Fusiform aneurysm; Intracanalicular portion; Ophthalmic artery trunk aneurysm
8.  Giant Cavernous Malformation : A Case Report and Review of the Literature 
Giant cavernous malformations (GCMs) occur very rarely and little has been reported about their clinical characteristics. The authors present a case of a 20-year-old woman with a GCM. She was referred due to two episodes of generalized seizure. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance image demonstrated a heterogeneous multi-cystic lesion of 7 × 5 × 5 cm size in the left frontal lobe and basal ganglia, and enhancing vascular structure abutting medial portion of the mass. These fingings suggested a diagnosis of GCM accompanying venous angioma. After left frontal craniotomy, transcortical approach was done. Total removal was accomplished and the postoperative course was uneventful. GCMs do not seem differ clinically, surgically or histopathologically from small cavernous angiomas, but imaging appearance of GCMs may be variable. The clinical, radiological feature and management of GCMs are described based on pertinent literature review.
PMCID: PMC2588260  PMID: 19096644
Cavernous hemangioma; Venous angioma; Seizure
9.  Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery Branch Mimicking Aneurysm 
A 26-year-old man was admitted to our department due to intermittent left hemiparesis for 3 months. Magnetic resonance image showed subacute infarction in the right precentral gyrus. Digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an aneurysmal protrusion at the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation. It was difficult to differentiate the aneurysm from the occlusion of the middle trunk of the MCA trifurcation. Brain single photon emission computerized tomography showed a decrease in perfusion in the right posterior frontal lobe without vascular reserve. Therefore, we planned a superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis with an exploration of the right MCA bifurcation. Intraoperatively, the aneurysmal opacification on preoperative angiography proved to be the proximal stump of the occluded middle trunk of the MCA trifurcation. An aneurysmal protrusion at the MCA bifurcation does not always indicate an aneurysm. In diagnosing protruding vascular lesions at the MCA bifurcation, the possibility of a vascular stump should be considered according to their angioanatomical appearance and the history of the patient.
PMCID: PMC2588198  PMID: 19096581
Middle cerebral artery; Aneurysm; Occlusion
10.  Neuroendoscopic Removal of Large Choroid Plexus Cyst: A Case Report 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2005;20(2):335-339.
Choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) are the most commom neuroepithelial cysts, occuring in more than 50% of some autopsy series. They are typically small and asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally in older patients, usually in the trigone of the lateral ventricle. Symptomatic CPCs (usually exceptionally large, 2-8 cm) are rare. The authors report a case of large symptomatic choroid plexus cyst, located in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle in a 26-yr-old man who presented with headache and vomiting. The patient underwent endoscopic removal through a burr hole placed 3 cm from the midline and just behind the hair line. The histological examination of the cyst wall was consistent with choroid epithelium. Despite of postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and catheter infection, he discharged home without neurologic deficits. The endoscopic fenestration rather than excision should be considered as the first surgical procedure because the goal of treatment is shrinkage of the cyst until normal cerebrospinal fluid flow is restored.
PMCID: PMC2808618  PMID: 15832013
Choroid Plexus Neoplasms; Endoscopy; Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive
11.  Comparative Study of Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of a Zero-Profile Device Concerning Reduced Postoperative Dysphagia after Single Level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion 
This study analyzed clinical and radiological outcomes of a zero-profile anchored spacer (Zero-P) and conventional cage-plate (CCP) for single level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) to compare the incidence and difference of postoperative dysphagia with both devices.
We retrospectively reviewed our experiences of single level ACDF with the CCP and Zero-P. From January 2011 to December 2013, 48 patients who had single level herniated intervertebral disc were operated on using ACDF, with CCP in 27 patients and Zero-P in 21 patients. Patients who received more than double-level ACDF or combined circumferential fusion were excluded. Age, operation time, estimated blood loss (EBL), pre-operative modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA) scores, post-operative mJOA scores, achieved mJOA scores and recovery rate of mJOA scores were assessed. Prevertebral soft tissue thickness and postoperative dysphagia were analyzed on the day of surgery, and 2 weeks and 6 months postoperatively.
The Zero-P group showed same or favorable clinical and radiological outcomes compared with the CCP group. Postoperative dysphagia was significantly low in the Zero-P group.
Application of Zero-P may achieve favorable outcomes and reduce postoperative dysphagia in single level ACDF.
PMCID: PMC4200356  PMID: 25328646
Zero-profile; Prevertebral soft tissue swelling; Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion; ACDF; Dysphagia
12.  Effectiveness of the Laminoplasty in the Elderly Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy 
Korean Journal of Spine  2014;11(2):39-44.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical and radiological outcomes analysis of the laminoplasty in the elderly patients, and to compare with the non-elderly patients.
A retrospective study of the short term result in patients who had treated with the laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) was performed. From January 2008 to December 2012, total 62 patients were operated with single open-door technique because of CSM; 28 patients were the elderly and 34 patients were the non-elderly. We evaluated some factors including sex, symptom duration, estimated blood loss during operation, operation time, hospitalization day, complications, pre- and postoperative modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score, recovery rate of mJOA score, achieved mJOA score, mean cervical canal width and expansion ratio of antero-posterior diameter in order to identify difference between the two group. Clinical outcomes were calculated with the recovery rate of mJOA score at the time of one year after operation.
Mean age were 71.9 in the elderly group and 52.9 in the non-elderly group. Although postoperative mJOA score in the elderly group was lower than that of the non-elderly group, achieved mJOA score was statistically same between the two groups. Other clinical and radiological outcomes were also statistically same.
We conclude that the laminoplasty also assures good clinical outcomes in the elderly patients with CSM, same as in the non-elderly group.
PMCID: PMC4124920  PMID: 25110481
Laminoplasty; Cervical spondylotic myelopathy; Elderly patients
13.  Ventrally Located Cervical Dumbbell Ganglioneuroma Producing Spinal Cord Compression 
Korean Journal of Spine  2013;10(4):246-248.
Ganglioneuroma is an uncommon benign tumor and arise from neural crest cells or sympathetic and peripheral nerves. A 13-year-old boy was referred to our institute and presented with three-day history of right upper extremity weakness associated with neck pain for nearly one month. Magnetic resonance imaging showed right side dumbbell shaped extramedullary lesion at the C2-3 level extending outside through neural foramen. Paraspinal and posterior neck mass, cafe au lait spot was identified. We performed surgical decompression of the spinal cord by resection of intradural portion mass. Histopathological diagnosis was ganglioneuroma.
PMCID: PMC4040646  PMID: 24891857
Ganglioneuroma; Cervical spine; Neurofibromatosis
14.  Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysms Arising from the Proximal Segment of the Anterior Cerebral Artery 
Aneurysms arising from the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery (A1) are rare and challenging to treat. The aim of this study was to report our experience with endovascular treatment of A1 Aneurysms.
From August 2007 through May 2012, eleven A1 aneurysms in eleven patients were treated endovascularly. Six aneurysms were unruptured and 5 were ruptured. One patient with an unruptured A1 aneurysm presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Procedural data, clinical and angiographic results were reviewed retrospectively.
All of the aneurysms were successfully treated with coil embolization. Six were treated with a simple technique while the remaining 5 required adjunctive technique : double catheters (n=2), balloon-assisted (n=2), and stent-assisted (n=1). The immediate angiographic control showed a complete occlusion in all cases. Procedure-related complication occurred in only one patient : parent artery occlusion, which was not clinically significant. All patients had excellent clinical outcomes but one patient was discharged with a slight disability. No neurologic deterioration or bleeding was seen during the follow-up period in this cohort of patients. Follow-up angiography (mean, 20 months) was available in ten patients and revealed stable occlusion in all cases.
Endovascular treatment is a feasible and effective therapeutic modality for A1 aneurysms. Tailored microcatheter shaping and/or adjunctive techniques are necessary for successful aneurysm embolization because of the projection and location of A1 aneurysms.
PMCID: PMC3809447  PMID: 24175019
Endovascular treatment; Intracranial aneurysm; Anterior cerebral artery aneurysm
15.  An Unusual Case of Post-Operative Spondylitis Caused by Mycobacterium Intracellulare in an Immunosuppressed Patient 
There are few reported cases of post-operative spondylitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare. A 75-year-old female presented to our hospital with low back pain and paraparesis after a fall. The radiologic examination revealed compression fractures of L1, L3 and L4 and an epidural hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The dark-red epidural hematoma was urgently evacuated. Four weeks post-operatively, neurologic deficits recurred with fever. On magnetic resonance image, an epidural abscess and osteomyelitis were detected in the previous operative site. Five weeks post-operatively, revision was performed with multiple biopsies. The specimen were positive for acid-fast bacilli and traditional anti-tuberculous medications were started. Because the Polymerase Chain Reaction for non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) was positive, the anti-tuberculous medications were changed to anti-NTM drugs. However, the neurologic deficits did not improve and persistent elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were noted. Eight weeks after the revision, Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the specimen cultures. Despite supportive care with medication, the patient died due to multiple organ failure.
PMCID: PMC3259468  PMID: 22259695
Post-operative spondylitis; Mycobacterium intracellulare
16.  Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms with Oculomotor Nerve Palsy : Clinical Outcome between Surgical Clipping and Coil Embolization 
To evaluate the clinical outcome of coil embolization for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) with oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) compared with surgical clipping.
A total of 19 patients presented with ONP caused by UIAs between Jan 2004 and June 2008. Ten patients underwent coil embolization and nine patients surgical clipping. The following parameters were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the differences in clinical outcome observed in both coil embolization and surgical clipping : 1) gender, 2) age, 3) location of the aneurysm, 4) duration of the symptom, and 5) degree of ONP.
Following treatment, complete symptomatic recovery or partial relief from ONP was observed in 15 patients. Seven of the ten patients were treated by coil embolization, compared to eight of the nine patients treated by surgical clipping (p = 0.582). Patient's gender, age, location of the aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, duration of symptom, and degree of the ONP did not statistically correlate with recovery of symptoms between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in mean improvement time in either group (55 days in coil embolization and 60 days in surgical clipping).
This study indicates that no significant differences were observed in the clinical outcome between coil embolization and surgical clipping techniques in the treatment of aneurysms causing ONP. Coil embolization seems to be more feasible and safe treatment modality for the relief and recovery of oculomotor nerve palsy.
PMCID: PMC2941851  PMID: 20856657
Oculomotor nerve palsy; Intracranial aneurysm; Surgical clipping; Coil embolization

Results 1-16 (16)