A 31-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to hydrocephalus with neurosarcoidosis. Ventriculo-peritoneal shunting was performed in the right lateral ventricle with intravenous methylprednisolone. Subsequently, after 4 months, additional ventriculo-peritoneal shunting in the left lateral ventricle was performed due to the enlarged left lateral ventricle and slit-like right lateral ventricle. After 6 months, he was re-admitted due to upward gaze palsy, and magnetic resonance image showed an isolated fourth ventricle with both the inlet and outlet of fourth ventricle obstructed by recurrent neurosarcoidosis. Owing to the difficulty of using an endoscope, we performed neuronavigator-guided ventriculo-peritoneal shunting via the left lateral transcerebellar approach for the treatment of the isolated fourth ventricle with intravenous methyl prednisolone. The patient was discharged with improved neurological status.
Neurosarcoidosis; Hydrocephalus; Ventriculoperitoneal shunt
Terson syndrome was originally used to describe a vitreous hemorrhage arising from aneurysmal subrarachnoid hemorrhage. Terson syndrome can be caused by intracranial hemorrhage, subdural or epidural hematoma and severe brain injury but is extremely rare in intraventricular hemorrhage associated with moyamoya disease. A 41-year-old man presented with left visual disturbance. He had a history of intraventicular hemorrhage associated with moyamoya disease three months prior to admission. At that time he was in comatose mentality. Ophthalmologic examination at our hospital detected a vitreous hemorrhage in his left eye, with right eye remaining normal. Vitrectomy with epiretinal membrane removal was performed. After operation his left visual acuity was recovered. Careful ophthalmologic examination is mandatory in patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.
Moyamoya disease; Terson syndrome; Intraventricular hemorrhage
Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma (SDH) of arterial origin is very rare. We report a case of acute spontaneous SDH that showed contrast media extravasation from cortical artery on angiograms. A 58-year-old male patient developed sudden onset headache and right hemiparesis. Brain CT scan demonstrated acute SDH at left convexity. The patient was drowsy mentality on admission. He had no history of head trauma. Cerebral angiography was performed and revealed a localized extravasation of the contrast media from distal cortical MCA branch. After angiography, the patient deteriorated to comatose mentality. Decompressive craniectomy for removal of SDH was performed. We verified the arterial origin of the bleeding and coagulated the bleeding focus. The histological diagnosis was aneurysmal artery. He recovered after surgery with mild disability. In a case of acute spontaneous SDH, the possibility of a cortical artery origin should be considered.
Acute subdural hematoma; Spontaneous; Cortical artery
A 31-year-old man presented with right hemiparesis, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a small infarct at left basal ganglia. Digital subtraction angiography showed left cervical internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion and severe stenosis of the ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA) with collateral cerebral circulation fed by ECAs. Based on the results of a functional evaluation of cerebral blood flow, we performed preventive ECA angioplasty and stenting for advanced ECA stenosis to ensure sufficient blood flow to the superficial temporal artery. Eight weeks later, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis was performed. His postoperative course was uneventful and no additional transient ischemic attacks have occurred. To our knowledge, this is the first report of preventive angioplasty and stenting for advanced narrowing of an ECA before STA-MCA anastomosis for ipsilateral ICA occlusion.
Angioplasty; External carotid artery; Internal carotid artery; Middle cerebral artery
A 31-year-old man presented with dull headache and memory disturbance lasting for one week. Computed tomographic scans revealed acute hydrocephalus. The cerebrospinal fluid contained 53 leukocytes/mm3, with a mononuclear preponderance and no erythrocytes. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed hydrocephalus and leptomeningeal enhancement. Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed supraclinoid occlusion of the right internal carotid artery, which resembled unilateral moyamoya disease. Neuroendoscopic biopsy of a lesion in the septum pellucidum revealed noncaseating granulomas, which was consistent with sarcoidosis. The patient was successfully managed with intravenous methylprednisolone and ventriculoperitoneal shunting. To our knowledge, this is the first case of moyamoya-like vasculopathy associated with neurosarcoidosis.
Moyamoya disease; Neurosarcoidosis; Hydrocephalus
Cavernous malformations (CMs) arising from the optic nerve and chiasm are extremely rare. The authors present a case of 39-year-old woman with CMs of the optic chiasm. She was referred due to sudden onset of bitemporal hemianopsia and headache, the so-called 'chiasmal apoplexy'. MRI findings suggested a diagnosis of hemorrhage and vascular malformation of the optic chiasm. Pterional craniotomy revealed an intrachiasmatic cavernous malformation with hemorrhage. The malformation was totally excised, but field deficits remained unchanged after surgery.
Cavernous malformation; Optic chiasm; Apoplexy
A 35-year-old man's vision had progressively deteriorated over a 3-month period. His left visual acuity was 5/20. Enhanced orbital computed tomographic (CT) scans revealed a fusiform dilatation of the ophthalmic artery in the left optic canal. Cerebral Angiography revealed a fusiform aneurysm on the left ophthalmic artery in the optic canal, measuring 6.2 × 4.6 mm in size. Four days after admission, visual acuity dropped to hand-motion. Endovascular treatment was chosen and a microcatheter was guided into the proximal segment of the ophthalmic artery. Using 4 detachable coils, parent artery occlusion was done. Three months after the intervention, the visual acuity in his left eye improved to 20/20. Dramatic recovery of visual acuity is exceptional with an ophthalmic artery trunk aneurysm. When an occlusion of the proximal ophthalmic artery is the only treatment option in such a situation, the endovascular occlusion of the proximal ophthalmic artery is quite feasible in the sense that it does not require any optic nerve manipulation.
Detachable coil; Fusiform aneurysm; Intracanalicular portion; Ophthalmic artery trunk aneurysm
Giant cavernous malformations (GCMs) occur very rarely and little has been reported about their clinical characteristics. The authors present a case of a 20-year-old woman with a GCM. She was referred due to two episodes of generalized seizure. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance image demonstrated a heterogeneous multi-cystic lesion of 7 × 5 × 5 cm size in the left frontal lobe and basal ganglia, and enhancing vascular structure abutting medial portion of the mass. These fingings suggested a diagnosis of GCM accompanying venous angioma. After left frontal craniotomy, transcortical approach was done. Total removal was accomplished and the postoperative course was uneventful. GCMs do not seem differ clinically, surgically or histopathologically from small cavernous angiomas, but imaging appearance of GCMs may be variable. The clinical, radiological feature and management of GCMs are described based on pertinent literature review.
Cavernous hemangioma; Venous angioma; Seizure
A 26-year-old man was admitted to our department due to intermittent left hemiparesis for 3 months. Magnetic resonance image showed subacute infarction in the right precentral gyrus. Digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography revealed an aneurysmal protrusion at the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation. It was difficult to differentiate the aneurysm from the occlusion of the middle trunk of the MCA trifurcation. Brain single photon emission computerized tomography showed a decrease in perfusion in the right posterior frontal lobe without vascular reserve. Therefore, we planned a superficial temporal artery-MCA anastomosis with an exploration of the right MCA bifurcation. Intraoperatively, the aneurysmal opacification on preoperative angiography proved to be the proximal stump of the occluded middle trunk of the MCA trifurcation. An aneurysmal protrusion at the MCA bifurcation does not always indicate an aneurysm. In diagnosing protruding vascular lesions at the MCA bifurcation, the possibility of a vascular stump should be considered according to their angioanatomical appearance and the history of the patient.
Middle cerebral artery; Aneurysm; Occlusion
Choroid plexus cysts (CPCs) are the most commom neuroepithelial cysts, occuring in more than 50% of some autopsy series. They are typically small and asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally in older patients, usually in the trigone of the lateral ventricle. Symptomatic CPCs (usually exceptionally large, 2-8 cm) are rare. The authors report a case of large symptomatic choroid plexus cyst, located in the trigone of the right lateral ventricle in a 26-yr-old man who presented with headache and vomiting. The patient underwent endoscopic removal through a burr hole placed 3 cm from the midline and just behind the hair line. The histological examination of the cyst wall was consistent with choroid epithelium. Despite of postoperative intraventricular hemorrhage and catheter infection, he discharged home without neurologic deficits. The endoscopic fenestration rather than excision should be considered as the first surgical procedure because the goal of treatment is shrinkage of the cyst until normal cerebrospinal fluid flow is restored.
Choroid Plexus Neoplasms; Endoscopy; Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive
There are few reported cases of post-operative spondylitis caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare. A 75-year-old female presented to our hospital with low back pain and paraparesis after a fall. The radiologic examination revealed compression fractures of L1, L3 and L4 and an epidural hematoma compressing the spinal cord. The dark-red epidural hematoma was urgently evacuated. Four weeks post-operatively, neurologic deficits recurred with fever. On magnetic resonance image, an epidural abscess and osteomyelitis were detected in the previous operative site. Five weeks post-operatively, revision was performed with multiple biopsies. The specimen were positive for acid-fast bacilli and traditional anti-tuberculous medications were started. Because the Polymerase Chain Reaction for non-tuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) was positive, the anti-tuberculous medications were changed to anti-NTM drugs. However, the neurologic deficits did not improve and persistent elevation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were noted. Eight weeks after the revision, Mycobacterium intracellulare was detected in the specimen cultures. Despite supportive care with medication, the patient died due to multiple organ failure.
Post-operative spondylitis; Mycobacterium intracellulare
To evaluate the clinical outcome of coil embolization for unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA) with oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) compared with surgical clipping.
A total of 19 patients presented with ONP caused by UIAs between Jan 2004 and June 2008. Ten patients underwent coil embolization and nine patients surgical clipping. The following parameters were retrospectively analyzed to evaluate the differences in clinical outcome observed in both coil embolization and surgical clipping : 1) gender, 2) age, 3) location of the aneurysm, 4) duration of the symptom, and 5) degree of ONP.
Following treatment, complete symptomatic recovery or partial relief from ONP was observed in 15 patients. Seven of the ten patients were treated by coil embolization, compared to eight of the nine patients treated by surgical clipping (p = 0.582). Patient's gender, age, location of the aneurysm, size of the aneurysm, duration of symptom, and degree of the ONP did not statistically correlate with recovery of symptoms between the two groups. No significant differences were observed in mean improvement time in either group (55 days in coil embolization and 60 days in surgical clipping).
This study indicates that no significant differences were observed in the clinical outcome between coil embolization and surgical clipping techniques in the treatment of aneurysms causing ONP. Coil embolization seems to be more feasible and safe treatment modality for the relief and recovery of oculomotor nerve palsy.
Oculomotor nerve palsy; Intracranial aneurysm; Surgical clipping; Coil embolization