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author:("Lee, hwaseong")
1.  A Higher Salt Intake Leads to a Lower Rate of Adequate Blood Pressure Control 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(Suppl 2):S103-S108.
The relationship between salt intake and adequate blood pressure control is not well investigated in Korea populations, especially in patients with cardiovascular disease. This cross-sectional study enrolled 19,083 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted from 2009-2011. The amount of salt intake was estimated using the Tanaka equations based on spot urine samples. Comparing patients with and without cardiovascular disease, systolic blood pressure (129.1±18.1 mmHg vs. 120.0±18.1 mmHg, P<0.001) and the amount of urinary sodium excretion (149.4±37.5 mM/day vs. 144.1±36.2 mM/day, P<0.001) were higher in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Among patients with cardiovascular disease, the high blood pressure group showed an increased amount of urinary sodium excretion compared to the normal blood pressure group (155.5±38.2 vs. 146.6±36.9 mM/day, P<0.001). The odds ratio (OR) of high blood pressure was higher (OR, 1.825; 95% CI, 1.187-2.807; P-for-trend 0.003, highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion vs. lowest quartile) in patients with cardiovascular disease. A higher amount of urinary sodium excretion was associated with a lower rate of adequate blood pressure control in Korean population, especially with cardiovascular disease.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.S2.S103
PMCID: PMC4194279  PMID: 25317013
Blood Pressure; Cardiovascular Diseases; KNHANES; Sodium
2.  Not Salt Taste Perception but Self-Reported Salt Eating Habit Predicts Actual Salt Intake 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(Suppl 2):S91-S96.
Excessive dietary salt intake is related to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although dietary salt restriction is essential, it is difficult to achieve because of salt palatability. However, the association between salt perception or salt eating habit and actual salt intake remains uncertain. In this study, we recruited 74 healthy young individuals. We investigated their salt-eating habits by questionnaire and salt taste threshold through a rating scale that used serial dilution of a sodium chloride solution. Predicted 24-hr urinary salt excretions using Kawasaki's and Tanaka's equations estimated dietary salt intake. Participants' mean age was 35 yr, and 59.5% were male. Salt sense threshold did not show any relationship with actual salt intake and a salt-eating habit. However, those eating "salty" foods showed higher blood pressure (P for trend=0.048) and higher body mass index (BMI; P for trend=0.043). Moreover, a salty eating habit was a significant predictor for actual salt intake (regression coefficient [β] for Kawasaki's equation 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 10-2.69, P=0.048; β for Tanaka's equation 0.66, 95% CI 0.01-1.31, P=0.047). In conclusion, a self-reported salt-eating habit, not salt taste threshold predicts actual salt intake.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.S2.S91
PMCID: PMC4194290  PMID: 25317023
Salt-Eating Habit; Salt Taste Threshold; Salt Intake
3.  Non-linear association of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with urinary albumin excretion rate in normoalbuminuric subjects 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:97.
Background
Vitamin D deficiencies and increases in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) are both important and potentially related health problems; however, the nature of their relationship has not been established in normoalbuminuric subjects.
Methods
We obtained data from 14,594 normoalbuminuric Korean adults who underwent voluntary health screenings. We used a generalized additive model to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and urinary-albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) levels. We conducted multivariate logistic regression for high-normal UAE (UACR, 10–29 mg/g), according to various categories of vitamin D status.
Results
The generalized additive model confirmed a non-linear relationship between serum 25(OH)D and UACR levels, and the threshold concentration of 25(OH)D was 8.0 ng/mL after multivariate adjustment. Comparing subjects who fell into the lowest category of serum 25(OH)D levels with subjects who were in the reference range (the highest category), we observed that the multivariate adjusted odds ratio (OR) for high-normal UAE was significantly increased, regardless of the criteria used to categorize vitamin D levels: OR of the 1st quartile over the 4th quartile, 1.20 (95% CI, 1.04-1.39); OR of the 1.0-4.9th percentile over the 50-100th percentile, 1.56 (95% CI, 1.25-1.93); and OR of vitamin D deficiency group over vitamin D sufficiency group, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.08-1.52).
Conclusions
We demonstrated that there was an inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D less than 8.0 ng/mL and UACR in normoalbuminuric subjects, suggesting that severe vitamin D deficiency could cause an increase in UAE in subjects with normoalbuminuria.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-97
PMCID: PMC4079922  PMID: 24957097
Epidemiology; Low-grade albuminuria; Threshold; Vitamin D deficiency
4.  Long-term prognosis of clinically early IgA nephropathy is not always favorable 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:94.
Background
The long-term prognosis of clinically early IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients remains to be clarified. We investigated the long-term outcomes of IgAN patients with an apparently benign presentation and evaluated prognostic factors for renal survival.
Methods
We included patients with biopsy-proven IgAN who had estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, normal blood pressure, and proteinuria <0.5 g/day at the time of biopsy. The primary outcome was progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The secondary outcome was a 50% increase in serum creatinine level or an increase in proteinuria to >1 g/day.
Results
The analysis included 153 patients who met the inclusion criteria. At diagnosis, their median systolic blood pressure was 120 (110–130) mmHg, eGFR was 85.9 (74.9–100.1) mL/min/1.73 m2, and proteinuria was 0.25 (0.13–0.38) g/day. Of these, 4 patients died and 6 reached ESRD. The 30-year renal survival rate was 85.5%. Three patients had increased serum creatinine levels and 11 developed proteinuria. Remission was observed in 35 (22.9%) patients. A moderate or severe degree of interstitial fibrosis (adjusted odd ratio [OR] 5.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–24.45, P = 0.014) and hypoalbuminemia (adjusted OR 6.18, 95% CI 1.20–31.79, P = 0.029) were independent predictors of the secondary outcome.
Conclusions
This study showed that the prognosis of early IgAN was not always favorable, even resulting in progression to ESRD in some cases. Hypoalbuminemia and interstitial fibrosis should also be considered important prognostic factors in clinically early IgAN patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-94
PMCID: PMC4070337  PMID: 24946688
IgA nephropathy; Interstitial fibrosis; Progression of renal failure
5.  Potassium Intake and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e55106.
Lower potassium intake is considered to be correlated with diabetes incidence. However, few studies have investigated the effect of potassium intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data was taken from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010) using weighted adjustment. MetS was defined as per the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Homeostasis model assessment indices were calculated to diagnosis insulin resistance (IR). A total of 16,637 participants (44±0.25 years) were included. Women ingested lower amounts of potassium (2.71±0.02 g/day) than men (3.45±0.03 g/day). A curvilinear association between potassium intake and MetS prevalence was found among women. Women with less than the Adequate Intake (4.7 g/day) of potassium had an 11% risk reduction for MetS (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–0.96; P = 0.004) and a 10% risk reduction for IR (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82–0.99; P = 0.026) for every 1 g/day potassium increase. Compared with the reference group (3.5–4.5 g/day), potassium intake was inversely associated with an increased risk of MetS (1.5–2.5 g/day; OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02–1.63; P = 0.035; <1.5 g/day; OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.85; P = 0.017) and IR (<1.5 g/day; OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05–1.76; P = 0.021). This relationship was more prominent in postmenopausal women, but not observed among men. Higher potassium intake is significantly associated with a lower MetS prevalence in women, and IR is believed to be connected.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055106
PMCID: PMC3555937  PMID: 23372822
6.  Mortality of IgA Nephropathy Patients: A Single Center Experience over 30 Years 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e51225.
Research on the prognosis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) has focused on renal survival, with little information being available on patient survival. Hence, this investigation aimed to explore long-term patient outcome in IgAN patients. Clinical and pathological characteristics at the time of renal biopsy were reviewed in 1,364 IgAN patients from 1979 to 2008. The outcomes were patient death and end stage renal disease (ESRD) progression. Overall, 71 deaths (5.3%) and 277 cases of ESRD (20.6%) occurred during 13,916 person-years. Ten-, 20-, and 30-year patient survival rates were 96.3%, 91.8%, and 82.7%, respectively. More than 50% patient deaths occurred without ESRD progression. Overall mortality was elevated by 43% from an age/sex-matched general population (GP) (standardized mortality ratio [SMR], 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–1.92). Men had comparable mortality to GP (SMR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.82–1.75), but, in women, the mortality rate was double (SMR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.21–3.57). Patients with renal risk factors such as initial renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filgration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73m2; SMR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.13–2.46), systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (SMR, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.19–2.82) or proteinuria ≥1 g/day (SMR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.16–2.29) had an elevated mortality rate. Patients with preserved renal function, normotension, and proteinuria <1 g/day, however, had a similar mortality rate to GP. When risk stratification was performed by counting the number of major risk factors present at diagnosis, low-risk IgAN patients had a mortality rate equal to that of GP, whereas high-risk patients had a mortality rate higher than that of GP. This investigation demonstrated that overall mortality in IgAN patients was higher than that of GP. Women and patients with renal risk factors had a higher mortality than that of GP, Therefore, strategies optimized to alleviate major renal risk factors are warranted to reduce patient mortality.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051225
PMCID: PMC3514188  PMID: 23226568
7.  The association of moderate renal dysfunction with impaired preference-based health-related quality of life: 3rd Korean national health and nutritional examination survey 
BMC Nephrology  2012;13:19.
Background
Only a few large-scale studies have investigated the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and renal function. Moreover, the HRQOL of patients with moderate renal dysfunction is frequently underestimated by healthcare providers. This study assessed the impact of renal function on preference-based HRQOL in Korean adult population.
Methods
We analyzed data for 5,555 adults from the 3rd Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005. The EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score was used to evaluate HRQOL. The study subjects were stratified into three groups based on their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs): ≥ 90.0, 60.0-89.9 and 30.0-59.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. Individuals with advanced renal dysfunction were excluded from the analysis.
Results
The proportions of participants who reported problems in each of the five EQ-5D dimensions increased significantly with decreasing eGFR. However, a significant decrease in the EQ-5D utility score was observed among participants with an eGFR of 30.0-59.9 mL/min/1.73 m2. Participants with an eGFR of 30.0-59.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 had an almost 1.5-fold higher risk of impaired health utility (the lowest quartile of EQ-5D utility score) compared with those participants with eGFRs ≥ 90.0 mL/min/1.73 m2, after adjustment for age, gender, health-related behaviors, socioeconomic and psychological variables, and other comorbidities. Among the five dimensions of the EQ-5D, an eGFR of 30.0-59.9 mL/min/1.73 m2 was an independent determinant of self-reported problems in the mobility and pain/discomfort dimensions.
Conclusions
Although age affects the association between renal dysfunction and the EQ-5D, moderate renal dysfunction seems to be an important determinant of impaired health utility in a general population and may affect the mobility and pain/discomfort dimensions of health utility.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-13-19
PMCID: PMC3404912  PMID: 22530944
Chronic kidney disease; EuroQol-5D; Preference-based health utility
8.  Aspergillus-Associated Cerebral Aneurysm Successfully Treated by Endovascular and Surgical Intervention with Voriconazole in Lupus Nephritis Patient 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(3):317-320.
During the last five decades, long-term therapy with immunosuppressive agents such as pulse cyclophosphamide in conjunction with high-dose corticosteroids has enhanced both patient survival and renal survival in patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. Nevertheless, severe side effects such as infectious complications remain the main cause of morbidity and mortality. Central nervous system aspergillosis is uncommon but life-threatening in lupus patients. In this single-patient case study, carotid aneurysm with sphenoidal sinusitis was suspected when severe epistaxis occurred during cyclophosphamide pulse therapy. With anti-fungal therapy, a graft stent was successfully deployed to the aneurysm and specimens of sphenoidal mucosa showed typical hyphae, indicating aspergillosis. Three months after stopping voriconazole treatment, two cerebral aneurysms that were revealed on MR images were successfully removed by aneurysmal clipping. The patient remained alive at one-year follow-up with lupus nephritis in remission. The rarity and high mortality of aspergillus-related fungal aneurysms have led to most cases being recognized postmortem. However, such aneurysms must be diagnosed early to prevent fatal complications by performing appropriate management such as surgical procedure or endovascular intervention.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.3.317
PMCID: PMC3286781  PMID: 22379345
Lupus Nephritis; Neuroaspergillosis; Intracranial Aneurysm; Voriconazole; Endovascular Procedure
9.  Lower Residual Renal Function is a Risk Factor for Depression and Impaired Health-Related Quality of Life in Korean Peritoneal Dialysis Patients 
We retrospectively evaluated demographic and biochemical parameters associated with depression and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study included 105 patients maintaining PD at Seoul National University Hospital. Data were collected from electronic medical record. Korean Beck's Depression Inventory and Korean version of Kidney Disease Quality of Life short form, version 1.3 were used to evaluate depression and HRQOL, respectively. Moderate to severe depression was found in 24.8% of patients. Patients with lower normalized protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance (nPNA) (< 1.2 g/kg/day), lower weekly renal Kt/Vurea (< 0.2), and lower serum albumin level (≤ 4.0 g/dL) were associated with depression (P < 0.05). Among them, lower weekly renal Kt/Vurea was the only independent risk factor associated with depression (OR = 3.1, P = 0.007). Depressed patients showed significantly lower scores in every dimension of HRQOL (P < 0.001). Lower weekly renal Kt/Vurea (β = 0.24, P = 0.005) and lower nPNA (β = 0.15, P = 0.03) were the independent risk factors associated with lower kidney dialysis component summary, whereas lower plasma hemoglobin level was the consistent risk factor for lower physical component summary (β = 0.22, P = 0.03) and mental component summary (β = 0.22, P = 0.01). Depression is a prevalent psychological problem in PD population. Residual renal function is the most important factor associated with depression and impaired HRQOL in PD patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.1.64
PMCID: PMC3247777  PMID: 22219616
Peritoneal Dialysis; Depression; Health-Related Quality of Life; Residual Renal Function; Beck's Depression Inventory; KDQOL-SF
10.  Improvement in Erythropoieis-stimulating Agent-induced Pure Red-cell Aplasia by Introduction of Darbepoetin-α When the Anti-erythropoietin Antibody Titer Declines Spontaneously 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(11):1676-1679.
Anti-erythropoietin antibodies usually cross-react with all kinds of recombinant erythropoietins; therefore, erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA)-induced pure red-cell aplasia (PRCA) is not rescued by different ESAs. Here, we present a case of ESA-induced PRCA in a 36-yr-old woman with chronic kidney disease, whose anemic condition improved following reintroduction of darbepoetin-α. The patient developed progressive, severe anemia after the use of erythropoietin-α. As the anemia did not improve after the administration of either other erythropoietin-α products or erythropoietin-β, all ESAs were discontinued. Oxymetholone therapy failed to improve the transfusion-dependent anemia and a rechallenge with ESAs continuously failed to obtain a sustained response. However, her anemia improved following reintroduction of darbepoetin-α at 3 yr after the initial diagnosis. Interestingly, anti-erythropoietin antibodies were still detectable, although their concentration was too low for titration. In conclusion, darbepoetin-α can improve ESA-induced PRCA when the anti-erythropoietin antibody titer declines and its neutralizing capacity is lost.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.11.1676
PMCID: PMC2967010  PMID: 21060762
Red-Cell Aplasia, Pure; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Erythropoietin, Recombinant; Darbepoetin-alfa
11.  Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Piperacillin Administration in Patients Undergoing On-Line Hemodiafiltration▿  
The pharmacokinetic characteristics of piperacillin sodium were studied in five volunteers undergoing on-line hemodiafiltration (HDF). The subjects were given 2 g of piperacillin sodium intravenously over 1 min and placed on on-line HDF for 4 h starting at 60 min after the piperacillin infusion. Noncompartmental models were employed for estimation of the pharmacokinetic parameters, and intradialytic piperacillin clearance was calculated by the recovery method. The mean volume of distribution and the elimination half-life were 0.27 ± 0.13 liter/kg (mean ± standard deviation) and 1.1 ± 0.6 h, respectively. The total body clearance of piperacillin was 0.19 ± 0.08 liter/h/kg. Piperacillin clearance through on-line HDF was 0.11 ± 0.06 liter/h/kg. The mean serum piperacillin concentration was 4.0 ± 1.9 μg/ml at the end of the 4-h on-line HDF session. The concentration of infused piperacillin recovered in the dialysate was 527 ± 236 mg (26.3% ± 11.8%). We suggest the replacement of 500 mg of piperacillin after each on-line HDF session.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01670-08
PMCID: PMC2715588  PMID: 19451284

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