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author:("Kim, dejong")
2.  Predictive Value of Echocardiographic Parameters for Clinical Events in Patients Starting Hemodialysis 
Echocardiographic parameters can predict cardiovascular events in several clinical settings. However, which echocardiographic parameter is most predictive of each cardiovascular or non-cardiovascular event in patients starting hemodialysis remains unresolved. Echocardiography was used in 189 patients at the time of starting hemodialysis. We established primary outcomes as follows: cardiovascular events (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral artery disease, and acute heart failure), fatal non-cardiovascular events, all-cause mortality, and all combined events. The most predictable echocardiographic parameter was determined in the Cox hazard ratio model with a backward selection after the adjustment of multiple covariates. Among several echocardiographic parameters, the E/e' ratio and the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) were the strongest predictors of cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular events, respectively. After the adjustment of clinical and biochemical covariates, the predictability of E/e' remained consistent, but LVEDV did not. When clinical events were further analyzed, the significant echocardiographic parameters were as follows: s' for ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease, LVEDV and E/e' for acute heart failure, and E/e' for all-cause mortality and all combined events. However, no echocardiographic parameter independently predicted cerebrovascular disease or non-cardiovascular events. In conclusion, E/e', s', and LVEDV have independent predictive values for several cardiovascular and mortality events.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2015.30.1.44
PMCID: PMC4278026  PMID: 25552882
Heart Failure, Diastolic; Echocardiography; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Renal Dialysis; Morbidity; Mortality
3.  Effects of Sodium Citrate on Salt Sensitivity and Kidney Injury in Chronic Renal Failure 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(12):1658-1664.
Metabolic acidosis, which is observed in salt-sensitive hypertension, is also associated with kidney injury. Alkali therapy in chronic renal failure (CRF) may ameliorate the progression of kidney disease; however, few studies have examined the effects of alkali therapy on salt sensitivity and kidney injury in CRF. We randomly administered standard diet (SD), sodium chloride with 20% casein diet (NACL), or sodium citrate with 20% casein diet (NACT) to Sprague-Dawley rats after a CRF or a sham operation. Four weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, serum bicarbonate levels were higher in the NACT-treated group. On the pressure-natriuresis curve, NACT-treated CRF rats were more salt-resistant than NACL-treated CRF rats. Additionally, the NACT-treated CRF group showed less tubulointerstitial damage than the NACL-treated CRF group. The expression and immunoreactivity of NHE3 in the kidney in the NACT-treated CRF group were lower than those in the NACL-treated CRF group. We observed that dietary NACT as alkali therapy in CRF might improve the altered salt-sensitivity and ameliorate the progression of kidney injury compared to the NACL diet, which may be related to reduced renal NHE3 expression.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.12.1658
PMCID: PMC4248587  PMID: 25469066
Kidney Failure, Chronic; Citrates; Acidosis; Natriuresis
4.  Control of fluid balance guided by body composition monitoring in patients on peritoneal dialysis (COMPASS): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 
Trials  2014;15(1):432.
Background
The clinical benefits of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS)-guided fluid management in patients on hemodialysis have been widely demonstrated. However, no previous reports have evaluated the effect of regular and serial BIS-guided fluid management on the residual renal function (RRF) in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). Therefore, we will evaluate the clinical efficacy of BIS-guided fluid management for preserving RRF and protecting cardiovascular events in patients on PD.
Methods/design
This is a multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trial. A total of 138 participants on PD will be enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either BIS-guided fluid management or fluid management based only on the clinical information for 1 year. The primary outcome is the change in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) between months 0 and 12 after starting treatment. The secondary outcomes will include GFR at month 12, time to the anuric state (urine volume <100 ml/day), and fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events during treatment.
Discussion
This is the first clinical trial to investigate the effect of BIS-guided fluid management on RRF and for protecting against cardiovascular events in patients on PD.
Trial registration
Clinical Trials.gov number NCT01887262, June 24, 2013.
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-15-432
PMCID: PMC4233087  PMID: 25376940
Fluid balance; Bioimpedance spectroscopy; Peritoneal dialysis
5.  Urinary Sodium Excretion Has Positive Correlation with Activation of Urinary Renin Angiotensin System and Reactive Oxygen Species in Hypertensive Chronic Kidney Disease 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(Suppl 2):S123-S130.
It is not well described the pathophysiology of renal injuries caused by a high salt intake in humans. The authors analyzed the relationship between the 24-hr urine sodium-to-creatinine ratio (24HUna/cr) and renal injury parameters such as urine angiotensinogen (uAGT/cr), monocyte chemoattractant peptide-1 (uMCP1/cr), and malondialdehyde-to-creatinine ratio (uMDA/cr) by using the data derived from 226 hypertensive chronic kidney disease patients. At baseline, the 24HUna/cr group or levels had a positive correlation with uAGT/cr and uMDA/cr adjusted for related factors (P<0.001 for each analysis). When we estimated uAGT/cr in the 24HUna/cr groups by ANCOVA, the uAGT/cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr was higher than in patients with <100 mEq/g cr (708 [95% CI, 448-967] vs. 334 [95% CI, 184-483] pg/mg cr, P=0.014). Similarly, uMDA/cr was estimated as 0.17 (95% CI, 0.14-0.21) pM/mg cr in patients with <100 mEq/g cr and 0.27 (95% CI, 0.20-0.33) pM/mg cr in patients with ≥200 mEq/g cr (P=0.016). During the 16-week follow-up period, an increase in urinary sodium excretion predicted an increase in urinary angiotensinogen excretion. In conclusion, high salt intake increases renal renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) activation, primarily, and directly or indirectly affects the production of reactive oxygen species through renal RAS activation.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.S2.S123
PMCID: PMC4194282  PMID: 25317016
Chronic Renal Insufficiency; Sodium Chloride; Renin; Angiotensinogen
6.  Cobalt Chloride Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Inflammation through NF-κB Inhibition in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(Suppl 2):S139-S145.
We evaluated the effect of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) on TNF-α and IFN-γ-induced-inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2 cells). We treated HK-2 cells with CoCl2 before the administration of TNF-α/IFN-γ. To regulate hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression, the cells were treated CoCl2 or HO-1 siRNA. CoCl2 reduced the generation of ROS induced by TNF-α/IFN-γ. TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated-cells showed an increase in the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated NF-κBp65 protein, the DNA-binding activity of NF-κBp50 and NF-κB transcriptional activity and a decrease in IκBα protein expression. These changes were restored by CoCl2. We noted an intense increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) production in TNF-α/IFN-γ-treated cells. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated through NF-κB signaling because an NF-κB inhibitor significantly reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. CoCl2 effectively reduced MCP-1 and RANTES production. The expression of HO-1 was increased by CoCl2 and decreased by HO-1 siRNA. However, knockdown of HO-1 by RNA interference did not affect MCP-1 or RANTES production. We suggest that CoCl2 has a protective effect on TNF-α/IFN-γ-induced inflammation through the inhibition of NF-κB and ROS in HK-2 cells. However, CoCl2 appears to act in an HO-1-independent manner.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.S2.S139
PMCID: PMC4194284  PMID: 25317018
Cobalt Chloride; Hemeoxygenase-1; Inflammation; Nuclear Factor-kappa B; Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells
7.  Bilirubin Activates Transcription of HIF-1α in Human Proximal Tubular Cells Cultured in the Physiologic Oxygen Content 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(Suppl 2):S146-S154.
The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is influenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Effect of bilirubin on HIF-1 expression in proximal tubular cells was investigated under physiological oxygen concentration, which is relative hypoxic condition mimicking oxygen content in the medulla of renal tissue. The human kidney (HK2) cells were cultured in 5% oxygen with or without bilirubin. HIF-1α protein expression was increased by bilirubin treatment at 0.01-0.2 mg/dL concentration. The messenger RNA expression of HIF-1α was increased by 1.69±0.05 folds in the cells cultured with 0.1 mg/dL bilirubin, compared to the control cells. The inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR, PI3K/AKT, and ERK 1/2 pathways did not attenuate increased HIF-1α expression by bilirubin. HIF-1α expression decreased by 10 µM exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); scavenger of ROS with or without bilirubin in the HK2 cells increased HIF-1α concentration more than that in the cells without bilirubin. Exogenous H2O2 decreased the phosphorylation of P70S6 kinase, which was completely reversed by bilirubin treatment. Knockdown of NOX4 gene by small interfering RNA (siRNA) increased HIF-1α mRNA expression. In coonclusion, bilirubin enhances HIF-1α transcription as well as the up-regulation of HIF-1α protein translation through the attenuation of ROS and subunits of NADPH oxidase.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.S2.S146
PMCID: PMC4194285  PMID: 25317019
Proximal Tubular Cell; Bilirubin; HIF-1; ROS
8.  Effect of Bilirubin on Triglyceride Synthesis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Nephropathy 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(Suppl 2):S155-S163.
We aimed to elucidate the effect of bilirubin on dyslipidemia and nephropathy in a diabetes mellitus (DM) type I animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into control, DM, and bilirubin-treated DM (Bil) groups. The Bil group was injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg bilirubin 3 times per week and hepatoma cells were cultured with bilirubin at a concentration of 0.3 mg/dL. The Bil group showed lower serum creatinine levels 5 weeks after diabetes onset. Bilirubin treatment also decreased the amount of mesangial matrix, lowered the expression of renal collagen IV and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and reduced the level of apoptosis in the kidney, compared to the DM group. These changes were accompanied by decreased tissue levels of hydrogen superoxide and NADPH oxidase subunit proteins. Bilirubin decreased serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TGs), as well as the TG content in the liver tissues. Bilirubin suppressed protein expression of LXRα, SREBP-1, SCD-1, and FAS, factors involved in TG synthesis that were elevated in the livers of DM rats and hepatoma cells under high-glucose conditions. In conclusion, bilirubin attenuates renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia in diabetes by suppressing LXRα and SREBP-1 expression and oxidative stress.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.S2.S155
PMCID: PMC4194286  PMID: 25317020
Bilirubin; Diabetes-Related Complications; Triglyceride; Fibrosis; Transforming Growth Factor beta
9.  The Clinical Association of the Blood Pressure Variability with the Target Organ Damage in Hypertensive Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(7):957-964.
It is known that blood pressure variability (BPV) can independently affect target organ damage (TOD), even with normal blood pressure. There have been few studieson chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We evaluated the relationship between BPV and TOD in a cross-sectional, multicenter study on hypertensive CKD patients. We evaluated 1,173 patients using 24-hr ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. BPV was defined as the average real variability, with a mean value of the absolute differences between consecutive readings of systolic blood pressure. TOD was defined as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (by the Romhilt-Estes score ≥4 in electrocardiography) and kidney injury (as determined from an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]<30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and proteinuria).The mean BPV of the subjects was 15.9±4.63 mmHg. BPV displayed a positive relationship with LVH in a univariate analysis and after adjustment for multi-variables (odds ratio per 1 mmHg increase in BPV: 1.053, P=0.006). In contrast, BPV had no relationship with kidney injury. These data suggest that BPV may be positively associated with LVH in hypertensive CKD patients.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.7.957
PMCID: PMC4101784  PMID: 25045228
Blood Pressure Variability; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Hypertension; Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular; Target Organ Damage
10.  Proteinuria and hematuria are associated with acute kidney injury and mortality in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:93.
Background
Proteinuria and hematuria are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between these findings and acute kidney injury (AKI) or mortality remains unresolved in critically ill patients.
Methods
Proteinuria and hematuria were measured by a dipstick test and scored using a scale ranging from a negative result to 3+ in 1883 patients admitted to the intensive care unit. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. The odds ratios (ORs) for AKI and 3-year mortality were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates according to the degree of proteinuria or hematuria. For evaluating the synergistic effect on mortality among proteinuria, hematuria, and AKI, the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) was used.
Results
Proteinuria and hematuria increased the ORs for AKI: the ORs of proteinuria were 1.66 (+/−), 1.86 (1+), 2.18 (2+), and 4.74 (3+) compared with non-proteinuria; the ORs of hematuria were 1.31 (+/−), 1.58 (1+), 2.63 (2+), and 2.52 (3+) compared with non-hematuria. The correlations between the mortality risk and proteinuria or hematuria were all significant and graded (Ptrend < 0.001). There was a relative excess risk of mortality when both AKI and proteinuria or hematuria were considered together: the synergy indexes were 1.30 and 1.23 for proteinuria and hematuria, respectively.
Conclusions
Proteinuria and hematuria are associated with the risks of AKI and mortality in critically ill patients. Additionally, these findings had a synergistic effect with AKI on mortality.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-93
PMCID: PMC4072664  PMID: 24942179
Acute kidney injury; Hematuria; Intensive care unit; Mortality; Proteinuria
11.  Alkali Therapy Attenuates the Progression of Kidney Injury via Na/H Exchanger Inhibition in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(5):691-698.
Metabolic acidosis is a cause of renal disease progression, and alkali therapy ameliorates its progression. However, there are few reports on the role of renal acid-base transporters during alkali therapy. We evaluated the effect of sodium bicarbonate therapy and the role of acid-base transporters on renal disease progression in rats with a remnant kidney. Sprague-Dawley rats consumed dietary sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or sodium chloride (NaCl) with 20% casein after a 5/6 nephrectomy. After being provided with a casein diet, the NaHCO3-treated group had higher levels of serum bicarbonate than the control group. At week 4, the glomerular filtration rate in the NaHCO3 group was higher than that in the NaCl group, and the difference became prominent at week 10. The glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage indices in the NaHCO3 group were less severe compared with controls at week 4 and 10. The expression of the Na/H exchanger (NHE) was decreased, and apical reactivity was decreased in the NaHCO3 group, compared with the NaCl group. Endothelin-1 levels in the kidney were also decreased in the NaHCO3 group. Dietary sodium bicarbonate has the effects of ameliorating renal disease progression, which may be related to the altered expression of NHE in the remaining kidney.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.5.691
PMCID: PMC4024946  PMID: 24851027
Sodium Bicarbonate; Acidosis; Kidney Failure, Chronic
12.  Glomerular Filtration Rate and Proteinuria: Association with Mortality and Renal Progression in a Prospective Cohort of a Community-Based Elderly Population 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(4):e94120.
Limited prospective data are available on the importance of estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and proteinuria in the prediction of all-cause mortality (ACM) in community-based elderly populations. We examined the relationship between GFR or proteinuria and ACM in 949 randomly selected community-dwelling elderly subjects (aged ≥65 years) over a 5-year period. A spot urine sample was used to measure proteinuria by the dipstick test, and GFR was estimated using the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Information about mortality and causes of death was collected by direct enquiry with the subjects and from the national mortality data. Compared to subjects without proteinuria, those with proteinuria of grade ≥1+ had a 1.725-fold (1.134–2.625) higher risk of ACM. Compared to subjects with GFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2, those with GFR<45 ml/min/1.73 m2 had a 2.357 -fold (1.170–4.750) higher risk for ACM. Among the 403 subjects included in the analysis of renal progression, the annual rate of GFR change during follow-up period was −0.52±2.35 ml/min/1.73 m2/year. The renal progression rate was 7.315-fold (1.841–29.071) higher in subjects with GFR<60 ml/min/1.73 m2 than in those with GFR ≥60 ml/min/1.73 m2. Among a community-dwelling elderly Korean population, decreased GFR of <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 and proteinuria were independent risk factors for ACM.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0094120
PMCID: PMC3978007  PMID: 24709896
13.  Dose selection method for pharmacokinetic study in hemodialysis patients using a subpharmacological dose: oseltamivir as a model drug 
BMC Nephrology  2014;15:46.
Background
Dose selection is an important step in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of hemodialysis patients. We propose a simulation-based dose-selection method for PK studies of hemodialysis patients using a subpharmacological dose of oseltamivir as a model drug.
Methods
The concentrations of oseltamivir and its active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To determine a low oseltamivir dose exhibiting PK linearity, a pilot low dose determination investigation (n = 4) was performed using a single administration dose-escalation study. After the dose was determined, a low dose study (n = 10) was performed, and the optimal dose required to reach the hypothetical target OC exposure (area under the concentration-time curve [AUC] of 60,000 ng · hr/mL) was simulated using a nonparametric superposition method. Finally, observed PKs at the optimal dose were compared to the simulated PKs to verify PK predictability.
Results
In the pilot low dose determination study, 2.5 mg of oseltamivir was determined to be the low dose. Subsequently, we performed a single-dose PK study with the low oseltamivir dose in an additional group of 10 hemodialysis patients. The predicted AUClast of OC following continuous oseltamivir doses was simulated, and 35 mg of oseltamivir corresponded to the hypothetical target AUClast of OC. The observed PK profiles of OC at a 35-mg oseltamivir dose and the simulated data based on the low dose study were in close alignment.
Conclusion
The results indicate that the proposed method provides a rational approach to determine the proper PK dose in hemodialysis patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-46
PMCID: PMC3995549  PMID: 24636040
Hemodialysis; Pharmacokinetics; Drug; Dosage
14.  Relationship between Changes in Body Fat and a Decline of Renal Function in the Elderly 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e84052.
Obesity is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease, and its prevalence among the elderly is increasing. We investigated the effects of changes in body fat percentage (BFP) on the longitudinal changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in the elderly. This prospective cohort study included 390 participants aged >65 years who underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and follow-up as a part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. After a median follow-up period of 5.3 years, BFP was significantly higher than that at the start point (P<0.05). Participants who had the largest increase in BFP had the highest BMI and waist circumference (WC) (P<0.001). The highest tertile had the highest white blood cell count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, incidence of rapid progression, and decline in eGFR >25% (P≤0.017, P = 0.025, P = 0.005, respectively). The lowest tertile had the lowest triglyceride and highest high-density lipoprotein levels (P<0.05). The adjusted decline rate in eGFR was correlated with a change in BFP (P = 0.039), but not with that in BMI or WC. The highest tertile had a 4.875-fold increase in the risk for rapid progression to a decline in eGFR (95% CI: 1.366–17.397) and a 4.931-fold decrease in the risk to a decline in eGFR>25% (95% CI: 1.617–15.037), when compared with the lowest tertile. In subgroup analysis, the incidence of renal outcomes was significantly increased according to the increase in BFP in patients with lower eGFR (P≤0.010). A change in BFP may be associated with inflammation and dyslipidemia development, and longitudinal changes in body fat are related to a decrease in eGFR in the elderly.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084052
PMCID: PMC3894176  PMID: 24454716
15.  Correction of Anemia with Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator in Korean Patients on Long-Term Hemodialysis 
Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA) is an erythropoietin with a long-half life. This study investigated the efficacy of CERA for correcting anemia in Korean patients on dialysis. Patients (≥18 yr) who were not receiving any ESAs for more than 8 weeks were randomly assigned to either intravenous CERA once every 2 weeks (n=39) or epoetin beta thrice-weekly (n=41) during a 24-week correction phase. Hemoglobin (Hb) response was defined as increase of Hb by at least 1 g/dL and Hb≥11 g/dL without red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Median dialysis duration was 1.7 (0.3-20.8) and 1.6 (0.4-13.8) yr in CERA and epoetin beta group, respectively. Hemoglobin response rate of CERA was 79.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.5-90.7). As the lower limit of 95% CI was higher than pre-specified 60% response rate, it can be concluded that CERA corrected anemia (P<0.05). Hb response rate of epoetin beta was 87.8% (95% CI, 73.8-95.9) (P=0.37). Median time to response was 12 weeks in CERA and 10.3 weeks in epoetin beta (P=0.03). It is suggested that once every 2 weeks administration of CERA is effective for correcting anemia in Korean patients on long-term hemodialysis with longer time-to-response than thrice weekly epoetin beta. (ClinicalTrials.gov registry No. NCT00546481)
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.1.76
PMCID: PMC3890480  PMID: 24431909
Anemia Correction; Continuous Erythropoietin Receptor Activator; Kidney Failure, Chronic; Renal Dialysis
16.  Incident Chronic Kidney Disease and Newly Developed Complications Related to Renal Dysfunction in an Elderly Population during 5 Years: A Community-Based Elderly Population Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e84467.
Background
Few studies have evaluated the association between incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) and related complications, especially in elderly population. We attempted to verify the association between GFR and concurrent CKD complications and elucidate the temporal relationship between incident CKD and new CKD complications in a community-based prospective elderly cohort.
Method
We analyzed the available data from 984 participants in the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging. Participants were categorized into 6 groups according to eGFR at baseline examination (≥90, 75–89, 60–74, 45–59, 30–44, and <30 ml/min/1.73 m2).
Result
The mean age of study population was 76 ± 9.1 years and mean eGFR was 72.3 ± 17.0 ml/min/1.73 m2. Compared to eGFR group 1, the odds ratio (OR) for hypertension was 2.363 (95% CI, 1.299-4.298) in group 4, 5.191 (2.074-12.995) in group 5, and 13.675 (1.611-115.806) in group 6; for anemia, 7.842 (2.265-27.153) in group 5 and 13.019 (2.920-58.047) in group 6; for acidosis, 69.580 (6.770-715.147) in group 6; and for hyperkalemia, 19.177 (1.798-204.474) in group 6. Over a 5-year observational period, CKD developed in 34 (9.6%) among 354 participants with GFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 at basal examination. The estimated mean number of new complications according to analysis of co-variance was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.35–0.68) in subjects with incident CKD and 0.24 (0.19–0.29) in subjects without CKD (p = 0.002). Subjects with incident CKD had a 2.792-fold higher risk of developing new CKD complications. A GFR level of 52.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 (p = 0.032) predicted the development of a new CKD complication with a 90% sensitivity.
Conclusion
In an elderly prospective cohort, CKD diagnosed by current criteria is related to an increase in the number of concurrent CKD complications and the development of new CKD complications.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084467
PMCID: PMC3867482  PMID: 24367663
17.  Non-Linear Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Hemoglobin in Korean Females: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2011 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e72605.
Background
Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are both important health issues; however, the nature of the association between vitamin D and either hemoglobin or anemia remains unresolved in the general population.
Methods
Data on 11,206 adults were obtained from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey. A generalized additive model was used to examine the threshold level for relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and hemoglobin levels. A multivariate logistic regression for anemia was conducted according to 25(OH)D quintiles. All analyses were stratified according to sex and menstrual status.
Results
The generalized additive model confirmed a threshold 25(OH)D level of 26.4 ng/mL (male, 27.4 ng/mL; premenopausal females, 11.8 ng/mL; postmenopausal females, 13.4 ng/mL). The threshold level affected the pattern of association between 25(OH)D and anemia risk: the odds ratio of the 1st quintile but not the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th quintiles were significantly different from the 5th quintile in both premenopausal and postmenopausal females, however there was no obvious trend in males.
Conclusions
This population-based study demonstrated a non-linear relationship with a threshold effect between serum 25(OH)D and hemoglobin levels in females. Further interventional studies are warranted to determine whether the appropriate level of hemoglobin can be achieved by the correction of vitamin D deficiency.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072605
PMCID: PMC3755993  PMID: 24015265
18.  Small Increases in Plasma Sodium Are Associated with Higher Risk of Mortality in a Healthy Population 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(7):1034-1040.
Elevated blood pressure (BP) is the most common cause of cardiovascular disease. Salt intake has a strong influence on BP, and plasma sodium (pNa) is increased with progressive increases in salt intake. However, the associations with pNa and BP had been reported inconsistently. We evaluated the association between pNa and BP, and estimated the risks of all-cause-mortality according to pNa levels. On the basis of data collected from health checkups during 1995-2009, 97,009 adult subjects were included. Positive correlations between pNa and systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure (PP) were noted in participants with pNa ≥138 mM/L (P<0.001). In participants aged ≥50 yr, SBP, DBP, and PP were positively associated with pNa. In participants with metabolic syndrome components, the differences in SBP and DBP according to pNa were greater (P<0.001). A cumulative incidence of mortality was increased with increasing pNa in women aged ≥50 yr during the median 4.2-yr-follow-up (P<0.001). In women, unadjusted risks for mortality were increased according to sodium levels. After adjustment, pNa ≥145 mM/L was related to mortality. The positive correlation between pNa and BP is stronger in older subjects, women, and subjects with metabolic syndrome components. The incidence and adjusted risks of mortality increase with increasing pNa in women aged ≥50 yr.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.7.1034
PMCID: PMC3708074  PMID: 23853486
Age; Blood Pressure; Mortality; Plasma Sodium; Sex Characteristics
19.  Duration of acute kidney injury and mortality in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:133.
Background
The addition of relevant parameters to acute kidney injury (AKI) criteria might allow better prediction of patient mortality than AKI criteria alone. Here, we evaluated whether inclusion of AKI duration could address this issue.
Methods
AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines in 2,143 critically ill patients, within 15 days of patient admission. AKI cases were categorized according to tertiles of AKI duration: 1st tertile, 1–2 days; 2nd tertile, 3–5 days; and 3rd tertile, ≥6 days. The hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival rates in three groups were calculated after adjustment for multiple covariates compared with ICU patients without AKI as the reference group. The predictive ability for mortality was assessed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic curve.
Results
AKI increased the HRs for overall mortality, and the mortality rate increased with AKI duration: the adjusted HRs were 1.99 (1st tertile), 2.67 (2nd tertile), and 2.85 (3rd tertile) compared with the non-AKI group (all Ps < 0.001). The AUC of the ROC curve for overall mortality based on the AKI duration groups (0.716) was higher than the AUC of AKI staging using the KDIGO guidelines (0.696) (P = 0.001). When considering KDIGO stage and AKI duration together, the AUC (0.717) was also significantly higher than that using the KDIGO stage alone (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
AKI duration is an additional parameter for the prediction of mortality in critically ill patients. The inclusion of AKI duration could be considered as a refinement of the AKI criteria.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-133
PMCID: PMC3697999  PMID: 23802916
Acute kidney injury; Acute renal failure; Duration; Mortality; Survival
20.  Bilirubin attenuates the renal tubular injury by inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:105.
Background
Bilirubin (BIL) has been recognized as an endogenous antioxidant that shows a protective effect for cardiorenal diseases. We investigated whether administration of BIL had a protective effect on cyclosporine (CsA)-induced nephropathy (CIN), and examined the effects of BIL on the oxidative stress and apoptosis.
Methods
BIL was pretreated intraperitoneally three times for a week (60 mg/kg), and CsA was injected for 4 weeks (15 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous). Proximal tubular epithelial (HK2) cells were pretreated with 0.1mg/ml of BIL for 24 hours, and then treated with 20 μM of CsA for another 24 hours.
Results
CsA induced marked increases in urine kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) concentrations (P < 0.05). BIL reduced urine Kim-1 in CIN (P < 0.05), while urine NGAL exhibited a decreasing tendency. In CsA-treated rat kidneys, the protein expression of NOX4 and p22phox was reduced by BIL (P < 0.05). BIL ameliorated CsA-induced arteriolopathy, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubular injury, and the apoptosis examined by TUNEL assay (P < 0.01). In HK2 cells, BIL reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species in CsA-treated cells. CsA increased the protein expression of bax, cleaved caspase-9, caspase-3 and the activity of caspase-3; however, the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 protein was reduced. These changes were recovered by BIL (P < 0.05).
Conclusions
The direct administration of BIL protected against CsA-induced tubular injury via inhibition of oxidative stress and apoptosis.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-105
PMCID: PMC3681641  PMID: 23683031
Apoptosis; Bilirubin; Cyclosporine; Oxidative stress; Renal injury
21.  Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor attenuates kidney injury in rat remnant kidney 
BMC Nephrology  2013;14:98.
Background
The inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV shows protective effects on tissue injury of the heart, lung, and kidney. Forkhead box O (FoxO) transcriptional factors regulate cellular differentiation, growth, survival, the cell cycle, metabolism, and oxidative stress. The aims of this study were to investigate whether the DPP IV inhibitor sitagliptin could attenuate kidney injury and to evaluate the status of FoxO3a signaling in the rat remnant kidney model.
Methods
Rats were received two-step surgery of 5/6 renal mass reduction and fed on an oral dose of 200 mg/kg/day sitagliptin for 8 weeks. Before and after the administration of sitagliptin, physiologic parameters were measured. After 8 weeks of treatment, the kidneys were harvested.
Results
The sitagliptin treatment attenuated renal dysfunction. A histological evaluation revealed that glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial injury were significantly decreased by sitagliptin. Sitagliptin decreased DPP IV activity and increased the renal expression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R). The subtotal nephrectomy led to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt and FoxO3a phosphorylation, whereas sitagliptin treatment reversed these changes, resulting in PI3K-Akt pathway inactivation and FoxO3a dephosphorylation. The renal expression of catalase was increased and the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was decreased by sitagliptin. Sitagliptin treatment reduced apoptosis by decreasing cleaved caspase-3 and −9 and Bax levels and decreased macrophage infiltration.
Conclusions
In rat remnant kidneys, DPP IV inhibitor attenuated renal dysfunction and structural damage. A reduction of apoptosis, inflammation and an increase of antioxidant could be suggested as a renoprotective mechanism together with the activation of FoxO3a signaling. Therefore, DPP IV inhibitors might provide a promising approach for treating CKD, but their application in clinical practice remains to be investigated.
doi:10.1186/1471-2369-14-98
PMCID: PMC3648384  PMID: 23621921
Dipeptidyl peptidase IV; Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor; FoxO3a; Sitagliptin; Kidney injury
22.  The Occurrence of Warfarin-Related Nephropathy and Effects on Renal and Patient Outcomes in Korean Patients 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e57661.
Background
Warfarin-related nephropathy (WRN) is a recently described disease entity, in which excessive warfarinization (international normalized ratio (INR) >3.0) causes acute kidney injury. Previous reports regarding WRN included few Asian patients who might have differed from the western WRN patients in terms of genetic and environmental factors.
Methods
During the period of March 2003 to December 2011, the data about a total of 1297 patients who had serum creatinine (sCr) level measured within 1 week after INR >3.0 and within 6 months before INR >3.0 was analyzed through the retrospective review of electronic medical records of a single tertiary hospital in Korea.
Result
WRN developed in 19.3% of patients having excessive warfarinization. The incidence was higher in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) group than the non-CKD group. The risk of WRN increased as the basal serum albumin level decreased and was strongly associated with highest quartile serum AST level at post INR elevation and the presence of congestive heart failure. But the presence of atrial fibrillation was protective against the development of WRN. Neither the presence of CKD nor basal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was an independent risk factor for WRN. Despite no difference in the basal sCr level, the sCr level was higher in patients with WRN than those without WRN after follow-up. The mortality rates were also higher in patients with WRN.
Conclusions
WRN developed in 19.3% of patients having excessive warfarinization. A lower basal serum albumin, highest quartile serum AST level at post INR elevation, and congestive heart failure were associated with the occurrence of WRN. The development of WRN adversely affected renal and patient outcomes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057661
PMCID: PMC3613349  PMID: 23560034
23.  Potassium Intake and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2010 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e55106.
Lower potassium intake is considered to be correlated with diabetes incidence. However, few studies have investigated the effect of potassium intake on metabolic syndrome (MetS). Data was taken from the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008–2010) using weighted adjustment. MetS was defined as per the revised National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Homeostasis model assessment indices were calculated to diagnosis insulin resistance (IR). A total of 16,637 participants (44±0.25 years) were included. Women ingested lower amounts of potassium (2.71±0.02 g/day) than men (3.45±0.03 g/day). A curvilinear association between potassium intake and MetS prevalence was found among women. Women with less than the Adequate Intake (4.7 g/day) of potassium had an 11% risk reduction for MetS (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82–0.96; P = 0.004) and a 10% risk reduction for IR (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82–0.99; P = 0.026) for every 1 g/day potassium increase. Compared with the reference group (3.5–4.5 g/day), potassium intake was inversely associated with an increased risk of MetS (1.5–2.5 g/day; OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.02–1.63; P = 0.035; <1.5 g/day; OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.06–1.85; P = 0.017) and IR (<1.5 g/day; OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05–1.76; P = 0.021). This relationship was more prominent in postmenopausal women, but not observed among men. Higher potassium intake is significantly associated with a lower MetS prevalence in women, and IR is believed to be connected.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055106
PMCID: PMC3555937  PMID: 23372822
24.  Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Activation Protects the Kidney from Gentamicin-Induced Acute Injury 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e48952.
Gentamicin nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of acute kidney injury (AKI). Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is effective in protecting the kidney from ischemic and toxic injury. Increased expression of HIF-1α mRNA has been reported in rats with gentamicin-induced renal injury. We hypothesizd that we could study the role of HIF in gentamicin-induced AKI by modulating HIF activity. In this study, we investigated whether HIF activation had protective effects on gentamicin-induced renal tubule cell injury. Gentamicin-induced AKI was established in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Cobalt was continuously infused into the rats to activate HIF. HK-2 cells were pre-treated with cobalt or dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) to activate HIF and were then exposed to gentamicin. Cobalt or DMOG significantly increased HIF-1α expression in rat kidneys and HK-2 cells. In HK-2 cells, HIF inhibited gentamicin-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HIF also protected these cells from apoptosis by reducing caspase-3 activity and the amount of cleaved caspase-3, and -9 proteins. Increased expression of HIF-1α reduced the number of gentamicin-induced apoptotic cells in rat kidneys and HK-2 cells. HIF activation improved the creatinine clearance and proteinuria in gentamicin-induced AKI. HIF activation also ameliorated the extent of histologic injury and reduced macrophage infiltration into the tubulointerstitium. In gentamicin-induced AKI, the activation of HIF by cobalt or DMOG attenuated renal dysfunction, proteinuria, and structural damage through a reduction of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048952
PMCID: PMC3493596  PMID: 23145036
25.  Early Start of Dialysis Has No Survival Benefit in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(10):1177-1181.
The timing for dialysis initiationis still debated. The aim of this study was to compare mortality rates, using a propensity-score approach, in dialysis patients with early or late starts. From January 2000 to June 2009, incident adult patients (n = 836) starting dialysis for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were enrolled. The patients were assigned to either an early- or late-start group depending on the initiation time of the dialysis. After propensity-score-basedmatching, 450 patients remained. At the initiation of dialysis, the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 11.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the early-start group compared with 6.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 in the late-start group. There were no significant differences in survival between the patients in the early- and late-start groups (Log rank tests P = 0.172). A higher overall mortality risk was observed in the early-start group than in the late-start group for the patients aged ≥ 70 yr (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.29; P = 0.048) and/or who had albumin levels ≥ 3.5 g/dL (HR: 2.53; P = 0.046). The survival of the ESRD patients was comparable between the patients in the early and late-start groups. The time to initiate dialysis should be determined based on clinical findings as well as the eGFR.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2012.27.10.1177
PMCID: PMC3468753  PMID: 23091314
End Stage Renal Disease; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Renal Dialysis; Mortality; Peritoneal Dialysis

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