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1.  Prognostic factors in patients with node-negative gastric carcinoma: A comparison with node-positive gastric carcinoma 
AIM: To identify the clinicopathological characteristics of lymph node-negative gastric carcinoma, and also to evaluate outcome indicators in the lymph node-negative patients.
METHODS: Of 2848 gastric carcinoma patients, 1524 (53.5%) were lymph node-negative. A statistical analysis was performed using the Cox model to estimate outcome indicators.
RESULTS: There was a significant difference in the recurrence rate between lymph node-negative and lymph node-positive patients (14.4% vs 41.0%, P < 0.001). The 5-year survival rate was significantly lower in lymph node-positive than in lymph node-negative patients (31.1% vs 77.4%, P < 0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that the following factors influenced the 5-year survival rate: patient age, tumor size, depth of invasion, tumor location, operative type, and tumor stage at initial diagnosis. The Cox proportional hazard regression model revealed that tumor size, serosal invasion, and curability were independent, statistically significant, prognostic indicators of lymph node-negative gastric carcinoma.
CONCLUSION: Lymph node-negative patients have a favorable outcome attributable to high curability, but the patients with relatively large tumors and serosal invasion have a poor prognosis. Curability is one of the most reliable predictors of long-term survival for lymph node-negative gastric carcinoma patients.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i8.1182
PMCID: PMC4124426  PMID: 16534868
Gastric carcinoma; Survival; Tumor size; Serosal invasion; Curability
2.  Prognosis of early mucinous gastric carcinoma 
Purpose
Little is known about the clinicopathological features of early mucinous gastric carcinoma (MGC). The purpose of this study was to compare the clinicopathological features and prognosis between patients with early MGC and those with early nonmucinous gastric carcinoma (NMGC).
Methods
We reviewed the records of 2,732 patients diagnosed with gastric carcinoma who were treated surgically. There were 14 patients (0.5%) with early MGC and 958 with early NMGC.
Results
Early MGC patients had a higher prevalence of elevated type (71.4%) compared with early NMGC patients (29.5%). More early MGC patients had submucosal carcinoma, compared with early NMGC patients (78.6% vs. 64.1%). The overall 5-year survival of the patients with early MGC was 97.2% as compared with 92.7% for the patients with early NMGC (P < 0.01). The statistically significant prognostic parameters influencing the 5-year survival rate according to Cox's proportional hazard regression model were: age (risk ratio, 2.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62-3.04; P < 0.01); sex (risk ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.42-2.73; P < 0.01); and lymph node metastases (risk ratio, 1.88; 95% CI, 1.28-2.77; P < 0.01).
Conclusion
Patients with early MGC had a better prognosis than those with early NMGC. Mucinous histology itself appears not to be an independent prognostic factor. Therefore, early detection is important for improving the prognosis for patients with gastric carcinoma regardless of tumor histology.
doi:10.4174/astr.2014.87.1.5
PMCID: PMC4091442  PMID: 25025020
Gastric neoplasm; Mucinous; Prognosis; Tumor histology
3.  Clinicopathologic characteristics of gastric carcinoma in elderly patients: A comparison with young patients 
AIM: To examine the clinicopathologic features of elderly patients with gastric carcinoma and to investigate the relationship between prognosis and age.
METHODS: We reviewed the hospital records of 2014 patients with gastric carcinoma retrospectively to compare the clinicopathologic findings in elderly (age >70 years) and young (age <36 years) patients during the period from 1986 to 2000 in a tertiary referral center in Gwangju, Korea. Overall survival was the main outcome measure.
RESULTS: Of the 2014 patients, 194 (9.6%) were in the elderly group and 137 (6.8%) were in the young group. The elderly and young patients had similar distributions with respect to depth of invasion, nodal involvement, hepatic metastasis, peritoneal dissemination, tumor stage at the initial diagnosis, and type of surgery. Synchronous multiple carcinomas were found in 14/194 (7.2%) of the elderly group and 4/137 (2.9%) of the young group (P<0.05). Using the Borrmann classification, type IV was more frequent in the young patients than in the elderly patients (P<0.05). Significantly more elderly patients had a well or moderately differentiated histology, and more young patients had a poorly differentiated histology and signet ring cell carcinoma (P<0.001). The 5-year survival rates of elderly and young patients did not differ statistically (52.8% vs 46.5%, P = 0.5290). Multivariate analysis showed that the histologic type, nodal involvement and operative curability were significant prognostic factors, and age itself was not an independent prognostic factor of survival for elderly gastric carcinoma patients.
CONCLUSION: Elderly patients with gastric carcinoma do not have a worse prognosis than young patients. The important prognostic factor is whether the patients undergo a curative resection.
doi:10.3748/wjg.v11.i1.22
PMCID: PMC4205377  PMID: 15609390
Gastric carcinomas; Prognosis; Age; Surgery
4.  Preoperative predictors of malignant gastric submucosal tumor 
Purpose
The preoperative prediction of malignant potential in patients with gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) plays an important role in decisions regarding their surgical management.
Methods
We evaluated the predictors of malignant gastric SMTs in 314 patients with gastric SMTs who underwent surgery in Chonnam National University Hospital.
Results
The malignant SMTs were significantly associated with age (odds ratio [OR], 1.067; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.042 to 1.091; P < 0.0001), presence of central ulceration (OR, 2.690; 95% CI, 1.224 to 5.909; P = 0.014), and tumor size (OR, 1.791; 95% CI, 1.483 to 2.164; P < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that tumor size was a good predictor of malignant potential. The most relevant predictor of malignant gastric SMT was tumor size with cut-offs of 4.05 and 6.40 cm.
Conclusion
Our findings indicated that age, central ulceration, and tumor size were significant preoperative predictors of malignant SMTs. We suggest that 4 cm be selected as a threshold value for malignant gastric SMTs. In patients with a gastric SMT larger than 4 cm with ulceration, wide resection of the full thickness of the gastric wall or gastrectomy with adequate margins should be performed because of its malignant potential.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.83.2.83
PMCID: PMC3412188  PMID: 22880181
Stomach neoplasms; Submucosal tumor; Malignant factor; Preoperative predictor
5.  Clinicopathological Features of Female Gastric Carcinoma Patients with Curative Resection: Comparison with Male Patients 
Chonnam Medical Journal  2012;48(2):86-90.
Little is known about the clinicopathological features of female gastric carcinoma (FGC) patients. We compared the clinicopathologic features and outcomes of FGC patients with curative resection with those of male gastric carcinoma (MGC) patients. We reviewed the hospital records of 940 FGC patients between 1986 and 2005 at Chonnam National University Hospital. Multivariate analysis showed that presence of serosal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and operative type were significant prognostic factors for survival of FGC patients with curative resection. Furthermore, the overall 5-year survival rate of FGC patients with curative resection (53.4%) was higher than that of MGC patients (47.6%, p<0.05). In advanced cases, no significant difference was observed in the overall 5-year survival rate between the FGC and MGC patients (41.6% vs 37.4%, p>0.05). Therefore, serosal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and type of operation were statistically significant parameters associated with survival. Early detection is more important for improving the prognosis of female patients with gastric cancer than for male patients.
doi:10.4068/cmj.2012.48.2.86
PMCID: PMC3434796  PMID: 22977748
Female gastric carcinoma; Prognosis; Early detection of cancer
6.  Recurring gastrointestinal stromal tumor with splenic metastasis 
Journal of the Korean Surgical Society  2011;81(Suppl 1):S25-S29.
Malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are rare non-epithelial, mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract that metastasize or recur in 30% of patients who undergo surgical resection with curative intent. A 59-year-old man visited our hospital for an examination of a palpable mass in the left abdomen. Fourteen months prior to his visit, the patient underwent gastric wedge resection to remove a GIST of the gastric cardia. At the time of surgery, no evidence of metastatic disease was observed and the pathological interpretation was a high-risk GIST. A follow-up computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a partially necrotic solid mass (9.8 × 7.6 cm) and enhancing mass in the spleen (2.3 cm). On exploration, multiple masses were found in the liver, greater omentum, and mesentery. Here, we report a case of recurring GIST of the stomach that metastasized to the spleen. To the best of our knowledge, few reports of metastasis to the spleen exist.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.Suppl1.S25
PMCID: PMC3267060  PMID: 22319733
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors; Neoplasm metastasis; Spleen
7.  Inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients 
Purpose
To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes after inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 636 adult patients who underwent mesh plug inguinal hernia repair performed by one surgeon from November 2001 to January 2009.The clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of the patients were analyzed. According to the body mass index, patients higher than 23 were defined as overweight and obese patient group (O group) and patients between 18.5 and 23 were defined as normal weight patient group (N group). Seventeen underweight patients were excluded in this study.
Results
Of 619 cases, the number for O group was 344 (55.6%) and for N group was 275 (44.4%). The mean age was significantly higher in N group (62.2 ± 12.6 vs. 64.4 ± 14.8, P = 0.048). Underlying diseases were present in 226 (65.7%) of the O group and 191 (69.5%) of the N group (P = 0.322). Anesthesia method, operative time and postoperative hospital stay had no significant difference between the two groups. Postoperative complications developed in 41 (11.9%) of the O group and in 28 (10.2%) of the N group, respectively, and no major complications developed in either group.
Conclusion
Adult inguinal hernias developed at a relatively younger age in overweight and obese patients than in normal weight patients. There were no specific differences in other clinical characteristics and outcomes between the two groups. Therefore inguinal hernia repair in overweight and obese patients is a safe procedure as in normal weight patients.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.3.205
PMCID: PMC3204546  PMID: 22066122
Inguinal hernia; Overweight; Obese
8.  Clinicopathologic characteristics of serosa-positive gastric carcinoma in elderly patients 
Purpose
The relationship between the prognosis and the age of patients with gastric carcinoma is controversial. This study examined the clinicopathologic features of elderly gastric carcinoma patients with serosal invasion.
Methods
We reviewed the hospital records of 136 elderly gastric carcinoma patients with serosal invasion retrospectively to compare the clinicopathologic findings in the elderly (aged > 70 years) and young (aged < 36 years).
Results
The 5-year survival rates of elderly and young patients with curative resection did not differ statistically (33.9% vs. 43.3%; P = 0.318). Multivariate analysis showed that two factors were independent, statistically significant parameters associated with survival: histologic type (risk ratio, 1.805; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.041 to 3.132; P < 0.05) and operative curability (risk ratio, 2.506; 95% CI, 1.371 to 4.581; P < 0.01).
Conclusion
This study demonstrated that elderly gastric carcinoma patients with serosal invasion do not have a worse prognosis than young patients. The important prognostic factor was whether the patients underwent curative resection.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.81.1.19
PMCID: PMC3204556  PMID: 22066096
Gastric carcinoma; Serosal invasion; Elderly; Prognosis; Age
9.  A Distribution Weighted Prognostic Scoring Model for Node Status in Advanced Rectal Cancer 
Purpose
There are various lymph node-based staging systems. Nevertheless, there is debate over the use of parameters such as the number of involved lymph nodes and the lymph node ratio. As a possible option, the distribution of metastatic lymph nodes may have a prognostic significance in rectal cancer. This study is designed to evaluate the impact of distribution-weighted nodal staging on oncologic outcome in rectal cancer.
Materials and Methods
From a prospectively maintained colorectal cancer database of our institution, a total of 435 patients who underwent a curative low anterior resection for mid and upper rectal cancer between 1995 and 2004 were enrolled. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the location of apical metastatic nodes. A location-weighted prognostic score was calculated by a scoring model using a logistic regression test for location based-statistical weight to number of lymph nodes. All cases were categorized in quartiles from lymph node I to lymph node IV using this protocol.
Results
The location of lymph node metastasis was an independent factor that was associated with a poor prognostic outcome (p<0.001). Based on this result, the location-weighted-nodal prognostic scoring model did not show lesser significant results (p<0.0001) in both overall survival and cancer-free survival analyses.
Conclusion
The location of apical nodes among the metastatic nodes does not have a lesser significant impact on oncologic result in patients with advanced rectal cancer. A location-weighted prognostic scoring model, which considered the numbers of involved lymph nodes as the rate of significance according to the location, may more precisely predict the survival outcome in patients with lymph node metastasis.
doi:10.4143/crt.2014.46.1.41
PMCID: PMC3918526  PMID: 24520222
Rectal neoplasms; Prognostic scoring model; Lymph nodes; Neoplasm staging
10.  Is Laparoscopy-assisted Radical Gastrectomy Safe in Patients with Child-Pugh Class A Cirrhosis? 
Journal of Gastric Cancer  2013;13(4):207-213.
Purpose
We investigated early postoperative morbidity and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis who had undergone radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Materials and Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 41 patients who underwent radical gastrectomy at the Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital (Hwasun-gun, Korea) between August 2004 and June 2009. There were few patients with Child-Pugh class B or C; therefore, we restricted patient selection to those with Child-Pugh class A.
Results
Postoperative complications were observed in 22 (53.7%) patients. The most common complications were ascites (46.3%), postoperative hemorrhage (22.0%) and wound infection (12.2%). Intra-abdominal abscess developed in one (2.4%) patient who had undergone open gastrectomy. Massive ascites occurred in 4 (9.8%) patients. Of the patients who underwent open gastrectomy, nine (21.9%) patients required blood transfusions as a result of postoperative hemorrhage. However, most of these patients had advanced gastric cancer. In contrast, most patients who underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy had early stage gastric cancer, and when the confounding effect from the different stages between the two groups was corrected statistically, no statistically significant difference was found. There was also no significant difference between open and laparoscopic gastrectomy in the occurrence rate of other postoperative complications such as ascites, wound infection, and intra-abdominal abscess. No postoperative mortality occurred.
Conclusions
Laparoscopic gastrectomy is a feasible surgical procedure for patients with moderate hepatic dysfunction.
doi:10.5230/jgc.2013.13.4.207
PMCID: PMC3915182  PMID: 24511416
Stomach neoplasms; Liver cirrhosis; Gastrectomy
11.  The Influence of Nutritional Assessment on the Outcome of Ostomy Takedown 
Purpose
Ostomy takedown is often considered a simple procedure without intention; however, it is associated with significant morbidity. This study is designed to evaluate factors predicting postoperative complications in the ostomy takedown in view of metabolism and nutrition.
Methods
A retrospective, institutional review-board-approved study was performed to identify all patients undergoing takedown of an ostomy from 2004 to 2010.
Results
Of all patients (150), 48 patients (32%; male, 31; female, 17) had complications. Takedown of an end-type ostomy showed a high complication rate; complications occurred in 55.9% of end-type ostomies and 15.7% of loop ostomies (P < 0.001). Severe adhesion was also related to a high rate of overall complication (41.3%) (P = 0.024). In preoperative work-up, ostomy type was not significantly associated with malnutrition status. However, postoperatively severe malnutrition level (albumin <2.8 mg/dL) was statistically significant in increasing the risk of complications (72.7%, P = 0.015). In particular, a significant postoperative decrease in albumin (>1.3 mg/dL) was associated with postoperative complications, particularly surgical site infection (SSI). Marked weight loss such as body mass index downgrading may be associated with the development of complications.
Conclusion
A temporary ostomy may not essentially result in severe malnutrition. However, a postoperative significant decrease in the albumin concentration is an independent risk factor for the development of SSI and complications.
doi:10.3393/jksc.2012.28.3.145
PMCID: PMC3398110  PMID: 22816058
Ostomy takedown; Malnutrition; Albumins; Surgical site infection; Complication
12.  Multivisceral resection for locally advanced rectal cancer: adequate length of distal resection margin 
Purpose
Locally advanced rectal cancer may require an intraoperative decision regarding curative multivisceral resection (MVR) of adjacent organs. In bulky tumor cases, ensuring sufficient distal resection margin (DRM) for achievement of oncologic safety is very difficult. This study is designed to evaluate the adequate length of DRM in multiviscerally resected rectal cancer.
Methods
A total of 324 patients who underwent curative low anterior resection for primary pT3-4 rectal cancer between 1995 and 2004 were identified from a prospectively collected colorectal database.
Results
Short lengths of DRM (≤1 cm) did not compromise essentially poor oncologic outcomes in locally advanced rectal cancer (P = 0.736). However, especially in rectal cancers invading adjacent organs, DRM of less than 2 cm showed poor survival outcome. In 5-year and 10-year survival analysis of MVR, a shorter DRM (<2 cm) showed 41.9% and 30.5%, although a longer DRM (≥2 cm) showed 72.4% and 60.2% (P = 0.03, 0.044). In multivariate analysis of MVR, poorly differentiated histology, ulceroinfiltrative growth of tumor, and short DRM (<2 cm) were significant factors for prediction of poor survival outcome, although short DRM was not significantly related to local and systemic recurrence.
Conclusion
In locally advanced rectal cancer of pT3-4, a short length of DRM (≤1 cm) did not compromise essentially poor oncologic outcome. In rectal cancers invading adjacent organs and requiring MVR, a shorter DRM (<2 cm) was found to be related to poor survival outcome.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2012.82.2.87
PMCID: PMC3278640  PMID: 22347710
Multivisceral resection; Distal resection margin; Locally advanced rectal cancer
13.  Inguinal hernia repair in patients with liver cirrhosis accompanied by ascites 
Purpose
We describe the clinical characteristics and assess the outcomes and stability of inguinal hernia repair under local anesthesia for patients with liver cirrhosis accompanied by ascites.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 22 patients with cirrhosis and ascites who underwent mesh plug hernia repair performed by a single surgeon from January 2002 to August 2009, and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of the patients were analyzed.
Results
Twenty-two patients were included in the study. Fifteen (68.2%) were Child's class B and seven (31.8%) were Child's class C. Hernia repairs were successful without major complications or recurrence in all patients. Minor complications occurred in only three patients, consisting of two hematomas and one case of scrotal swelling. Complications were resolved spontaneously without the need for blood transfusion or reintervention. Thirteen patients died during follow-up (59.1%); eight of these patients died within 1 year after hernia repair. However, there was no 30-day postoperative mortality. Five of the eight patients who died were Child's class B and the remaining three patients were Child's class C. Deaths were all related to cirrhotic complications, and there was no operation-related mortality.
Conclusion
Inguinal hernia repairs under local anesthesia in patients with cirrhosis accompanied by ascites were performed safely and effectively. Therefore, surgical repair is recommended even in patients with refractory ascites and poor hepatic function to prevent life-threatening complications or severe pain and improve quality of life.
doi:10.4174/jkss.2011.80.6.420
PMCID: PMC3204689  PMID: 22066069
Inguinal hernia repair; Local anesthesia; Liver cirrhosis; Ascites
14.  Mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features: a case report 
BMC Cancer  2007;7:82.
Background
Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor, with a predominant occurrence in the extremities. Only two cases of mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma have been documented. We describe an unusual case of extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features occurring in the mesentery.
Case presentation
A 67-year-old male presented with blood-tinged stool of 1-month's duration. On colonoscopy, a solid mass was detected protruding from the colon wall. Computed tomography showed a 15 × 9.7 cm heterogeneously enhancing mass, with mottled calcification and a cystic portion, occupying the left upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity. Curative resection of the tumor was performed, and the excised tumor was composed of large multilocular cysts containing old hematomas and necrotic debris. The histology revealed an osteosarcoma showing osteoid formation and blood-filled spaces lined with atypical cells. Despite postoperative chemotherapy, he developed a recurrent peritoneal mass and multiple lung metastases 3 months postoperatively.
Conclusion
Given the rarity of cases of mesenteric extraskeletal osteosarcoma, its biologic behavior at this location remains to be determined. However, extraskeletal osteosarcoma with telangiectatic features is an uncommon entity to be recognized because of the possible fatal outcome related to the tumors.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-7-82
PMCID: PMC1878495  PMID: 17504524

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