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1.  The Relationship between Serum Endocan Levels and Depression in Alzheimer's Disease 
Disease Markers  2016;2016:8254675.
Objectives. Growing evidence suggests that angiogenic vascular factors may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and recently endocan has been proposed as an angiogenic biomarker. The aim of this study was to measure serum endocan levels according to the presence of depression in AD and to investigate the association among the serum endocan levels, cognitive function, and depression in these patients. Methods. Serum endocan levels were measured in 26 AD patients with depression, 29 AD patients without depression, and 29 healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The Mini-Mental State Examination-Korean version (MMSE-KC) and the Korean version of the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (SGDS-K) were used to evaluate cognitive function and depressive symptoms, respectively. Results. Serum endocan levels were significantly lower in AD patients with depression than in AD patients without depression or healthy controls. Serum endocan levels were negatively correlated with SGDS-K scores but not with MMSE-KC scores in AD patients. Conclusions. This study suggests that serum endocan levels might be associated with depression in AD. Future studies are needed to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms or the role of endocan in AD with depression.
doi:10.1155/2016/8254675
PMCID: PMC4746338  PMID: 26924874
2.  Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Menstrual Irregularity in Middle-Aged Korean Women 
Background
Menstrual irregularity is a common major complaint in women of reproductive age. It is also a known marker for underlying insulin resistance. We investigated the association between menstrual irregularity and metabolic syndrome in the general population of middle-aged women in Korea.
Methods
This cross-sectional study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2012. A total of 2,742 subjects were included in the analysis. Participants were divided into two categories based on their menstrual cycle regularity and the relationship between metabolic syndrome and its variables was investigated by multiple logistic regression analysis.
Results
Adjusted analyses revealed significantly higher odds ratios for metabolic syndrome, high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with the presence of menstrual irregularity.
Conclusion
Metabolic syndrome and its components (high waist circumference, high triglyceride levels, and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) were significantly associated with menstrual irregularity in women of reproductive age.
doi:10.4082/kjfm.2016.37.1.31
PMCID: PMC4754284  PMID: 26885320
Menstrual Cycle; Metabolic Syndrome; Polycystic Ovary Syndrome; Insulin Resistance; Obesity
3.  Preoperative Prediction of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis Using Primary Tumor SUVmax on 18F-FDG PET/CT in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(12):e0144152.
Objectives
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the value of preoperative 18F-FDG (FDG) PET/CT in predicting cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
Methods
One hundred and ninety-three newly diagnosed PTC patients (M: F = 25:168, age = 46.8 ± 12.2) who had undergone pretreatment FDG PET/CT and had neck node dissection were included in this study. The FDG avidity of the primary tumor and the SUVmax of the primary tumor (pSUVmax) were analyzed for prediction of LN metastasis. Detectability by ultrasonography (US) and FDG PET/CT for cervical LN metastasis were also assessed and compared with the pSUVmax.
Results
The FDG avidity of the primary tumor was identified in 118 patients (FDG avid group: 61.0%, M: F = 16:102, age 47.0 ± 12.7 years) and pSUVmax ranged from 1.3 to 35.6 (median 4.6) in the FDG avid group. The tumor size in the FDG avid group was bigger and there was a higher incidence of LN metastasis compared to the FDG non-avid group (0.93 vs. 0.59 cm, p <0.001 and 49.2 vs. 33.3%, p <0.05). In the FDG avid group, patients with LN metastasis had higher pSUVmax than patients without LN metastasis (8.7 ± 8.3 vs. 5.7 ± 5.1, p <0.001). The incidence of central LN metastasis in patients with a pSUVmax >4.6 was 54%; however, the detectability of central LN metastasis by US and FDG PET/CT were 10.3% and 3.6%, respectively.
Conclusion
A high FDG avidity of the primary tumor was related to LN metastasis in PTC patients. Therefore, patients with a high pSUVmax should be cautiously assessed for LN metastasis and might need a more comprehensive surgical approach.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0144152
PMCID: PMC4670197  PMID: 26636824
4.  A Case of Pulmonary Cryptococcosis in an Immunocompetent Male Patient Diagnosed by a Percutaneous Supraclavicular Lymph Node Biopsy 
Cryptococcal pneumonia usually occurs in immunocompromised patients with malignancy, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, organ transplantations, immunosuppressive chemotherapies, catheter insertion, or dialysis. It can be diagnosed by gaining tissues in lung parenchyma or detecting antigen in blood or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Here we report an immunocompetent 32-year-old male patient with diabetes mellitus diagnosed with cryptococcal pneumonia after a ultrasound-guided percutaneous supraclavicular lymph node core needle biopsy. We treated him with fluconazole at 400 mg/day for 9 months according to the guideline. This is the first case that cryptococcal pneumonia was diagnosed from a percutaneous lymph node biopsy in South Korea.
doi:10.4046/trd.2015.78.3.276
PMCID: PMC4499599  PMID: 26175785
Cryptococcosis; Pneumonia; Lymph Nodes; Biopsy, Fine-Needle
5.  Superficial Esophageal Neoplasms Overlying Leiomyomas Removed by Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: Case Reports and Review of the Literature 
Clinical Endoscopy  2015;48(4):322-327.
The coexistence of an epithelial lesion and a subepithelial lesion is uncommon. In almost all such cases, the coexistence of these lesions appears to be incidental. It is also extremely rare to encounter a neoplasm in the surface epithelium that overlies a benign mesenchymal tumor in the esophagus. Several cases of a coexisting esophageal neoplasm overlying a leiomyoma that is treated endoscopically or surgically have been reported previously. Here, three cases of a superficial esophageal neoplasm that developed over an esophageal leiomyoma and was then successfully removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection are described.
doi:10.5946/ce.2015.48.4.322
PMCID: PMC4522425  PMID: 26240807
Esophageal neoplasms; Leiomyoma; Endoscopic submucosal dissection
6.  Clinical Significance of Early Detection of Esophageal Cancer in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer 
Gut and Liver  2014;9(2):159-166.
Background/Aims
The efficacy of surveillance for esophageal squamous cell neoplasia (ESCN) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains controversial. Our study aimed to provide clinical data concerning the necessity of surveillance for detecting early ESCN in patients with HNSCC.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the data from 714 patients who were pathologically confirmed as having HNSCC (n=236 oral cavity cancers, 137 oropharyngeal cancers, 87 hypopharyngeal cancers, and 254 laryngeal cancers).
Results
Of 714 patients, during a median follow-up of 31 months, 48 ESCNs (37 synchronous and 11 metachronous) were detected in 36 patients (5%). Fifteen synchronous lesions (40.3%) were early ESCN, whereas nine metachronous lesions (81.8%) were early ESCN. The 3-year survival rates of HNSCC only and HNSCC combined with ESCN were 71.2% and 48.2%, respectively (p<0.001). Among 36 patients with ESCN, the 3-year survival rates for early and advanced ESCN were 77.7% and 21.7%, respectively (p=0.01). In the multivariate analysis, alcohol consumption and hypopharyngeal cancer were significant factors associated with the development of ESCN.
Conclusions
HN-SCC patients with early ESCN were similar in prognosis with patients without ESCN, in contrast to patients with advanced ESCN. Therefore, surveillance for the early detection of ESCN in patients with HNSCC, especially in alcohol drinkers and those with hypopharyngeal cancer, is warranted.
doi:10.5009/gnl13401
PMCID: PMC4351021  PMID: 25167869
Esophageal neoplasms; Head and neck neoplasms; Early detection of cancer; Prognosis
7.  Dietary Magnesium Intake and Metabolic Syndrome in the Adult Population: Dose-Response Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression 
Nutrients  2014;6(12):6005-6019.
Increasing evidence has suggested an association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome. However, previous research examining dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome has produced mixed results. Our objective was to determine the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population using a dose-response meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases from August, 1965, to May, 2014. Observational studies reporting risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome in ≥3 categories of dietary magnesium intake levels were selected. The data extraction was performed independently by two authors, and the quality of the studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per 150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93; I2 = 36.3%). The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day) and metabolic syndrome. This dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, randomized clinical trials will be necessary to address the issue of causality and to determine whether magnesium supplementation is effective for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.3390/nu6126005
PMCID: PMC4277012  PMID: 25533010
magnesium intake; metabolic syndrome; meta-analysis; meta-regression
8.  Decreased Total Antioxidant Activity in Major Depressive Disorder Patients Non-Responsive to Antidepressant Treatment 
Psychiatry Investigation  2016;13(2):222-226.
Objective
This study aimed to evaluate the total antioxidant activity (TAA) in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the effect of antidepressants on TAA using a novel potentiometric method.
Methods
Twenty-eight patients with MDD and thirty-one healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The control group comprised 31 healthy individuals matched for gender, drinking and smoking status. We assessed symptoms of depression using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We measured TAA using potentiometry. All measurements were made at baseline and four and eight weeks later.
Results
There was a significant negative correlation between BDI scores and TAA. TAA was significantly lower in the MDD group than in controls. When the MDD group was subdivided into those who showed clinical response to antidepressant therapy (response group) and those who did not (non-response group), only the non-response group showed lower TAA, while the response group showed no significant difference to controls at baseline. After eight weeks of antidepressant treatment, TAA in both the response and non-response groups was similar, and there was no significant difference among the three groups.
Conclusion
These results suggest that the response to antidepressant treatment in MDD patients might be predicted by measuring TAA.
doi:10.4306/pi.2016.13.2.222
PMCID: PMC4823199  PMID: 27081384
Major depressive disorder; Total antioxidant activity; Antidepressant treatment
9.  Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes 
Medicine  2015;94(42):e1839.
Abstract
Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.
This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.
The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).
UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000001839
PMCID: PMC4620835  PMID: 26496329
10.  Efficacy and safety of generic escitalopram (Lexacure®) in patients with major depressive disorder: a 6-week multicenter, randomized, rater-blinded, escitalopram-comparative, non-inferiority study 
Objectives
The primary aim of this non-inferiority study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness and safety of generic escitalopram (Lexacure®) versus branded escitalopram (Lexapro®) for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Methods
The present study included 158 patients, who were randomized (1:1) to receive a flexible dose of generic escitalopram (n=78) or branded escitalopram (n=80) over a 6-week single-blind treatment period. The clinical benefits in the two groups were evaluated using the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S), and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale (CGI-I) at baseline, week 1, week 2, week 4, and week 6. The frequency of adverse events (AEs) was also assessed to determine safety at each follow-up visit.
Results
During the 6-week study period, 30 patients (38.5%) from the generic escitalopram group and 28 patients (30.0%) from the branded escitalopram group dropped out of the study (P=0.727). The MADRS, HDRS, CGI-S, and CGI-I scores significantly decreased in both groups, and there were no significant differences between the groups. At week 6, 28 patients (57.1%) in the generic escitalopram group and 35 patients (67.3%) in the branded escitalopram group had responded to treatment (as indicated by a ≥50% decrease from the baseline MADRS score; P=0.126), and the remission rates (MADRS score: ≤10) were 42.9% (n=21) in generic escitalopram group and 53.8% (n=28) in the branded escitalopram group (P=0.135). The most frequently reported AEs were nausea (17.9%), sleepiness/somnolence (7.7%), weight gain (3.8%), and dry mouth (2.6%) in the generic escitalopram group and nausea (20.0%), sleepiness/somnolence (3.8%), weight gain (2.5%), and dry mouth (2.5%) in the branded escitalopram group.
Conclusion
The present non-inferiority study demonstrated that generic escitalopram is a safe and an effective initial treatment for patients with MDD and may also be considered as an additional therapeutic option for this population.
doi:10.2147/NDT.S90796
PMCID: PMC4605251  PMID: 26504387
depression; branded escitalopram; Lexapro®; generic escitalopram; Lexacure®
11.  Clinical and Endoscopic Features of Metastatic Tumors in the Stomach 
Gut and Liver  2014;9(5):615-622.
Background/Aims
Metastasis to the stomach is rare. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the clinical outcomes of cancers that metastasized to the stomach.
Methods
We reviewed the clinicopathological aspects of patients with gastric metastases from solid organ tumors. Thirty-seven cases were identified, and we evaluated the histology, initial presentation, imaging findings, lesion locations, treatment courses, and overall patient survival.
Results
Endoscopic findings indicated that solitary lesions presented more frequently than multiple lesions and submucosal tumor-like tumors were the most common appearance. Malignant melanoma was the tumor that most frequently metastasized to the stomach. Twelve patients received treatments after the diagnosis of gastric metastasis. The median survival period from the diagnosis of gastric metastasis was 3.0 months (interquartile range, 1.0 to 11.0 months). Patients with solitary lesions and patients who received any treatments survived longer after the diagnosis of metastatic cancer than patients with multiple lesions and patients who did not any receive any treatments.
Conclusions
Proper treatment with careful consideration of the primary tumor characteristics can increase the survival period in patients with tumors that metastasize to the stomach, especially in cases with solitary metastatic lesions in endoscopic findings.
doi:10.5009/gnl14032
PMCID: PMC4562778  PMID: 25473071
Stomach; Endoscopy; Metastasis
12.  Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Offshore Fisheries of the Republic of Korea 
PLoS ONE  2015;10(8):e0133778.
Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from the offshore fisheries industry in the Republic of Korea (Korea) were examined in response to growing concerns about global warming and the contribution of emissions from different industrial sectors. Fuel usage and GHG emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) were analysed using the ‘Tier 1’ method provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) from the offshore fishery, which is the primary domestic seafood production sector in Korea. In 2013, fuel usage in the offshore fishery accounted for 59.7% (557,463 KL) of total fuel consumption of fishing vessels in Korea. Fuel consumption and thus GHG emissions were not stable through time in this industry, increasing by 2.4% p.a. for three consecutive years, from 2011 to 2013, despite a decrease in the number of vessels operating. GHG emissions generated in offshore fisheries also changed through time and increased from 1,442,975 tCO2e/year in 2011 to 1,477,279 tCO2e/year in 2013. Changes in both fuel use and GHG emissions per kg offshore fish production appeared to be associated with decreasing catch rates by the fleet, which in turn were a reflection of decrease in fish biomass. Another important feature of GHG emissions in this industry was the high variation in GHG emission per kg fish product among different fishing methods. The long line fishery had approximately three times the emissions of the average production while the jigging fishery was more than two times higher than the average. Lowest emissions were from the trawl sector, which is regarded as having greatest environmental impact using traditional biodiversity metrics although had lowest environmental impact in terms of fuel and GHG emission metrics used in this study. The observed deterioration in fuel efficiency of the offshore fishery each year is of concern but also demonstrates that fuel efficiency can change, which shows there is opportunity to improve efficiency with changes to fishery management and harvesting operations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0133778
PMCID: PMC4552553  PMID: 26317341
13.  The Effect of Choline Acetyltransferase Genotype on Donepezil Treatment Response in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease 
Objective
We examined the difference in responses to donepezil between carriers and non-carriers of the A allele at the +4 position of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) gene in Koreans.
Methods
Patients who met the criteria for probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (n=199) were recruited. Among these, 145 completed the 12-week follow-up evaluation and 135 completed the 26-week scheduled course. Differences and changes in the Korean version of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE-KC) score, Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (CERAD-K[N]) wordlist subtest score (WSS), CERAD-K(N) total score (TS), and the Korean version of geriatric depression scale (GDS-K) score between baseline and 12 weeks or 26 weeks were assessed by the Student’s t-test.
Results
At 12 weeks, the changes in the MMSE-KC score, CERAD-K(N) WSS, and CERAD-K(N) TS from baseline were not significant between ChAT A allele carriers and non-carriers; however, at 26 weeks, these changes were significantly larger in ChAT A allele carriers than in non-carriers (p=0.02 for MMSE-KC and p=0.03 for CERAD-K(N) WSS respectively).
Conclusion
Our findings in this study suggested that presence of the A allele at the +4 position of ChAT might positively influence the treatment effect of donepezil in the early stages of AD in Koreans.
doi:10.9758/cpn.2015.13.2.168
PMCID: PMC4540042  PMID: 26243844
Choline acetyltransferase; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Alzheimer disease; Donepezil
14.  Endoscopic and Oncologic Outcomes of Endoscopic Resection for Superficial Esophageal Neoplasm 
Gut and Liver  2014;9(4):470-477.
Background/Aims
Endoscopic resection (ER) of superficial esophageal neoplasm (SEN) is a technically difficult procedure. We investigated the clinical outcomes of ER for SEN to determine its feasibility and effectiveness.
Methods
Subjects who underwent ER for SEN at Asan Medical Center between December 1996 and December 2010 were eligible. The clinical features of patients and tumors, histopathological characteristics, adverse events, ER results and survival were investigated.
Results
A total of 129 patients underwent ER for 147 SENs. En bloc resection (EnR) was performed in 118 lesions (80.3%). Complete resection (CR) was accomplished in 128 lesions (86.5%), and curative resection (CuR) was performed in 118 lesions (79.7%). The EnR, CR, and CuR rates were significantly greater in the endoscopic submucosal dissection group when compared to those in the endoscopic resection group. Adverse events occurred in 22 patients (17.1%), including bleeding (n=2, 1.6%), perforation (n=12, 9.3%), and stricture (n=8, 6.2%). Local tumor recurrence occurred in 2.0% of patients during a median follow-up of 34.8 months. The 5-year overall and disease-specific survival rates were 94.0% and 97.5%, respectively.
Conclusions
ER is a feasible and effective method for the treatment of SEN as indicated by favorable clinical outcomes.
doi:10.5009/gnl13263
PMCID: PMC4477990  PMID: 25473069
Esophageal neoplasms; Treatment outcome; Endoscopic resection
15.  Difference of Clinical and Radiological Characteristics According to Radioiodine Avidity in Pulmonary Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer 
Purpose
To evaluate differences in clinical, radiological and laboratory findings between pulmonary metastasis with and without radioiodine avidity in thyroidectomized differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients with pulmonary metastasis who underwent high-dose I-131 treatment.
Methods
A total of 105 DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis (age, 48.7 ± 16.8 years; women/men, 78/27) were included. Clinical characteristics, chest computed tomography (CT), F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET)/CT and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-stimulated serum thyroglobulin (s-Tg) level were compared between patients with and without radioiodine uptake in metastatic lung lesions. The response to I-131 treatment was evaluated with follow-up study.
Results
Eighty-nine patients (84.8 %, whole-body scan positive [WBSP] group) showed radioiodine uptake at pulmonary metastasis on post I-131 treatment whole-body scan (WBS) and 16 patients (15.2 %, WBS negative [WBSN] group) did not show uptake at pulmonary lesions on the WBS. Ninety percent and 87 % of the WBSP group had visible metastatic lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT; however, all of the patients in the WBSN group showed lesions on CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT. In seven (6.7 %) of 105 patients, CT and F-18 FDG PET/CT could not detect pulmonary lesions, which were diagnosed by post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete disease remission was achieved in six (5.7 %) patients and all of them were in the WBSP group.
Conclusions
Metastatic lesion was not visualized on chest CT or F-18 FDG PET/CT in 6.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the lesion was visualized only on post I-131 treatment WBS. Complete remission was achieved in 5.7 % of DTC patients with pulmonary metastasis and the cured metastases were non-visualizing or micronodular lesions on chest CT and demonstrated radioiodine avidity on post I-131 treatment WBS.
doi:10.1007/s13139-013-0239-z
PMCID: PMC4035156  PMID: 24900139
Differentiated thyroid cancer; Pulmonary metastasis; I-131 treatment; Radioiodine avidity
16.  Yields and Utility of Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided 19-Gauge Trucut Biopsy versus 22-Gauge Fine Needle Aspiration for Diagnosing Gastric Subepithelial Tumors 
Clinical Endoscopy  2015;48(2):152-157.
Background/Aims
To evaluate the yields and utility of 19-gauge (G) Trucut biopsy (TCB) versus 22 G fine needle aspiration (FNA) for diagnosing gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs).
Methods
We retrieved data for 152 patients with a gastric SET larger than 2 cm who had undergone endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided 19 G TCB (n=90) or 22 G FNA (n=62). Relevant clinical, tumor-specific, and EUS procedural information was reviewed retrospectively.
Results
A specific diagnosis was made for 76 gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and 51 non-GIST SETs. The diagnostic yield of TCB was greater than that of FNA (77.8% vs. 38.7%, p<0.001). The percentage of non-diagnostic specimens (suspicious and insufficient) was significantly lower in the TCB group (6.7% and 15.5%, respectively) than in the FNA group (22.6% and 38.7%, respectively; both p<0.001). TCB accurately diagnosed 90.9% of GISTs and 81.1% of non-GIST SETs, whereas FNA accurately diagnosed 68.8% of GISTs and 14.3% of non-GIST SETs. There were nine technical failures with TCB, and the rate of adverse events did not differ between the groups (TCB vs. FNA, 3.3% vs. 8.1%; p=0.27).
Conclusions
Nineteen-gauge TCB is safe and highly valuable for diagnosing gastric SETs larger than 2 cm if technical failure can be avoided.
doi:10.5946/ce.2015.48.2.152
PMCID: PMC4381143  PMID: 25844344
Endosonography; Subepithelial tumors; Biopsy, large-core needle; Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration; Stomach
17.  Endoscopic Resection for Synchronous Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Gastric Adenocarcinoma in Early Stage Is a Possible Alternative to Surgery 
Gut and Liver  2014;9(1):59-65.
Background/Aims
We investigated the clinical outcomes according to the method of treatment in synchronous esophageal and gastric cancer.
Methods
Synchronous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 79 patients between 1996 and 2010. We divided the patients into four groups according to treatment; Group 1 received surgical resection for both cancers or surgery for gastric cancer with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer (n=27); Group 2 was treated by endoscopic resection with or without additional treatment (n=14); Group 3 received chemoradiotherapy only (n=18); and Group 4 received supportive care only (n=20).
Results
The median survival times in groups 1 and 2 were 86 and 60 months, respectively. The recurrence rate and mortality were 23% and 48%, respectively, in group 1 and 21% and 4%, respectively, in group 2. The median survival time was 12 months in group 3 and 9 months in group 4. Multivariate analysis showed that age (p<0.001) and treatment group (p=0.019) were significantly associated with death. Compared with group 1, treatment in the intensive care unit (p=0.003), loss of body weight (p=0.042), and decrease in hemoglobin (p=0.033) were worse in group 1.
Conclusions
Endoscopic resection for synchronous esophageal and gastric cancer could be considered as a possible alternative to surgery for early-stage cancer.
doi:10.5009/gnl13255
PMCID: PMC4282858  PMID: 25170061
Synchronous; Esophageal neoplasms; Stomach neoplasms
19.  Comparison of Clinical Outcomes Associated with Pull-Type and Introducer-Type Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomies 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(6):530-537.
Background/Aims
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a method of providing enteral nutrition using endoscopy. The PEG techniques differ according to the insertion method, and include the pull type, push type, and introducer type. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes associated with the pull-type and introducer-type PEG insertion techniques, which included the adverse events, at our tertiary care center in Korea.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 141 cases that had undergone PEG insertion at our center from January 2009 to June 2012. The indications for PEG insertion and the acute and chronic complications caused by each type of PEG insertion were analyzed.
Results
The indications for PEG insertion in our cohort included neurologic disease (58.7%), malignancy (21.7%), and other indications (19.6%). Successful PEG insertions were performed on 136 cases (96.5%), and there were no PEG-associated deaths. Bleeding was the most frequent acute complication (12.8%), and wound problems were the most frequent chronic complications (8.8%). There were no statistically significant differences between the pull-type and introducer-type PEG insertion techniques in relation to complication rates in our study population.
Conclusions
PEG insertion is considered a safe procedure. The pull-type and introducer-type PEG insertion techniques produce comparable outcomes, and physicians may choose either of these approaches according to the circumstances.
doi:10.5946/ce.2014.47.6.530
PMCID: PMC4260101  PMID: 25505719
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Pull type; Introducer type; Complication; Indication for PEG
20.  Prevalence and Control of Hypertension and Albuminuria in South Korea: Focus on Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e111179.
Background
Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between albuminuria and hypertension is well established in many studies. So the control of hypertension is critical for decreasing cardiovascular events and albuminuria. Obesity and abdominal obesity are also associated with hypertension and albuminuria. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between albuminuria and the prevalence and control of hypertension in the general Korean population according to obesity status.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 9,519 subjects were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-obese/normal waist circumference, non-obese/high waist circumference, obese/normal waist circumference, and obese/high waist circumference.
Results
Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with albumin–creatinine ratio in all groups (all p values <0.005). Non-obese/normal waist circumference group were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratios [95% confidential intervals (CIs)] were 3.20 [2.21–4.63] in microalbuminuria level and 3.09 [1.05–9.14] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension (odds ratios <1 for both albuminuria levels) after adjusting for all covariates. Obese/normal waist circumference group were also more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [95% CI] were 3.10 [1.56–6.15] in microalbuminuria level and 21.75 [3.66–129.04] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension in macroalbuminuria level (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.04 [0.01–0.15]).
Conclusions
Non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects have an increased prevalence and decreased control of hypertension in microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels. Screening for albuminuria may provide helpful information about hypertension and blood pressure control, particularly in the non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111179
PMCID: PMC4215993  PMID: 25360593
21.  Prognostic implication of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast 
BMC Cancer  2014;14:585.
Background
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implication of findings of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity on pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast.
Methods
One hundred and twenty-three female IDC patients who underwent pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scans were retrospectively evaluated in this study. The heterogeneity factor (HF) defined as the derivative (dV/dT) of a volume threshold function from 40% to 80%, was computed for each primary tumor. Other metabolic PET parameters (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax], metabolic tumor volume [MTV], and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were measured. The HF was compared with clinicopathologic factors and other PET parameters. Univariate and multivariate analyses for the overall survival (OS) were performed.
Results
The HF ranged from 0.02 to 6.72 (mean, 0.35 ± 0.82) and significantly correlated with MTV (r = 0.955; p < 0.0001) and TLG (r = 0.354; p = 0.0001). The HF was significantly higher (implying more heterogeneity) in tumors with higher T and N stages. The optimal cut-off values for the OS determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were 0.34 for the HF, 5.6 for SUVmax, 8.55 cm3 for MTV, and 14.43 for TLG. The OS rate among the 123 patients was 86.2%. T stage (1, 2 vs. 3, 4), N stage (0, 1 vs. 2, 3), M stage (0 vs. 1), ER status (+ vs. –), SUVmax (≤ 5.6 vs. > 5.6), MTV (≤ 8.55 cm3 vs. > 8.55 cm3), TLG (≤ 14.43 vs. > 14.43), and HF (< 0.34 vs. ≥ 0.34) affected the OS on univariate analysis. After adjustment for the effects of TNM stage and ER status, the HF and MTV were significant predictors of OS. Among the PET parameters, the best prognostic factor for OS was the HF.
Conclusions
Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity correlated closely with the MTV and significantly affected the OS in IDC patients. The HF may act as a robust surrogate marker for the prediction of OS in IDC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-585
PMCID: PMC4148559  PMID: 25112709
Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity; Heterogeneity; Invasive ductal carcinoma; Breast cancer; 18F-FDG PET/CT; Prognosis
22.  Clinical Outcomes Associated with Treatment Modalities for Gastrointestinal Bezoars 
Gut and Liver  2014;8(4):400-407.
Background/Aims
With technical and instrumental advances, the endoscopic removal of bezoars is now more common than conventional surgical removal. We investigated the clinical outcomes in a patient cohort with gastrointestinal bezoars removed using different treatment modalities.
Methods
Between June 1989 and March 2012, 93 patients with gastrointestinal bezoars underwent endoscopic or surgical procedures at the Asan Medical Center. These patients were divided into endoscopic (n=39) and surgical (n=54) treatment groups in accordance with the initial treatment modality. The clinical feature and outcomes of these two groups were analyzed retrospectively.
Results
The median follow-up period was 13 months (interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 77 months) in 93 patients with a median age of 60 years (IQR, 50 to 73 years). Among the initial symptoms, abdominal pain was the most common chief complaint (72.1%). The bezoars were commonly located in the stomach (82.1%) in the endoscopic treatment group and in the small bowel (66.7%) in the surgical treatment group. The success rates of endoscopic and surgical treatment were 89.7% and 98.1%, and the complication rates were 12.8% and 33.3%, respectively.
Conclusions
Endoscopic removal of a gastrointestinal bezoar is an effective treatment modality; however, surgical removal is needed in some cases.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2014.8.4.400
PMCID: PMC4113045  PMID: 25071905
Bezoars; Endoscopy; Surgery
23.  Meta-Analysis of First-Line Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea: Is It Time to Change? 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(5):704-713.
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy consisting of PPI, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, is the recommended first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of triple therapy has declined over the past few decades. We analyzed the eradication rate and adverse events of triple therapy to evaluate current practices in Korea. A comprehensive literature search was performed up to August 2013 of 104 relevant studies comprising 42,124 patients. The overall eradication rate was 74.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.1%-77.2%) by intention-to-treat analysis and 82.0% (95% CI, 80.8%-83.2%) by per-protocol analysis. The eradication rate decreased significantly from 1998 to 2013 (P < 0.001 for both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses). Adverse events were reported in 41 studies with 8,018 subjects with an overall incidence rate of 20.4% (95% CI, 19.6%-21.3%). The available data suggest that the effectiveness of standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication has decreased to an unacceptable level. A novel therapeutic strategy is warranted to improve the effectiveness of first-line treatment for H. pylori infection in Korea.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.5.704
PMCID: PMC4024949  PMID: 24851029
Helicobacter pylori; Eradication; Triple Therapy
24.  Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants 
The Plant Pathology Journal  2013;29(4):386-396.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O2−) and H2O2 was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H2O2and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H2O2and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 106 and 107 cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H2O2- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative ‘area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC)’ was calculated to compare disease protection by H2O2 and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H2O2 nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H2O2+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H2O2 and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents.
doi:10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2013.0043
PMCID: PMC4174819  PMID: 25288967
antibacterial agents; hydrogen peroxide; nitric oxide; Ralstonia solanacearum; tomato bacterial wilt
25.  Intralesional Steroid Injection to Prevent Stricture after Near-Circumferential Endosopic Submucosal Dissection for Superficial Esophageal Cancer 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(6):643-646.
Stricture frequently occurs after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial esophageal carcinoma with near- or whole-circumferential mucosal defects, and post-ESD stricture is difficult to treat and usually requires multiple sessions of endoscopic balloon dilatation. Intralesional steroid injection has previously been used to prevent stricture; however, there have been few experiences with this method after near- or whole-circumferential ESD. We present a case of a single session of intralesional steroid injection performed immediately after near-circumferential ESD to prevent post-ESD stricture. After a follow-up period of 6 months, the patient showed good outcome without dysphagia.
doi:10.5946/ce.2013.46.6.643
PMCID: PMC3856266  PMID: 24340258
Injections, intralesional; Esophageal stenosis; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Esophageal neoplasms

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