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1.  Endoscopic Resection for Synchronous Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Gastric Adenocarcinoma in Early Stage Is a Possible Alternative to Surgery 
Gut and Liver  2015;9(1):59-65.
Background/Aims
We investigated the clinical outcomes according to the method of treatment in synchronous esophageal and gastric cancer.
Methods
Synchronous esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 79 patients between 1996 and 2010. We divided the patients into four groups according to treatment; Group 1 received surgical resection for both cancers or surgery for gastric cancer with chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer (n=27); Group 2 was treated by endoscopic resection with or without additional treatment (n=14); Group 3 received chemoradiotherapy only (n=18); and Group 4 received supportive care only (n=20).
Results
The median survival times in groups 1 and 2 were 86 and 60 months, respectively. The recurrence rate and mortality were 23% and 48%, respectively, in group 1 and 21% and 4%, respectively, in group 2. The median survival time was 12 months in group 3 and 9 months in group 4. Multivariate analysis showed that age (p<0.001) and treatment group (p=0.019) were significantly associated with death. Compared with group 1, treatment in the intensive care unit (p=0.003), loss of body weight (p=0.042), and decrease in hemoglobin (p=0.033) were worse in group 1.
Conclusions
Endoscopic resection for synchronous esophageal and gastric cancer could be considered as a possible alternative to surgery for early-stage cancer.
doi:10.5009/gnl13255
PMCID: PMC4282858  PMID: 25170061
Synchronous; Esophageal neoplasms; Stomach neoplasms
2.  Dietary Magnesium Intake and Metabolic Syndrome in the Adult Population: Dose-Response Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression 
Nutrients  2014;6(12):6005-6019.
Increasing evidence has suggested an association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome. However, previous research examining dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome has produced mixed results. Our objective was to determine the relationship between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome in the adult population using a dose-response meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases from August, 1965, to May, 2014. Observational studies reporting risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for metabolic syndrome in ≥3 categories of dietary magnesium intake levels were selected. The data extraction was performed independently by two authors, and the quality of the studies was evaluated using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS). Based on eight cross-sectional studies and two prospective cohort studies, the pooled relative risks of metabolic syndrome per 150 mg/day increment in magnesium intake was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84–0.93; I2 = 36.3%). The meta-regression model showed a generally linear, inverse relationship between magnesium intake (mg/day) and metabolic syndrome. This dose-response meta-analysis indicates that dietary magnesium intake is significantly and inversely associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome. However, randomized clinical trials will be necessary to address the issue of causality and to determine whether magnesium supplementation is effective for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.
doi:10.3390/nu6126005
PMCID: PMC4277012  PMID: 25533010
magnesium intake; metabolic syndrome; meta-analysis; meta-regression
4.  Comparison of Clinical Outcomes Associated with Pull-Type and Introducer-Type Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomies 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(6):530-537.
Background/Aims
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a method of providing enteral nutrition using endoscopy. The PEG techniques differ according to the insertion method, and include the pull type, push type, and introducer type. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes associated with the pull-type and introducer-type PEG insertion techniques, which included the adverse events, at our tertiary care center in Korea.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed 141 cases that had undergone PEG insertion at our center from January 2009 to June 2012. The indications for PEG insertion and the acute and chronic complications caused by each type of PEG insertion were analyzed.
Results
The indications for PEG insertion in our cohort included neurologic disease (58.7%), malignancy (21.7%), and other indications (19.6%). Successful PEG insertions were performed on 136 cases (96.5%), and there were no PEG-associated deaths. Bleeding was the most frequent acute complication (12.8%), and wound problems were the most frequent chronic complications (8.8%). There were no statistically significant differences between the pull-type and introducer-type PEG insertion techniques in relation to complication rates in our study population.
Conclusions
PEG insertion is considered a safe procedure. The pull-type and introducer-type PEG insertion techniques produce comparable outcomes, and physicians may choose either of these approaches according to the circumstances.
doi:10.5946/ce.2014.47.6.530
PMCID: PMC4260101  PMID: 25505719
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy; Pull type; Introducer type; Complication; Indication for PEG
5.  Prevalence and Control of Hypertension and Albuminuria in South Korea: Focus on Obesity and Abdominal Obesity in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(10):e111179.
Background
Albuminuria is associated with cardiovascular disease, and the relationship between albuminuria and hypertension is well established in many studies. So the control of hypertension is critical for decreasing cardiovascular events and albuminuria. Obesity and abdominal obesity are also associated with hypertension and albuminuria. Therefore, we analyzed the relationship between albuminuria and the prevalence and control of hypertension in the general Korean population according to obesity status.
Methods
We analyzed data from the 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and 9,519 subjects were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: non-obese/normal waist circumference, non-obese/high waist circumference, obese/normal waist circumference, and obese/high waist circumference.
Results
Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with albumin–creatinine ratio in all groups (all p values <0.005). Non-obese/normal waist circumference group were more likely to have hypertension (odds ratios [95% confidential intervals (CIs)] were 3.20 [2.21–4.63] in microalbuminuria level and 3.09 [1.05–9.14] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension (odds ratios <1 for both albuminuria levels) after adjusting for all covariates. Obese/normal waist circumference group were also more likely to have hypertension (odds ratio [95% CI] were 3.10 [1.56–6.15] in microalbuminuria level and 21.75 [3.66–129.04] in macroalbuminuria level), and less likely to have controlled hypertension in macroalbuminuria level (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.04 [0.01–0.15]).
Conclusions
Non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects have an increased prevalence and decreased control of hypertension in microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels. Screening for albuminuria may provide helpful information about hypertension and blood pressure control, particularly in the non-obese and normal waist circumference subjects.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0111179
PMCID: PMC4215993  PMID: 25360593
6.  Prognostic implication of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast 
BMC Cancer  2014;14(1):585.
Background
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic implication of findings of intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity on pretreatment 18F-FDG PET/CT scans in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast.
Methods
One hundred and twenty-three female IDC patients who underwent pretreatment 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) scans were retrospectively evaluated in this study. The heterogeneity factor (HF) defined as the derivative (dV/dT) of a volume threshold function from 40% to 80%, was computed for each primary tumor. Other metabolic PET parameters (maximum standardized uptake value [SUVmax], metabolic tumor volume [MTV], and total lesion glycolysis [TLG]) were measured. The HF was compared with clinicopathologic factors and other PET parameters. Univariate and multivariate analyses for the overall survival (OS) were performed.
Results
The HF ranged from 0.02 to 6.72 (mean, 0.35 ± 0.82) and significantly correlated with MTV (r = 0.955; p < 0.0001) and TLG (r = 0.354; p = 0.0001). The HF was significantly higher (implying more heterogeneity) in tumors with higher T and N stages. The optimal cut-off values for the OS determined using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were 0.34 for the HF, 5.6 for SUVmax, 8.55 cm3 for MTV, and 14.43 for TLG. The OS rate among the 123 patients was 86.2%. T stage (1, 2 vs. 3, 4), N stage (0, 1 vs. 2, 3), M stage (0 vs. 1), ER status (+ vs. –), SUVmax (≤ 5.6 vs. > 5.6), MTV (≤ 8.55 cm3 vs. > 8.55 cm3), TLG (≤ 14.43 vs. > 14.43), and HF (< 0.34 vs. ≥ 0.34) affected the OS on univariate analysis. After adjustment for the effects of TNM stage and ER status, the HF and MTV were significant predictors of OS. Among the PET parameters, the best prognostic factor for OS was the HF.
Conclusions
Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity correlated closely with the MTV and significantly affected the OS in IDC patients. The HF may act as a robust surrogate marker for the prediction of OS in IDC patients.
doi:10.1186/1471-2407-14-585
PMCID: PMC4148559  PMID: 25112709
Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity; Heterogeneity; Invasive ductal carcinoma; Breast cancer; 18F-FDG PET/CT; Prognosis
7.  Clinical Outcomes Associated with Treatment Modalities for Gastrointestinal Bezoars 
Gut and Liver  2014;8(4):400-407.
Background/Aims
With technical and instrumental advances, the endoscopic removal of bezoars is now more common than conventional surgical removal. We investigated the clinical outcomes in a patient cohort with gastrointestinal bezoars removed using different treatment modalities.
Methods
Between June 1989 and March 2012, 93 patients with gastrointestinal bezoars underwent endoscopic or surgical procedures at the Asan Medical Center. These patients were divided into endoscopic (n=39) and surgical (n=54) treatment groups in accordance with the initial treatment modality. The clinical feature and outcomes of these two groups were analyzed retrospectively.
Results
The median follow-up period was 13 months (interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 77 months) in 93 patients with a median age of 60 years (IQR, 50 to 73 years). Among the initial symptoms, abdominal pain was the most common chief complaint (72.1%). The bezoars were commonly located in the stomach (82.1%) in the endoscopic treatment group and in the small bowel (66.7%) in the surgical treatment group. The success rates of endoscopic and surgical treatment were 89.7% and 98.1%, and the complication rates were 12.8% and 33.3%, respectively.
Conclusions
Endoscopic removal of a gastrointestinal bezoar is an effective treatment modality; however, surgical removal is needed in some cases.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2014.8.4.400
PMCID: PMC4113045  PMID: 25071905
Bezoars; Endoscopy; Surgery
8.  Meta-Analysis of First-Line Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea: Is It Time to Change? 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2014;29(5):704-713.
Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy consisting of PPI, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, is the recommended first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the eradication rate of triple therapy has declined over the past few decades. We analyzed the eradication rate and adverse events of triple therapy to evaluate current practices in Korea. A comprehensive literature search was performed up to August 2013 of 104 relevant studies comprising 42,124 patients. The overall eradication rate was 74.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 72.1%-77.2%) by intention-to-treat analysis and 82.0% (95% CI, 80.8%-83.2%) by per-protocol analysis. The eradication rate decreased significantly from 1998 to 2013 (P < 0.001 for both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses). Adverse events were reported in 41 studies with 8,018 subjects with an overall incidence rate of 20.4% (95% CI, 19.6%-21.3%). The available data suggest that the effectiveness of standard triple therapy for H. pylori eradication has decreased to an unacceptable level. A novel therapeutic strategy is warranted to improve the effectiveness of first-line treatment for H. pylori infection in Korea.
Graphical Abstract
doi:10.3346/jkms.2014.29.5.704
PMCID: PMC4024949  PMID: 24851029
Helicobacter pylori; Eradication; Triple Therapy
9.  Hydrogen Peroxide- and Nitric Oxide-mediated Disease Control of Bacterial Wilt in Tomato Plants 
The Plant Pathology Journal  2013;29(4):386-396.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in tomato plants by Ralstonia solanacearum infection and the role of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide in tomato bacterial wilt control were demonstrated. During disease development of tomato bacterial wilt, accumulation of superoxide anion (O2−) and H2O2 was observed and lipid peroxidation also occurred in the tomato leaf tissues. High doses of H2O2and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) nitric oxide donor showed phytotoxicity to detached tomato leaves 1 day after petiole feeding showing reduced fresh weight. Both H2O2and SNP have in vitro antibacterial activities against R. solanacearum in a dose-dependent manner, as well as plant protection in detached tomato leaves against bacterial wilt by 106 and 107 cfu/ml of R. solanacearum. H2O2- and SNP-mediated protection was also evaluated in pots using soil-drench treatment with the bacterial inoculation, and relative ‘area under the disease progressive curve (AUDPC)’ was calculated to compare disease protection by H2O2 and/or SNP with untreated control. Neither H2O2 nor SNP protect the tomato seedlings from the bacterial wilt, but H2O2+ SNP mixture significantly decreased disease severity with reduced relative AUDPC. These results suggest that H2O2 and SNP could be used together to control bacterial wilt in tomato plants as bactericidal agents.
doi:10.5423/PPJ.OA.04.2013.0043
PMCID: PMC4174819  PMID: 25288967
antibacterial agents; hydrogen peroxide; nitric oxide; Ralstonia solanacearum; tomato bacterial wilt
10.  Intralesional Steroid Injection to Prevent Stricture after Near-Circumferential Endosopic Submucosal Dissection for Superficial Esophageal Cancer 
Clinical Endoscopy  2013;46(6):643-646.
Stricture frequently occurs after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for superficial esophageal carcinoma with near- or whole-circumferential mucosal defects, and post-ESD stricture is difficult to treat and usually requires multiple sessions of endoscopic balloon dilatation. Intralesional steroid injection has previously been used to prevent stricture; however, there have been few experiences with this method after near- or whole-circumferential ESD. We present a case of a single session of intralesional steroid injection performed immediately after near-circumferential ESD to prevent post-ESD stricture. After a follow-up period of 6 months, the patient showed good outcome without dysphagia.
doi:10.5946/ce.2013.46.6.643
PMCID: PMC3856266  PMID: 24340258
Injections, intralesional; Esophageal stenosis; Endoscopic submucosal dissection; Esophageal neoplasms
11.  Inhibition of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase by Helicobacter pylori in Human Gastric Carcinogenesis 
Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection induces a chronic inflammatory response, which promotes gastric carcinogenesis. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15–PGDH) plays a key role as a tumor suppressor in gastrointestinal cancers. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of 15-PGDH in gastric carcinogenesis associated with H pylori. 15-PGDH expression in gastric biopsies from H pylori-infected (n=25) and non-infected (n=15) subjects was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemisty. 15-PGDH DNA methylation was evaluated by methylation specific PCR and pyrosequencing. The expression of 15-PGDH, Snail, ERK1/2, TLR4 and MyD88 in response to H pylori infection was assessed by immunoblot analysis. Compared to negative specimens, H pylori positive specimens had 2-fold lower 15-PGDH mRNA levels and significantly less 15-PGDH protein. In four H pylori infected subjects with longitudinal follow-up, the suppression of 15-PGDH expression was reversed by H pylori eradication therapy. In parallel with suppressing 15-PGDH expression, H pylori infection activated expression of TLR4 and MyD88 expression, increased levels of phospho-ERK1/2, and increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Snail. Inhibition of Snail and MyD88 reversed suppression of 15-PGDH expression and small interfering Myd88 reduced phosphorylated ERK1/2. Similarly, treatment with an ERK1/2 and EGFR inhibitor also restored 15-PGDH expression. Heliocobacter pylori appeared to promote gastric carcinogenesis by suppressing15-PGDH. This process is mediated by the TLR4/MyD88 pathway via ERK1/2 or EGFR - Snail transcriptional regulation. 15-PGDH may be a useful marker and a potential therapeutic target in H pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis.
doi:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-12-0389
PMCID: PMC3796116  PMID: 23430757
Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase
12.  Parotid sialolithiasis in a two-year-old boy 
Korean Journal of Pediatrics  2013;56(10):451-455.
Sialolithiasis is caused by the obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct by the formation of calcareous concretions or sialoliths; this results in salivary ectasia and provokes subsequent dilation of the salivary gland. Sialolithiasis is relatively common, accounting for 30% of salivary diseases; however, it is rarely observed in childhood. This case report describes a 2-year-old male patient who complained of a painful swelling over the right cheek, and presented with palpable stones and pus discharge from the orifice of the right Stensen's duct. Computerized tomography of the neck confirmed the diagnosis, and the patient received intravenous empiric antibiotics combined with intraoral sialolithotomy. We also provide a review of the spectrum of concepts regarding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sialolithiasis.
doi:10.3345/kjp.2013.56.10.451
PMCID: PMC3827494  PMID: 24244214
Salivary gland calculi; Parotid gland; Salivary duct calculi; Parotitis; Child
13.  Implications of Three-Phase Bone Scintigraphy for the Diagnosis of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw 
Purpose
Bisphosphonate (BP)-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a well-known serious complication of BP treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of three-phase bone scintigraphy in patients with BRONJ.
Methods
Forty-one patients (48 lesions) with clinically proven BRONJ (2 males, 39 females, age 74.3 ± 6.7 years) underwent Tc-99 m HDP bone scintigraphy. Visual interpretation and semiquantitative analysis of uptakes using lesion-to-contralateral uptake ratios during the blood pool phase (BUR) and during the osseous phase (OUR) were performed, and relations were sought between these and various clinical parameters.
Results
Three-phase bone scintigraphy showed increased perfusion and blood pooling in 21 (63.6 %) and 27 (81.8 %) of 33 lesions, respectively. The osseous phase was positive for 45 (93.8 %) of the 48 lesions. Of the four inflammatory clinical parameters of BRONJ [pus discharge, pain, swelling, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)], patients with three or more parameters had more positive findings in vascular and blood pool phase images (p = 0.033, p = 0.027). By semiquantitative analysis, patients with a positive ESR had statistically higher BUR and OUR (both p < 0.001). Higher stage BRONJ lesions had higher OUR than lower stage lesions (p = 0.003). In addition, bone scintigraphy revealed three clinically covert BRONJ lesions without bone exposure, and four patients were up-staged based on bone scintigraphy.
Conclusions
Bone scintigraphy provides a relatively sensitive means of detecting BRONJ, so it was helpful for accurate BRONJ staging. Furthermore, increased uptakes in vascular and blood pool phases of three-phase bone scintigraphy were related to the inflammatory activity of BRONJ.
doi:10.1007/s13139-012-0144-x
PMCID: PMC4043030  PMID: 24900055
Three-phase bone scintigraphy; Bisphosphonate; Osteonecrosis; Jaws
14.  Endobronchial Metastases from Extrathoracic Malignancy 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2013;54(2):403-409.
Purpose
Endobronchial metastasis is defined as documented extrathoracic malignancies metastatic to the endobronchus within a bronchoscopically visible range. Although the clinical and radiologic findings of endobronchial metastasis are similar to primary lung cancer, treatment and prognosis may be different. We hereby investigated the clinical, radiologic and bronchoscopic aspects of endobronchial metastases (EBM) in Korean patients.
Materials and Methods
A total of 43 patients with EBM who underwent bronchoscopic biopsies from June 1991 to December 2009 at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine in Seoul, Korea, were analyzed retrospectively. We evaluated clinical, radiologic and bronchoscopic characteristics of EBM.
Results
The patients consisted of 27 males and 16 females and their ages ranged from 18 to 77 years. The common primary cancers related to EBM were rectal (16.3%), colon (11.6%), breast (9.3%) and uterine (9.3%) cancers. The mean interval from diagnosis of primary cancer to EBM was 36 months, and the mean survival duration from diagnosis of EBM was 16.1 months in 33 deceased patients.
Conclusion
EBM develop in various types of malignancies at various times with unremarkable manifestations. Therefore, physicians should consider the possibility of EBM, especially if a patient has a history of any malignancy, regardless of respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms related with EBM can be treated by various safe procedures.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2013.54.2.403
PMCID: PMC3575990  PMID: 23364974
Endobronchial; metastasis; bronchoscopy
15.  The Comparison between the Echocardiographic Data to the Cardiac Catheterization Data on the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-Up in Patients Diagnosed as Pulmonary Valve Stenosis 
Background
Isolated pulmonary valve stenosis (PS) makes up 6-9% of all congenital heart defects among children. The initial gold standard for diagnosis, follow-up of PS is by echocardiography. However, the most accurate diagnosis still remains to be measurement of the pressure gradient through transcatheterization. The purpose of this study is to compare the difference between the echocardiographic data to the cardiac catheterization data on the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in patients diagnosed as PS, and to see what parameters should be closely monitored.
Methods
A total of 112 patients (Male : Female = 46 : 66) who underwent balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty (BPV) at Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, between December, 2002 to August, 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were all under 16 years of age and critical PS patients who underwent BPV were excluded from this study.
Results
The pre-BPV right ventricle (RV)-pulmonary artery (PA) systolic pressure gradient and post-BPV systolic pressure gradient showed statistically significant decrease. The pre-BPV RV-PA systolic pressure gradient and 3 month post-BPV systolic pressure gradient showed statistically significant decrease. The consistency between the echocardiographic data and cardiac catheterization data shows statistically significant consistency. The mean pressure gradient and systolic pressure gradient on the echocardiography shows high consistency when comparing with the cardiac catheterization data.
Conclusion
Our study shows that BPV in PS is a safe and effective procedure in children and adolescent. The standard echocardiographic evaluation of PS, during diagnosis and follow-up, should include mean transpulmonic pressure gradient, as well as the peak systolic pressure gradient. The success of the procedure should be held off until at least 3 months, only if the patients do not show any symptoms.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.1.18
PMCID: PMC3611114  PMID: 23560138
Pulmonary valve stenosis; Percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty; Echocardiography; Systolic pressure gradient; Mean transpulmonic pressure gradient
16.  Transcatheter Treatment of Patent Foramen Ovale Combined with Abnormal Drainage of Left Superior Vena Cava to Left Upper Pulmonary Vein 
Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been known to be the cause of transient ischemic attacks or stroke, and transcatheter device closure has been the treatment of choice for these defects. Combined defect of abnormal drainage of left superior vena cava (LSVC) to left superior pulmonary vein (LSPV) in PFO patients is an uncommon combination, and both can act as a pathway for paradoxical embolism. We report a successful closure of PFO, using Amplatzer® PFO occluder (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) and persistent LSVC connected to LSPV using an Amplatzer® Vascular Plug II (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA). Because this combined anomaly of PFO and persistent LSVC can be treated by a single transcatheter intervention, if clinically suspected, a complete evaluation for this anomaly should be considered.
doi:10.4250/jcu.2013.21.1.33
PMCID: PMC3611118  PMID: 23560142
Patent foramen ovale; Persistent left superior vena cava; Transcatheter; Occluder; Vascular plug; Amplatzer®
17.  Insufficiency Fracture of Ipsilateral Femur Neck in Patient Treated with Long Term Bisphosphonate Treatment - A Case Report - 
Journal of Bone Metabolism  2012;19(2):159-162.
Bisphosphonate is notable for the treatment of osteoporosis in the world. But recently if Bisphosphonate is taken for a long time, it causes an insufficiency fracture by suppression of bone turn-over and it is reported rarely on femur neck. Here we report a case of insufficiency fracture on ipsilateral femur neck in woman treated with long term Bisphosphonate therapy.
doi:10.11005/jbm.2012.19.2.159
PMCID: PMC3780924  PMID: 24524048
Bisphosphonate; Femur neck; Insufficiency fracture; Osteoporosis
18.  Regression of Advanced Gastric MALT Lymphoma after the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori 
Gut and Liver  2012;6(2):270-274.
A 66-year-old female presented with a 1-month history of dyspepsia. An initial upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy revealed a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A rapid urease test was positive for Helicobacter pylori. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography (CT) revealed a 30×15-mm lymph node (LN) in the subcarinal area. Histopathologic and phenotypic analyses of the biopsy specimens obtained by EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration revealed a MALT lymphoma, and the patient was diagnosed with a stage 4E gastric MALT lymphoma. One year after H. pylori eradication, the lesion had disappeared, as demonstrated by endoscopy with biopsy, CT, fusion whole-body positron emission tomography, and EUS. Here, we describe a patient with gastric MALT lymphoma that metastasized to the mediastinal LN and regressed following H. pylori eradication.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2012.6.2.270
PMCID: PMC3343168  PMID: 22570759
Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma; Stomach
19.  Genetic Evaluation of ALADIN Gene in Early-Onset Achalasia and Alacrima Patients 
Background/Aims
ALADIN gene has been known to cause achalasia, alacrima, adrenal abnormalities and a progressive neurological syndrome. A considerable proportion of achalasia patients has been known to show alacrima (decreased secretion of tear). However, the genetic mechanism between achalasia and alacrima has not been defined yet. We postulated that ALADIN gene may be involved in the occurrence of early-onset achalasia; thus, we investigated the correlation of ALADIN gene in early-onset achalasia patients.
Methods
From 1989 to 2007, patients who were diagnosed as primary achalasia before age 35 were enrolled. All of the enrolled patients were asked for (1) blood sampling for DNA, (2) Shirmer test and (3) dysphagia questionnaires.
Results
The ALADIN gene in exon 1, 2, 10, 11 and 12 from 19 patients was investigated (M:F = 12:7). The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 27 ± 5 (15-35) years old. Eight out of 19 (42%) showed alacrima by the positive Shirmer test. In spite of thorough exam in the genetic study, there was no definite abnormal genetic finding in this study.
Conclusions
A considerable number of achalasia patients showed alacrima. Due to the limitation of this study, it is difficult to conclude that early-onset achalasia may have significant correlations with the ALADIN gene.
doi:10.5056/jnm.2011.17.2.169
PMCID: PMC3093009  PMID: 21602994
AAAS protein; Esophageal achalasia; Human; Shirmer test
20.  Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma with CLL-like morphology 
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.1.9
PMCID: PMC3065632  PMID: 21461296
21.  Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Using a Protease-Specific Probe for the Detection of Colon Tumors 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(4):488-497.
Background/Aims
Early tumor detection is crucial for the prevention of colon cancer. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging using a target-activatable probe may permit earlier disease detection. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) participate in tumorigenesis and tumor growth. The aim of this study was to determine whether NIRF imaging using an MMP-activatable probe can detect colon tumors at early stages.
Methods
We utilized two murine colon cancer models: a sporadic colon cancer model induced by azoxymethane (AOM), and a colitis-associated cancer model induced by a combination of AOM and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colonic lesions were analyzed by histologic examination, Western blotting, immunohistochemical staining, and NIRF imaging using an MMP-activatable probe.
Results
Multiple variable-sized tumors developed in both models and progressed from adenomas to adenocarcinomas over time. At the early stage of the AOM/DSS model, diffuse inflammation was observed within the tumors. MMP expression increased progressively through normal, inflammation, adenoma, and adenocarcionoma stages. NIRF signal intensities were strongly correlated with each tumor stage from adenoma to adenocarcinoma. NIRF imaging also distinguished tumors from inflamed mucosa.
Conclusions
NIRF imaging using a protease-activatable probe may be a useful tool for early tumor detection. This approach could translate to improve the endoscopic detection of colon tumors, especially in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2010.4.4.488
PMCID: PMC3021604  PMID: 21253297
Colon cancer; Inflammatory bowel disease; Near-infrared fluorescence; Matrix metalloproteinases
22.  Benign Bronchoesophageal Fistula in Adults: Endoscopic Closure as Primary Treatment 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(4):508-513.
Background/Aims
Benign bronchoesophageal fistula (BEF) is a rare condition that is usually treated surgically; however, less invasive endoscopy procedures have been attempted to overcome the disadvantages of surgery. The aim of this study was thus to determine the results of endoscopic management as a primary treatment in patients with BEF.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed data from 368 patients with BEF who were treated at a tertiary care, academic medical center between January 2000 and August 2009.
Results
Benign causes were found for only 18 of the 368 patients. Of these, seven were treated endoscopically and the others by surgery or other methods. The first endoscopy procedures failed in all seven patients, with second trials of endoscopy performed in four patients at a median of 8 days (range, 3 to 11 days) after the first procedure. The second endoscopic procedure was successful in two out of four patients; one patient showed no recurrence of the fistula, whereas the second patient experienced a recurrence after 24 months. All patients underwent successful surgical procedures after the failure of endoscopic treatment, with no further recurrences.
Conclusions
Although we observed a low rate of success for primary endoscopic treatment of benign BEF, the invasive nature of surgery suggests the need for a prospective study with a large number of patients to evaluate the efficacy of less invasive procedures such as endoscopic treatment.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2010.4.4.508
PMCID: PMC3021607  PMID: 21253300
Esophageal fistula; Endoscopy; Fibrin glue
23.  Efficacy and Tolerability of Aripiprazole: A 26-Week Switching Study from Oral Antipsychotics 
Psychiatry Investigation  2010;7(3):189-195.
Objective
To determine if the maintenance effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole demonstrated in a 12-week study were maintained in an extension phase (up to 26 weeks).
Methods
This study was the extension of our switching study from other antipsychotics to aripiprazole in symptomatically stable patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. All the patients were randomly assigned to the aripiprazole group or the non-aripiprazole group. The effectiveness analysis consisted of the comparison of the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the mean Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) score to 4 (no change) at the end of the study.
Results
At the baseline, the aripiprazole group (n=135) and the non-aripiprazole group (n=31) were comparable with respect to their mean ages, gender distribution, baseline Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores. The study showed that the mean CGI-I score was 2.92 (95% CI: 2.72-3.12) in the aripiprazole group and 2.81 (95% CI: 2.35-3.26) in the non-aripiprazole group at 26 weeks. In the aripiprazole group, the remission rates at 12 and 26 weeks were 74.8% and 72.6%, respectively, and 80.2% of the patients with remission at 12 weeks maintained their remission state until the end of the study. About one-fourth of the patients in the aripiprazole group reported one or more spontaneous treatment-emergent adverse events, such as insomnia, headache, and nausea.
Conclusion
This study suggested that most clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia maintain their remission states after being switched to aripiprazole, without serious symptom aggravation and adverse events over a course of 26 weeks.
doi:10.4306/pi.2010.7.3.189
PMCID: PMC2947806  PMID: 20927307
Aripiprazole; Maintenance; Switch; Schizophrenia; Schizoaffective disorder
24.  Heart Rate Variability and Length of Survival in Hospice Cancer Patients 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2010;25(8):1140-1145.
We examined the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and survival duration to evaluate the usefulness of HRV as a prognostic factor for hospice cancer patients. In terminally ill cancer patients who visited the Hospice clinic, we checked demographic data, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS), HRV, dyspnea, anorexia, as well as fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol. After following up their duration of survival, we examined meaningful prognostic factors for predicting life expectancy through the survival analysis. A total of 68 patients were included in final analysis. As KPS was lower, or when combined with dyspnea or anorexia, the survival duration was much shorter. HRV parameters except heart rate were all impaired in most patients. In particular, the group with mean heart rate of 100 or more beats per minute and the group with standard deviations of normal-to-normal R-R intervals (SDNN) of 21.3 ms (75 percentile) or less showed significantly shorter survival duration. The final multivariate analysis adjusting for age, gender, fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol showed that KPS, dyspnea, anorexia, and SDNN were significant prognostic factors in survival duration. For the first time, we report that SDNN is a prognostic factor in terminal cancer patients.
doi:10.3346/jkms.2010.25.8.1140
PMCID: PMC2908781  PMID: 20676323
Terminal Care; Life Expectancy; Prognosis; Heart Rate Variability
25.  Antipsychotic Effects of Quetiapine in Naturalistic Long Term Follow Up Study 
Psychiatry Investigation  2010;7(2):128-134.
Objective
This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of quetiapine and the effects of dosage relates to its effectiveness on schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in a naturalistic setting in Korean people.
Methods
This study was a 24-week, open-label, non-comparative, naturalistic study of quetiapine in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder according to DSM-IV. We stratified the patients into mild [(clinical global impression severity (CGI-S) <4 at baseline)] and severe groups (CGI-S ≥4 at baseline). We investigated the response rate, defined as clinical global impression improvement (CGI-I) ≤2, in the severe group and the aggravation rate in the mild group using the last-observation-carried-forward (LOCF) and the Kaplan-Meier method (K-M).
Results
During the 24 weeks, 151 (18.4%) of the participants dropped out of the study. There was a significant decrease in the mean CGI-S score, from 4.5±1.1 at baseline to 2.8±1.1 at 24 weeks. The response rate of severe group was 54.5% (estimated by LOCF) and 73.3% (K-M estimated) at 24 weeks. All patients who completed the study had taken a mean quetiapine dosage of 507.9±245.9 mg daily. The decrease of CGI-S score in high-dose group (the maximum dose was 750 mg/d or above) was statistically significant than that in recommended-dose group (the maximum dose was less than 750 mg/d).
Conclusion
This study demonstrated the long-term effectiveness of quetiapine in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in a naturalistic setting in Korean people. This study suggests that higher than recommended quetiapine dosages could be more effective in some patients.
doi:10.4306/pi.2010.7.2.128
PMCID: PMC2890867  PMID: 20577622
Schizophrenia; Quetiapine; Naturalistic study; High-dose

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