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1.  Characterization of antiphospholipid antibodies in chronic hepatitis B infection 
Background
Many infections are associated with antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, persistence, clinical significance, and characteristics of aPLs in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients.
Methods
This study included 143 patients with HBV infection and 32 healthy individuals as controls. The presence of anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL Ab), anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies (β2GPI Ab), and lupus anticoagulant (LA) was assessed.
Results
The total prevalence of aPLs in HBV-infected patients was 12.6% (18 of 143). Of these 18 patients, 15 had low to medium titers of aCL Ab (10 with IgM, 4 with IgG, and 1 with both isotypes). β2GPI Ab and LA were detected in 3 (2.1%) and 2 (1.4%) patients with HBV infection, respectively. In follow-up specimens from 14 patients with elevated levels of aCL Ab or β2GPI Ab, 10 (71.4%) showed the persistent presence of aPLs. No clinical manifestations related to aPLs were identified.
Conclusion
In HBV-infected patients, the most frequently detected antiphospholipid antibodies were IgM aCL Ab, which have a weak association with the clinical manifestations of APS. Unlike the transient presence reported for other infection-associated aPLs, most aPLs were persistently detected over a 12-week period in patients with HBV infection.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2011.46.1.36
PMCID: PMC3065625  PMID: 21461302
Anticardiolipin antibodies; Anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies; Lupus coagulation inhibitor; Hepatitis B virus
2.  Characterization of anti-factor VIII antibody in a patient with acquired hemophilia A 
Blood research  2013;48(1):58-62.
Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a bleeding disorder caused by the development of an auto-antibody against endogenous factor VIII (FVIII). In this study, the epitope of the autoantibody was identified in a 67-year-old female patient with AHA. A prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (77.4 s) that failed to correct in an incubation mixing test (68.2 s), a decreased FVIII activity, and a high FVIII inhibitor (14.6 Bethesda units/mL) were observed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated that the antibody belonged to the immunoglobulin G4 subclass. An immunoblotting assay revealed the light chain (A3/C1/C2 domain) of FVIII as the binding region of the antibody. The bleeding experienced by our patient resulted from the interference of FVIII binding to both FIX by anti-A3 antibodies and phospholipids and von Willebrand factor by anti-C2 antibodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Korea characterizing an autoantibody in the context of AHA.
doi:10.5045/br.2013.48.1.58
PMCID: PMC3624998  PMID: 23589798
Acquired hemophilia A; Factor VIII autoantibody; Epitope
3.  Current routine practice and clinico-pathological characteristics associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia in Korea 
Blood research  2013;48(1):31-34.
Background
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) can be life threatening, necessitating emergency therapy with prompt diagnosis by morphologic findings, immunophenotyping, cytogenetic analysis, or molecular studies. This study aimed to assess the current routine practices in APL and the clinico-pathologic features of APL.
Methods
We reviewed the medical records of 48 Korean patients (25 men, 23 women; median age, 51 (20-80) years) diagnosed with APL in 5 university hospitals between March 2007 and February 2012.
Results
The WBC count at diagnosis and platelet count varied from 0.4 to 81.0 (median 2.0)×109/L and 2.7 to 124.0 (median 54.5)×109/L, respectively. The median values for prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were 14.7 (11.3-44.1) s and 29 (24-62) s, respectively. All but 2 patients (96%) showed a fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product value of >20 µg/mL. The D-dimer median value was 5,000 (686-55,630) ng/mL. The t(15;17)(q22;q12 and PML-RARA fusion was found in all patients by chromosome analysis and/or multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with turnaround times of 8 (2-19) d and 7 (2-13) d, respectively. All patients received induction chemotherapy: all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) alone (N=11, 26%), ATRA+idarubicin (N=25, 58%), ATRA+cytarabine (N=3, 7%), ATRA+idarubicin+cytarabine (N=4, 9%).
Conclusion
Since APL is a medical emergency and an accurate diagnosis is a prerequisite for prompt treatment, laboratory support to implement faster diagnostic tools to confirm the presence of PML-RARA is required.
doi:10.5045/br.2013.48.1.31
PMCID: PMC3625006  PMID: 23589792
Acute promyelocytic leukemia; PML-RARA; Immunophenotyping; Cytogenetic analysis; All-trans retinoic acid
4.  A case of transfusion-related acute lung injury induced by anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies in acute leukemia 
The Korean Journal of Hematology  2012;47(4):302-306.
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema that occurs during or within 6 hours after transfusion. Risk factors for TRALI, which is relatively common in critically ill patients, include recent surgery, hematologic malignancy, and sepsis. Here, we report a case of TRALI induced by anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) class II antibodies (HLA-DR) occurring after transfusion of platelet concentrates in a patient with acute leukemia. Although most patients with TRALI show improvement within 48-96 hours, our patient's condition rapidly worsened, and he did not respond to supportive treatment. TRALI is a relatively common and serious adverse transfusion reaction that requires prompt diagnosis and management.
doi:10.5045/kjh.2012.47.4.302
PMCID: PMC3538804  PMID: 23320011
Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI); Transfusion; Anti-human leukocyte antigen (anti-HLA) antibody
5.  Multiplex PCR for Rapid Detection of Genes Encoding Class A Carbapenemases 
Annals of Laboratory Medicine  2012;32(5):359-361.
In recent years, there have been increasing reports of KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Korea. The modified Hodge test can be used as a phenotypic screening test for class A carbapenamase (CAC)-producing clinical isolates; however, it does not distinguish between carbapenemase types. The confirmation of type of CAC is important to ensure optimal therapy and to prevent transmission. This study applied a novel multiplex PCR assay to detect and differentiate CAC genes in a single reaction. Four primer pairs were designed to amplify fragments encoding 4 CAC families (SME, IMI/NMC-A, KPC, and GES). The multiplex PCR detected all genes tested for 4 CAC families that could be differentiated by fragment size according to gene type. This multiplex PCR offers a simple and useful approach for detecting and distinguishing CAC genes in carbapenem-resistant strains that are metallo-β-lactamase nonproducers.
doi:10.3343/alm.2012.32.5.359
PMCID: PMC3427824  PMID: 22950072
Carbapenemase; Multiplex PCR; KPC; GES
6.  A Trp33Arg Mutation at Exon 1 of the MYH9 Gene in a Korean Patient with May-Hegglin Anomaly 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2012;53(3):662-666.
In this report, we describe a Korean patient with May-Hegglin anomaly from a mutation of the MYH9 gene. The proband was a 21-year-old man with thrombocytopenia. He did not have a bleeding tendency. His neutrophil count was normal at 7490/mm3; however, the neutrophils contained abnormal basophilic inclusions in their cytoplasm. The platelet count was decreased at 15000/mm3 with giant platelets. Coagulation test results were not remarkable. Direct sequencing of MYH9 revealed that he was heterozygous for a mutation in exon 1, which was a 97T>A substitution mutation affecting codon 33, substituting tryptophan with arginine (Trp33Arg). Family study showed that both of his parents had normal phenotype and genotypes, indicating a de novo occurrence of the mutation in the proband.
doi:10.3349/ymj.2012.53.3.662
PMCID: PMC3343441  PMID: 22477015
May-Hegglin anomaly; MYH9; thrombocytopenia; Korean
7.  Selective inhibition of RANK blocks osteoclast maturation and function and prevents bone loss in mice 
Regulation of the formation and function of bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) is a key to understanding the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders. Gene-targeting studies have shown that the RANK signaling pathway plays a critical role in OC differentiation and function. Although pharmaceutical blockade of RANK may be a viable strategy for preventing bone destruction, RANK is implicated in multiple biological processes. Recently, a cytoplasmic motif of RANK was identified that may be specifically involved in OC differentiation. Here, we developed a cell-permeable inhibitor termed the RANK receptor inhibitor (RRI), which targets this motif. The RRI peptide blocked RANKL-induced OC formation from murine bone marrow–derived macrophages. Furthermore, RRI inhibited the resorptive function of OCs and induced OC apoptosis. Treatment with the peptide impaired downstream signaling of RANK linked to Vav3, Rac1, and Cdc42 and resulted in disruptions of the actin cytoskeleton in differentiated OCs. In addition, RRI blocked inflammation-induced bone destruction and protected against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. These data may be useful in the development of selective therapeutic agents for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone diseases.
doi:10.1172/JCI36809
PMCID: PMC2662555  PMID: 19258703
8.  Distribution of Insertion Sequences Associated with Tn1546-Like Elements among Enterococcus faecium Isolates from Patients in Korea 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2004;42(5):1897-1902.
The vanA gene cluster is carried as a part of Tn1546-like elements. The genetic diversity in Tn1546-like elements has been documented previously. The differences described thus far have included the integration of insertion sequence (IS) elements IS1216V, IS1251, IS1476, and IS1542. Among these, IS1216V has been reported to be widespread in VanA enterococci of diverse geographic areas, whereas IS1542 and IS1476 have been reported only in the United Kingdom and Canada, respectively. We investigated the distribution of ISs among 20 vanA-containing Enterococcus faecium isolates from human patients in nine different university hospitals in Korea. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed to identify the clonality of the isolates. Moreover, PCR amplification of the internal regions of Tn1546 was performed for structural analysis of the van gene, and both DNA strands of the PCR amplicons were directly sequenced by the dideoxy termination method. The PFGE patterns revealed a high degree of clonal diversity. Structural analyses of the van gene detected IS1542 and IS1216V in the genomes of all 20 isolates, whereas it did not detect IS1476 or IS1251 in the genomes of any of the isolates. In addition, IS19 was detected in the vanS-vanH intergenic region of one isolate. These data indicate that identification of the IS within a vanA gene cluster could be a useful tool in epidemiological investigations. In addition, the distribution of ISs associated with Tn1546-like elements among the Korean isolates is therefore similar to that among European vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
doi:10.1128/JCM.42.5.1897-1902.2004
PMCID: PMC404624  PMID: 15131146
9.  Reduction in Glycopeptide Resistance in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci as a Result of vanA Cluster Rearrangements 
The molecular characterization of five clinical isolates of vanA-containing vancomycin-resistant enterococci with altered resistance to glycopeptides was examined. One strain represented an IS1216V insertion accompanied by partial deletion of the reading frame of vanX following a transposition event. The other four strains represented IS1216V within the vanX-vanY intergenic region associated with deletion of vanY or vanZ.
doi:10.1128/AAC.48.4.1379-1381.2004
PMCID: PMC375328  PMID: 15047548

Results 1-9 (9)