By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once INR response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6–11 after therapy initiation.
Materials and Methods
An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centers on 3 continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6–11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that “effective” dose constituted a treatment response index.
Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R2 was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G→A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R2= 69.1% (P<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week.
A pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy.
warfarin; VKORC1; CYP2C9; pharmacogenetic
Objective. To determine factors associated with single antiplatelet (SAP) or dual antiplatelet (DAP) therapy and anticoagulants (AC) use in hospital and after discharge among patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods. We evaluated 5,294 ACS patients in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study from 2004 to 2009. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine predictors of AC or AP use. Results. In hospital, 99% received an AC, 79% DAP, and 19% SAP; 78% had DAP + AC. Coronary stents were the strongest predictors of DAP use in hospital compared to SAP (P < 0.001). After discharge, 77% received DAP, 20% SAP, and 9% AC; 5% had DAP + AC. DAP compared to SAP was less likely for patients on AC (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30, P < 0.0001) after discharge. Placement of a stent increased the likelihood of DAP (bare metal: OR = 54.8, P < 0.0001; drug eluting: OR = 59.4, P < 0.0001). 923 had atrial fibrillation and 337 had a history of venous thromboembolism; these patients had increased use of AC (29% and 40%, resp.). Conclusion. While in-hospital use of AC was nearly universal, postdischarge AC use was rare. Concern for providing the best antithrombotic therapy, while maintaining an acceptable bleeding risk, may explain the selection decisions.
We performed a gene–smoking interaction analysis using families from an early-onset coronary artery disease cohort (GENECARD). This analysis was focused on validating and expanding results from previous studies implicating single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 3 in smoking-mediated coronary artery disease. We analyzed 430 SNPs on chromosome 3 and identified 16 SNPs that showed a gene–smoking interaction at P < 0.05 using association in the presence of linkage—ordered subset analysis, a method that uses permutations of the data to empirically estimate the strength of the association signal. Seven of the 16 SNPs were in the Rho-GTPase pathway indicating a 1.87-fold enrichment for this pathway. A meta-analysis of gene–smoking interactions in three independent studies revealed that rs9289231 in KALRN had a Fisher’s combined P value of 0.0017 for the interaction with smoking. In a gene-based meta-analysis KALRN had a P value of 0.026. Finally, a pathway-based analysis of the association results using WebGestalt revealed several enriched pathways including the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton pathway as defined by the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes.
A chromosome 9p21 locus is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in at least 25 independent populations, but multiple clinically-distinct phenotypes have been evaluated. Utilizing angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) phenotyping, this study evaluated whether 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) predict ischemic events (e.g., myocardial infarction [MI]) among CAD patients.
Methods and Results
Patients undergoing coronary angiography during 1994-2007 (population set 1A: N=1,748; set 1B: N=1,014) were evaluated for association of a 9p21 tagging SNP (rs2383206, A→G) with incident MI and death events among patients with angiographically-significant CAD. Another hypothesis evaluated rs2383206 in two additional angiographic sets of both CAD and non-CAD patients (set 2A: N=2,122; set 2B: N=1,466) for prevalent MI vs. CAD/no MI (and for MI vs. non-CAD and CAD/no MI vs. non-CAD). No association of rs2383206 was found with events in set 1A (OR=0.95 per G allele, p-trend=0.48) and set 1B (OR=0.91 per G allele, p-trend=0.28), or with MI vs. CAD/no MI in set 2A (OR=0.96 per G allele, p-trend=0.57) and set 2B (OR=0.89 per G allele, p-trend=0.21). In contrast, rs2383206 was associated with CAD/no MI compared with non-CAD (set 2A: p-trend=0.0001; set 2B: p-trend=0.0008).
The chromosome 9p21 locus was not associated with incident events or prevalent MI, although it did predict CAD diagnosis. This contradicts reports of a 9p21 association with MI, likely due to differences in phenotype assignment. This suggests that high-quality phenotyping for CAD and MI is required to dissect the specific contributions of genetic variation to each stage of CHD pathophysiology.
atherosclerosis; coronary disease; epidemiology; genetics; myocardial infarction
This study sought to ascertain the relationship of 9p21 locus with: 1) angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) burden; and 2) myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals with underlying CAD.
Chromosome 9p21 variants have been robustly associated with coronary heart disease, but questions remain on the mechanism of risk, specifically whether the locus contributes to coronary atheroma burden or plaque instability.
We established a collaboration of 21 studies consisting of 33,673 subjects with information on both CAD (clinical or angiographic) and MI status along with 9p21 genotype. Tabular data are provided for each cohort on the presence and burden of angiographic CAD, MI cases with underlying CAD, and the diabetic status of all subjects.
We first confirmed an association between 9p21 and CAD with angiographically defined cases and control subjects (pooled odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.43). Among subjects with angiographic CAD (n = 20,987), random-effects model identified an association with multivessel CAD, compared with those with single-vessel disease (OR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.17)/copy of risk allele). Genotypic models showed an OR of 1.15, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.26 for heterozygous carrier and OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.39 for homozygous carrier. Finally, there was no significant association between 9p21 and prevalent MI when both cases (n = 17,791) and control subjects (n = 15,882) had underlying CAD (OR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.95 to 1.03)/risk allele.
The 9p21 locus shows convincing association with greater burden of CAD but not with MI in the presence of underlying CAD. This adds further weight to the hypothesis that 9p21 locus primarily mediates an atherosclerotic phenotype.
9p21; angiography; coronary artery disease; meta-analysis; myocardial infarction; single nucleotide polymorphism
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common and multi-factorial. Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS, or Mormons) in Utah may have lower cardiac mortality than other Utahns and the US population. While the LDS proscription of smoking likely contributes to lower cardiac risk, it is unknown whether other shared behaviors also contribute. This study evaluated potential CAD-associated effects of fasting. Patients (N1=4,629) enrolled in the Intermountain Heart Collaborative Study registry (1994-2002) were evaluated for association of religious preference with CAD diagnosis (≥70% coronary stenosis on angiography) or no CAD (normal coronaries, <10% stenosis). Consequently, another set of patients (N2=448) were surveyed (2004-2006) for association of behavioral factors with CAD, with the primary variable being routine fasting (i.e., abstinence from food and drink). Secondary survey measures included proscription of alcohol, tea, and coffee, social support, and religious worship patterns. In population 1 (initial), 61% of LDS and 66% of all others had CAD (adjusted [including for smoking]: odds ratio [OR]=0.81; p=0.009). In population 2 (survey), fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD (64% vs. 76% CAD; OR=0.55, CI=0.35, 0.87; p=0.010) and this remained after adjustment for traditional risk factors (OR=0.46, CI=0.27, 0.81; p=0.007). Fasting was also associated with lower diabetes prevalence (p=0.048). In regression models entering other secondary behavioral measures, fasting remained significant with similar effect size. In conclusion, not only proscription of tobacco, but also routine periodic fasting was associated with lower risk of CAD.
fasting; coronary artery disease; smoking; behavioral factors
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes may be associated with myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary artery disease (CAD), but studies of multiple MMP genes and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are scarce. Further, differentiation of predictive ability by endpoint (MI vs. CAD) has not been addressed. This study evaluated the association with MI of SNPs in genes encoding MMPs 1, 2, 3, and 9 and TIMPs 1, 2, and 3.
Genotypes of patients (N=5,148) with MI (n=1,693) and angiographically-defined CAD (=1 lesion of =70% stenosis, n=1,967) were compared to MI-free (n=3,455) and non-CAD patients (n=1,122), respectively. Due to linkage disequilibrium, MMP-1 and MMP-3 SNPs (chromosome 11) were combined, as were the two MMP-9 SNPs.
For MI, only MMP-9 group CT/RQ (OR=1.25, p=0.007 vs. wild-type CC/RR) had greater MI risk, with TT/QQ having a weak trend (OR=1.43, p=0.10). These findings remained (CT/RQ) or were strengthened (TT/QQ) after full adjustment. For CAD, association was found for MMP-1/-3 groups 2G1G/6A6A (OR=1.45, p=0.022), 2G1G/6A5A (OR=1.49, p=0.001), 2G1G/5A5A (OR=1.64, p=0.003), and 1G1G/5A5A (OR=1.35, p=0.035) compared to wild-type.
Composite MMP-9 genotypes but not other SNPs were associated with MI, while MMP-1/-3 genotypes were CAD-associated. The largest MMP/TIMP gene study to date, this study suggests care in selection and definition of clinical phenotypes. Further, this suggests that the evaluated SNPs only approximately account for intra-genic variation in these genes and that comprehensive evaluation of all variation in these genes should better elucidate associations with MI and CAD phenotypes.
This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.
Higher circulating levels of sPLA2-IIA mass or sPLA2 enzyme activity have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, it is not clear if this association is causal. A recent phase III clinical trial of an sPLA2 inhibitor (varespladib) was stopped prematurely for lack of efficacy.
We conducted a Mendelian randomization meta-analysis of 19 general population studies (8,021 incident, 7,513 prevalent major vascular events [MVE] in 74,683 individuals) and 10 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohorts (2,520 recurrent MVE in 18,355 individuals) using rs11573156, a variant in PLA2G2A encoding the sPLA2-IIA isoenzyme, as an instrumental variable.
PLA2G2A rs11573156 C allele associated with lower circulating sPLA2-IIA mass (38% to 44%) and sPLA2 enzyme activity (3% to 23%) per C allele. The odds ratio (OR) for MVE per rs11573156 C allele was 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98 to 1.06) in general populations and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.90 to 1.03) in ACS cohorts. In the general population studies, the OR derived from the genetic instrumental variable analysis for MVE for a 1-log unit lower sPLA2-IIA mass was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.96 to 1.13), and differed from the non-genetic observational estimate (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.61 to 0.79). In the ACS cohorts, both the genetic instrumental variable and observational ORs showed a null association with MVE. Instrumental variable analysis failed to show associations between sPLA2 enzyme activity and MVE.
Reducing sPLA2-IIA mass is unlikely to be a useful therapeutic goal for preventing cardiovascular events.
cardiovascular diseases; drug development; epidemiology; genetics; Mendelian randomization; ACS, acute coronary syndrome(s); CI, confidence interval; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MI, myocardial infarction; MVE, major vascular events; OR, odds ratio; RCT, randomized clinical trial; SNP, single-nucleotide polymorphism; sPLA2, secretory phospholipase A2
The Intermountain Risk Score (IMRS), composed of the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic profile (BMP), predicts mortality and morbidity in medical and general populations. Whether longitudinal repeated measurement of IMRS is useful for prognostication is an important question for its clinical applicability.
Females (N = 5,698) and males (N = 5,437) with CBC and BMP panels measured 6 months to 2.0 years apart (mean 1.0 year) had baseline and follow-up IMRS computed. Survival analysis during 4.0±2.5 years (maximum 10 years) evaluated mortality (females: n = 1,255 deaths; males: n = 1,164 deaths) and incident major events (myocardial infarction, heart failure [HF], and stroke).
Both baseline and follow-up IMRS (categorized as high-risk vs. low-risk) were independently associated with mortality (all p<0.001) in bivariable models. For females, follow-up IMRS had hazard ratio (HR) = 5.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.11, 6.64) and baseline IMRS had HR = 3.66 (CI = 2.94, 4.55). Among males, follow-up IMRS had HR = 4.28 (CI = 3.51, 5.22) and baseline IMRS had HR = 2.32 (CI = 1.91, 2.82). IMRS components such as RDW, measured at both time points, also predicted mortality. Baseline and follow-up IMRS strongly predicted incident HF in both genders.
Repeated measurement of IMRS at baseline and at about one year of follow-up were independently prognostic for mortality and incident HF among initially hospitalized patients. RDW and other CBC and BMP values were also predictive of outcomes. Further research should evaluate the utility of IMRS as a tool for clinical risk adjustment.
Women often lag behind men in their risk of cardiovascular events. However, with age and the onset of menopause, women’s cardiovascular risk eventually becomes similar to that of men. This change in risk may, in part, be attributable to a shift to a more atherogenic lipid profile. Our objective was to evaluate standard- and sub-lipid parameters and the apo A1 remnant ratio: (apo A1/[VLDL3-C+IDL-C]) for their associations with death/myocardial infarction among peri- and post-menopausal women.
Women (N=711) >50 years of age undergoing coronary angiography were evaluated. Baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics, lipids, and sub-lipid levels (Vertical Auto Profile method) were collected. Cox regression analysis, adjusted by standard cardiovascular risk factors, was utilized to determine associations of lipid and sub-lipid tertiles(T) with death/myocardial infarction at 1 and 3 years.
Patients averaged 67.7±9.4 years and 53.6% had underlying severe (≥70% stenosis) coronary artery disease. The apo A1 remnant ratio was found to have stronger associations for 1 year (T1 vs. T3: HR=2.13, p=0.03, T2 vs. T3: HR=1.57, p=0.21) and 3 year (T1 vs. T3: HR=2.32, p=0.002, T2 vs. T3: HR=1.97, p=0.01) death/myocardial infarction than any individual lipid (LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, non-HDL-C) or sub-lipid (apo A1, apo B, VLDL3-C+IDL-C) measure, or any other well-known ratio (triglyercies/HDL-C, apo B/A1, TChol/HDL-C, HDL-C/[VLDL3-C+IDL-C]).
The apo A1 remnant ratio was a significant predictor of short and intermediate-term death/myocardial infarction risk among women >50 years of age. Furthermore, this ratio was found to have greater predictive ability than traditional lipid and sub-lipid parameters and represents a potential new risk marker.
Lipid; Lipoprotein; Risk; Women; Outcomes; Apolipoprotein A1; Remnant lipoproteins
We tested whether genetic factors distinctly contribute to either development of coronary atherosclerosis or, specifically, to myocardial infarction in existing coronary atherosclerosis.
We did two genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with coronary angiographic phenotyping in participants of European ancestry. To identify loci that predispose to angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD), we compared individuals who had this disorder (n=12 393) with those who did not (controls, n=7383). To identify loci that predispose to myocardial infarction, we compared patients who had angiographic CAD and myocardial infarction (n=5783) with those who had angiographic CAD but no myocardial infarction (n=3644).
In the comparison of patients with angiographic CAD versus controls, we identified a novel locus, ADAMTS7 (p=4·98×10−13). In the comparison of patients with angiographic CAD who had myocardial infarction versus those with angiographic CAD but no myocardial infarction, we identified a novel association at the ABO locus (p=7·62×10−9). The ABO association was attributable to the glycotransferase-deficient enzyme that encodes the ABO blood group O phenotype previously proposed to protect against myocardial infarction.
Our findings indicate that specific genetic predispositions promote the development of coronary atherosclerosis whereas others lead to myocardial infarction in the presence of coronary atherosclerosis. The relation to specific CAD phenotypes might modify how novel loci are applied in personalised risk assessment and used in the development of novel therapies for CAD.
The PennCath and MedStar studies were supported by the Cardiovascular Institute of the University of Pennsylvania, by the MedStar Health Research Institute at Washington Hospital Center and by a research grant from GlaxoSmithKline. The funding and support for the other cohorts contributing to the paper are described in the webappendix.
Total cholesterol was among the earliest identified risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to identify genetic variants in six genes associated with lipid metabolism and estimate their respective contribution to risk for CHD.
For 6 lipid-associated genes (LCAT, CETP, LIPC, LPL, SCARB1, and ApoF) we scanned exons, 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions, and donor and acceptor splice sites for variants using Hi-Res Melting® curve analysis (HRMCA) with confirmation by cycle sequencing. Healthy subjects were used for SNP discovery (n=64), haplotype determination/tagging SNP discovery (n=339), and lipid association testing (n=786).
In 17,840 bases of interrogated sequence, 90 variant SNPs were identified; 19 (21.1%) previously unreported. Thirty-four variants (37.8%) were exonic(16 non-synonymous), 28 (31.1%) in intron-exon boundaries, and 28 (31.1%) in the 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions. Compared to cycle sequencing, HRMCA had sensitivity of 99.4% and specificity of 97.7%. Tagging SNPs (n=38) explained >90% of the variation in the 6 genes and identified linkage disequilibrium (LD) groups. Significant beneficial lipid profiles were observed for CETP LD group 2, LIPC LD groups 1 and 7, and SCARB1 LD groups 1, 3 and 4. Risk profiles worsened for CETP LD group 3, LPL LD group 4.
These findings demonstrate the feasibility, sensitivity, and specificity of HRMCA for SNP discovery. Variants identified in these genes may be used to predict lipid-associated risk and reclassification of clinical CHD risk.
Lipids; Genetic variants; Coronary heart disease; High resolution melting curve analysis
In patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS), elevated levels of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. We evaluated sCD40L levels and future cardiovascular events in patients not experiencing ACS.
Serum sCD40L levels were measured in 909 patients undergoing angiography. A three-way matching scheme (age, gender and catheterization time period) identified 303 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) who experienced a cardiac event within 1 year (CAD/event), 303 patients with CAD free of events (CAD/no event) and 303 patients without CAD and free of events (no CAD).
Average age was 64 ± 11 years; 74% were males. Median (± SE) sCD40L levels were higher for no CAD patients (335 ± 60 pg/ml) compared to CAD (248 ± 65 pg/ml, p = 0.01) and to CAD/event (233 ± 63 pg/ml, p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in median sCD40L levels between CAD/no event and CAD/event patients. Higher sCD40L quartiles were associated with a significant decrease in the risk of CAD/event versus no CAD (quartile 4 versus quartile 1: odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.03). There was a nonsignificant trend towards a decreased risk of CAD as compared to no CAD, and for CAD/event versus CAD.
In non-ACS patients, higher sCD40L levels were associated with a decreased risk of CAD. This novel interaction of sCD40L raises interesting questions for CAD pathogenesis.
Soluble CD40 ligand; Coronary artery disease; Inflammation; C-reactive protein; Cardiovascular risk
Clopidogrel, one of the most commonly prescribed medications, is a pro-drug requiring CYP450 biotransformation. Data suggest its pharmacologic effect varies based on CYP2C19 genotype, but there is uncertainty regarding the clinical risk imparted by specific genotypes.
In patients treated with clopidogrel, to define the risk of major adverse cardiovascular outcomes among carriers of one (∼26% prevalence in whites) and carriers of two (∼2% prevalence in whites) reduced-function CYP2C19 variants.
Data Sources and Study Selection
A literature search was conducted (January 2000-August 2010) of the MEDLINE, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases. Genetic studies were included where clopidogrel was initiated in predominantly invasively managed patients in a manner consistent with the current guideline recommendations and where clinical outcomes were ascertained.
Investigators from nine studies evaluating CYP2C19 genotype and clinical outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel contributed the relevant hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for specific cardiovascular outcomes by genotype.
Among 9685 patients [91.3% of whom underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and 54.5% of whom had an acute coronary syndrome (ACS)], 863 experienced the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke; 84 patients had stent thrombosis among the 5894 evaluated for such. Overall, 71.5% were non-carriers, 26.3% had one, and 2.2% had two CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles. A significantly increased risk of the composite endpoint was evident in both carriers of one (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.27, P=0.01) and two (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.24-2.50, P=0.002) CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles. Similarly, there was a significantly increased risk of stent thrombosis in both carriers of one (HR 2.67, 95% CI 1.69-4.22, P<0.0001) and two (HR 3.97, 95% CI 1.75-9.02, P=0.001) CYP2C19 reduced-function alleles.
Among patients treated with clopidogrel for PCI, carriage of even one reduced-function CYP2C19 allele appears to be associated with a significantly increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, particularly stent thrombosis.
We performed a meta-analysis of 14 genome-wide association studies of coronary artery disease (CAD) comprising 22,233 cases and 64,762 controls of European descent, followed by genotyping of top association signals in 60,738 additional individuals. This genomic analysis identified 13 novel loci harboring one or more SNPs that were associated with CAD at P<5×10−8 and confirmed the association of 10 of 12 previously reported CAD loci. The 13 novel loci displayed risk allele frequencies ranging from 0.13 to 0.91 and were associated with a 6 to 17 percent increase in the risk of CAD per allele. Notably, only three of the novel loci displayed significant association with traditional CAD risk factors, while the majority lie in gene regions not previously implicated in the pathogenesis of CAD. Finally, five of the novel CAD risk loci appear to have pleiotropic effects, showing strong association with various other human diseases or traits.
To discover common variants in 6 lipid metabolic genes and construct and validate a genetic risk score (GRS) based on the joint effects of genetic variants in multiple genes from lipid and other pathobiologic pathways.
Explaining the genetic basis of coronary artery disease (CAD) is incomplete. Discovery and aggregation of genetic variants from multiple pathways may advance this objective.
Premature CAD cases (N=1,918) and CAD-free controls (N=1,032) were selected from our angiographic registry. In a discovery phase, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 56 loci from internal discovery and external reports were tested for associations with biomarkers and CAD: 28 promising SNPs were then tested jointly for CAD associations, and a genetic risk score (GRS) consisting of SNPs contributing independently was constructed and validated in a replication set of familial cases and population-based controls (N=1,320).
Five variants contributed jointly to CAD prediction in a multigenic GRS model: odds ratio (OR) =1.24 (95% CI 1.16–1.33) per risk allele, p=8.2×10−11, adjusted OR=2.03 (1.53–2.70), 4th vs. 1st quartile. GRS5 had minor impact on area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (p>0.05) but resulted in substantial net reclassification improvement: 0.16 overall, 0.28 in intermediate risk patients (both p<0.0001). GRS5 predicted familial CAD with similar magnitude in the validation set.
CorGen demonstrates the ability of a multigenic, multipathway GRS to improve discrimination of angiographic CAD. Genetic risk scores promise to increase understanding of the genetic basis of CAD and improve identification of individuals at increased CAD risk.
Coronary artery disease; genetics; risk; risk score
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise HDL-cholesterol but torcetrapib, the first-in-class inhibitor tested in a large outcome trial caused unexpected blood pressure elevation and increased cardiovascular events. Whether the hypertensive effect resulted from CETP-inhibition or an off-target action of torcetrapib has been debated. We hypothesised that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CETP-gene could help distinguish mechanism-based from off-target actions of CETP-inhibitors to inform on the validity of CETP as a therapeutic target.
Methods and Results
We compared the effect of CETP SNPs and torcetrapib treatment on lipid fractions, blood pressure and electrolytes in up to 67,687 individuals from genetic studies and 17,911 from randomised trials. CETP SNPs and torcetrapib treatment reduced CETP activity and had directionally concordant effect on eight lipid and lipoprotein traits (total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, HDL2, HDL3, apolipoproteins A-I, -B, and triglycerides), with the genetic effect on HDL-cholesterol (0.13 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.14) being consistent with that expected of a 10 mg dose of torcetrapib (0.13 mmol/L; 0.10, 0.15). In trials, 60mg torcetrapib elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4.47mmHg (4.10, 4.84) and 2.08mmHg (1.84, 2.31) respectively. However, the effect of CETP SNPs on systolic 0.16mmHg (−0.28, 0.60) and diastolic blood pressure −0.04mmHg (−0.36, 0.28) was null and significantly different from that expected of 10 mg torcetrapib.
Discordance in the effects of CETP SNPs and torcetrapib treatment on blood pressure despite the concordant effects on lipids indicates the hypertensive action of torcetrapib is unlikely to be due to CETP-inhibition, or shared by chemically dissimilar CETP inhibitors. Genetic studies could find use in drug development programmes as a new source of randomised evidence for drug target validation in man.
genetics; pharmacology; epidemiology
Multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) levels. In this paper, we evaluate a weighted and an unweighted approach for estimating the combined effect of multiple markers (using genotypes and haplotypes) on lipid levels for a given individual.
Using data from the Framingham Heart Study SHARe genome-wide association study, we tested genome-wide genotypes and haplotypes for association with lipid levels and constructed genetic risk scores (GRS) based on multiple markers that were weighted according to their estimated effects on LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG. These scores (GRS-LDL, GRS-HDL, and GRS-TG) were then evaluated for associations with LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG, and compared with results of an unweighted method based on risk-allele counts. For comparability of metrics, GRS variables were divided into quartiles.
GRS-LDL quartiles were associated with LDL-C levels (p = 2.1 × 10-24), GRS-HDL quartiles with HDL-C (p = 5.9 × 10-22), and GRS-TG quartiles with TG (p = 5.4 × 10-25). In comparison, these p-values were considerably lower than those for the associations of the unweighted GRS quartiles for LDL-C (p = 3.6 × 10-7), HDL-C (p = 6.4 × 10-16), and TG (p = 4.1 × 10-10).
GRS variables were highly predictive of LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG measurements, especially when weighted based on each marker's individual association with those intermediate risk phenotypes. The allele-count GRS approach that does not weight the GRS by individual marker associations was considerably less predictive of lipid and lipoprotein measures when the same genetic markers were utilized, suggesting that substantially more risk-associated genetic marker information is encapsulated by the weighted GRS variables.
Long QT syndrome type 2 (LQT2) is caused by mutations in the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). More than 30% of the LQT2 mutations result in premature termination codons (PTCs). Degradation of PTC-containing mRNA transcripts by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is increasingly recognized as a mechanism for reducing mRNA levels in a variety of human diseases. However, the role of NMD in LQT2 mutations has not been explored.
Methods and Results
We examined the expression of hERG mRNA in lymphocytes from patients carrying the R1014X mutation using a technique of allele-specific transcript quantification. The R1014X mutation led to a reduced level of mutant mRNA compared to that of the wild-type allele. The decrease in mutant mRNA was also observed in LQT2 nonsense mutations W1001X and R1014X using hERG minigenes expressed in HEK293 cells or neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Treatment with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide or RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Upf1 protein resulted in the restoration of mutant mRNA to levels comparable to that of the wild-type minigene, suggesting that hERG nonsense mutations are subject to NMD.
These results indicate that LQT2 nonsense mutations cause a decrease in mutant mRNA levels by NMD rather than production of truncated proteins. Our findings suggest that the degradation of hERG mutant mRNA by NMD is an important mechanism in LQT2 patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations.
arrhythmia; ion channels; myocytes; long QT syndrome
We performed a multipoint linkage analysis for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for chromosome 6 and chromosome 21 using Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15) data. These regions were previously shown to have high LOD scores, not accounting for linkage disequilibrium (LD). We propose three novel methods to control for LD in a linkage analysis: allow for LD between markers using graphical modeling, eliminate high-LD markers by principal-component analysis (PCA) using haplotype data, and eliminate high-LD markers by PCA using genotype data. All three novel methods were compared to the previously published SNPLINK high-LD elimination method. Although all four methods verified the previous results, differences in linkage peak height and position were observed across methods. Additional work is required to further understand the effects of LD on linkage results and explore LD control methodology.
High triglycerides (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) jointly increase coronary disease risk. We performed linkage analysis for TG/HDL-C ratio in the Framingham Heart Study data as a quantitative trait, using methods implemented in LINKAGE, GENEHUNTER (GH), MCLINK, and SOLAR. Results were compared to each other and to those from a previous evaluation using SOLAR for TG/HDL-C ratio on this sample. We also investigated linked pedigrees in each region using by-pedigree analysis.
Fourteen regions with at least suggestive linkage evidence were identified, including some that may increase and some that may decrease coronary risk. Ten of the 14 regions were identified by more than one analysis, and several of these regions were not previously detected. The best regions identified for each method were on chromosomes 2 (LOD = 2.29, MCLINK), 5 (LOD = 2.65, GH), 7 (LOD = 2.67, SOLAR), and 22 (LOD = 3.37, LINKAGE). By-pedigree multi-point LOD values in MCLINK showed linked pedigrees for all five regions, ranging from 3 linked pedigrees (chromosome 5) to 14 linked pedigrees (chromosome 7), and suggested localizations of between 9 cM and 27 cM in size.
Reasonable concordance was found across analysis methods. No single method identified all regions, either by full sample LOD or with by-pedigree analysis. Concordance across methods appeared better at the pedigree level, with many regions showing by-pedigree support in MCLINK when no evidence was observed in the full sample. Thus, investigating by-pedigree linkage evidence may provide a useful tool for evaluating linkage regions.