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1.  Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy and Molecular Imaging in Barrett Esophagus and Stomach 
Clinical Endoscopy  2014;47(1):23-30.
Detection of premalignant lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract may facilitate endoscopic treatment and improve survival. Despite technological advances in white light endoscopy, its ability to detect premalignant lesions remains limited. Early detection could be improved by using advanced endoscopic imaging techniques, such as magnification endoscopy, narrow band imaging, i-scanning, flexible spectral imaging color enhancement, autofluorescence imaging, and confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE), as these techniques may increase the rate of detection of mucosal abnormalities and allow optical diagnosis. The present review focuses on advanced endoscopic imaging techniques based on the use of CLE for diagnosing premalignant lesions in Barrett esophagus and stomach.
doi:10.5946/ce.2014.47.1.23
PMCID: PMC3928487  PMID: 24570880
Barrett esophagus; Stomach neoplasms; Endoscopy; Confocal laser endomicroscopy; Molecular imaging
2.  Regression of Advanced Gastric MALT Lymphoma after the Eradication of Helicobacter pylori 
Gut and Liver  2012;6(2):270-274.
A 66-year-old female presented with a 1-month history of dyspepsia. An initial upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy revealed a low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A rapid urease test was positive for Helicobacter pylori. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography (CT) revealed a 30×15-mm lymph node (LN) in the subcarinal area. Histopathologic and phenotypic analyses of the biopsy specimens obtained by EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration revealed a MALT lymphoma, and the patient was diagnosed with a stage 4E gastric MALT lymphoma. One year after H. pylori eradication, the lesion had disappeared, as demonstrated by endoscopy with biopsy, CT, fusion whole-body positron emission tomography, and EUS. Here, we describe a patient with gastric MALT lymphoma that metastasized to the mediastinal LN and regressed following H. pylori eradication.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2012.6.2.270
PMCID: PMC3343168  PMID: 22570759
Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma; Stomach
3.  Genetic Evaluation of ALADIN Gene in Early-Onset Achalasia and Alacrima Patients 
Background/Aims
ALADIN gene has been known to cause achalasia, alacrima, adrenal abnormalities and a progressive neurological syndrome. A considerable proportion of achalasia patients has been known to show alacrima (decreased secretion of tear). However, the genetic mechanism between achalasia and alacrima has not been defined yet. We postulated that ALADIN gene may be involved in the occurrence of early-onset achalasia; thus, we investigated the correlation of ALADIN gene in early-onset achalasia patients.
Methods
From 1989 to 2007, patients who were diagnosed as primary achalasia before age 35 were enrolled. All of the enrolled patients were asked for (1) blood sampling for DNA, (2) Shirmer test and (3) dysphagia questionnaires.
Results
The ALADIN gene in exon 1, 2, 10, 11 and 12 from 19 patients was investigated (M:F = 12:7). The mean age of patients at diagnosis was 27 ± 5 (15-35) years old. Eight out of 19 (42%) showed alacrima by the positive Shirmer test. In spite of thorough exam in the genetic study, there was no definite abnormal genetic finding in this study.
Conclusions
A considerable number of achalasia patients showed alacrima. Due to the limitation of this study, it is difficult to conclude that early-onset achalasia may have significant correlations with the ALADIN gene.
doi:10.5056/jnm.2011.17.2.169
PMCID: PMC3093009  PMID: 21602994
AAAS protein; Esophageal achalasia; Human; Shirmer test
4.  Benign Bronchoesophageal Fistula in Adults: Endoscopic Closure as Primary Treatment 
Gut and Liver  2010;4(4):508-513.
Background/Aims
Benign bronchoesophageal fistula (BEF) is a rare condition that is usually treated surgically; however, less invasive endoscopy procedures have been attempted to overcome the disadvantages of surgery. The aim of this study was thus to determine the results of endoscopic management as a primary treatment in patients with BEF.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed data from 368 patients with BEF who were treated at a tertiary care, academic medical center between January 2000 and August 2009.
Results
Benign causes were found for only 18 of the 368 patients. Of these, seven were treated endoscopically and the others by surgery or other methods. The first endoscopy procedures failed in all seven patients, with second trials of endoscopy performed in four patients at a median of 8 days (range, 3 to 11 days) after the first procedure. The second endoscopic procedure was successful in two out of four patients; one patient showed no recurrence of the fistula, whereas the second patient experienced a recurrence after 24 months. All patients underwent successful surgical procedures after the failure of endoscopic treatment, with no further recurrences.
Conclusions
Although we observed a low rate of success for primary endoscopic treatment of benign BEF, the invasive nature of surgery suggests the need for a prospective study with a large number of patients to evaluate the efficacy of less invasive procedures such as endoscopic treatment.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2010.4.4.508
PMCID: PMC3021607  PMID: 21253300
Esophageal fistula; Endoscopy; Fibrin glue
5.  Clinicopathologic Characteristics of Barrett's Cancer in Korea 
Gut and Liver  2008;2(3):193-198.
Background/Aims
The incidence of Barrett's cancer is increasing in Western countries, but there have been only a few case reports of this condition in Korea. The aim of this study was to elucidate the endoscopic and pathologic characteristics of Barrett's cancer in a single center in Korea.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed the demographic, endoscopic, and pathologic characteristics of six patients with Barrett's cancer, defined as a tumor centered above the esophagogastric junction and surrounded by Barrett's esophagus.
Results
All six patients were male, and three (50%) were symptomatic. Barrett's cancer had developed from short-segment Barrett's esophagus in all patients. All tumors were located on the right side of the lower esophagus and showed hyperemic mucosal changes. Three patients were treated surgically and three by endoscopic resection. All cases had pathologic evidence of Barrett's cancer.
Conclusions
Early detection of Barrett's cancer requires meticulous endoscopic observations of subtle mucosal color and morphological changes around the esophagogastric junction.
doi:10.5009/gnl.2008.2.3.193
PMCID: PMC2871641  PMID: 20485646
Barrett esophagus; Esophageal neoplasms

Results 1-5 (5)