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1.  Electrolyte Imbalances and Nephrocalcinosis in Acute Phosphate Poisoning on Chronic Type 1 Renal Tubular Acidosis due to Sjögren's Syndrome 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2013;28(2):336-339.
Although renal calcium crystal deposits (nephrocalcinosis) may occur in acute phosphate poisoning as well as type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), hyperphosphatemic hypocalcemia is common in the former while normocalcemic hypokalemia is typical in the latter. Here, as a unique coexistence of these two seperated clinical entities, we report a 30-yr-old woman presenting with carpal spasm related to hypocalcemia (ionized calcium of 1.90 mM/L) due to acute phosphate poisoning after oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation, which resolved rapidly after calcium gluconate intravenously. Subsequently, type 1 RTA due to Sjögren's syndrome was unveiled by sustained hypokalemia (3.3 to 3.4 mEq/L), persistent alkaline urine pH (> 6.0) despite metabolic acidosis, and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Through this case report, the differential points of nephrocalcinosis and electrolyte imbalances between them are discussed, and focused more on diagnostic tests and managements of type 1 RTA.
PMCID: PMC3565150  PMID: 23400265
Hypocalcemia; Nephrocalcinosis; Sodium Phosphate; Distal RTA; Sjögren's Syndrome
2.  Unintended Cannulation of the Subclavian Artery in a 65-Year-Old-Female for Temporary Hemodialysis Vascular Access: Management and Prevention 
Journal of Korean Medical Science  2012;27(10):1265-1268.
Ultrasound-guided cannulation of a large-bore catheter into the internal jugular vein was performed to provide temporary hemodialysis vascular access for uremia in a 65-yr-old woman with acute renal failure and sepsis superimposed on chronic renal failure. Despite the absence of any clinical evidence such as bleeding or hematoma during the procedure, a chest x-ray and computed tomographic angiogram of the neck showed that the catheter had inadvertently been inserted into the subclavian artery. Without immediately removing the catheter and applying manual external compression, the arterial misplacement of the hemodialysis catheter was successfully managed by open surgical repair. The present case suggests that attention needs to be paid to preventing iatrogenic arterial cannulation during central vein catheterization with a large-bore catheter and to the management of its potentially devastating complications, since central vein catheterization is frequently performed by nephrologists as a common clinical procedure to provide temporary hemodialysis vascular access.
PMCID: PMC3468767  PMID: 23091328
Hemodialysis; Complication; Central Venous Catheterization
3.  The Difference in Clinical Presentations between Healthcare-Associated and Community-Acquired Pneumonia in University-Affiliated Hospital in Korea 
Yonsei Medical Journal  2011;52(2):282-287.
Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) has been proposed as a new category of pneumonia. However, epidemiological studies for HCAP in South Korea are limited. This study aimed to reveal the differences between HCAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), especially in elderly patients, in university-affiliated hospital in South Korea.
Materials and Methods
We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients with HCAP and CAP (older than 60 years old) who were hospitalized between January 2007 and December 2008. We compared the baseline characteristics, comorbidities, severity, pathogen distribution, antibiotics, and clinical outcomes.
A total of 210 patients were evaluated, including 35 patients with HCAP (17%) and 175 with CAP (83%). The most common causative organism was Streptococcus pneumoniae in CAP (33.3%), whereas, Staphylococcus aureus was most common pathogen in HCAP (40.0%). Initial inappropriate antibiotics (6.3% vs. 22.9%; p < 0.005) and initial treatment failure (15.4% vs. 31.4%; p = 0.018) were more frequent in HCAP than CAP. However, mortality (11.4% vs. 5.7%; p = 0.369) was not different between the two groups.
The present study provides additional evidence that HCAP should be distinguished from CAP, even in elderly patients, in South Korea. Physicians should consider S. aureus and MDR pathogens in selecting initial empirical antibiotics of HCAP in South Korea.
PMCID: PMC3051222  PMID: 21319347
Health care; pneumonia; epidemiology

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