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1.  HMGB1/RAGE induces IL-17 expression to exaggerate inflammation in peripheral blood cells of hepatitis B patients 
Hepatitis B (HB) is an infectious disease with unfavorable consequence for patients and involved in chronic inflammation of liver. The present study aimed to investigate whether High-mobility group protein B (HMGB)1/receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) aggravates inflammation enhancing the expression of interleukin (IL)-17.
Mild and severe HB liver tissue and peripheral blood samples were obtained intra-operatively. Histological analysis of the livers was performed by immunohistochemistry. IL-1β and IL-6 of liver tissue were detected by confocal microscopy staining. Relative mRNA expression was measured by real-time PCR and protein levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
HMGB1, RAGE and IL-17 expression is increased in liver of HB patients with acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) compared to healthy controls. HMGB1 treatment induced inflammatory cytokines including IL-17 in peripheral blood cells of HB patients. IL-17 also induced the expression of RAGE and IL-1β in peripheral blood cells of HB patients with ACLF. On the other hands, the inhibitory factor of p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B reduced the expression of RAGE and IL-1β in peripheral blood cells HB patients with ACLF.
HMGB1, RAGE and IL-17 expression is increased in liver of severe HB patients. HMGB1 and RAGE interaction may contribute to the inflammation of liver enhancing the expression of IL-17, which can be possibly restored through the decline of the HMGB1/RAGE axis.
PMCID: PMC4576399  PMID: 26391982
HMGB1; RAGE; IL-17; Inflammation; Hepatitis B virus
2.  Red Ginseng Extract Ameliorates Autoimmune Arthritis via Regulation of STAT3 Pathway, Th17/Treg Balance, and Osteoclastogenesis in Mice and Human 
Mediators of Inflammation  2014;2014:351856.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic joint inflammation. Red ginseng is a steamed and dried Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, which has been used as alternative medicine for thousands of years. This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of red ginseng extracts (RGE) on autoimmune arthritis in mice and humans and to delineate the underlying mechanism. RGE was orally administered three times a week to mice with arthritis. Oral administration of RGE markedly ameliorated clinical arthritis score and histologically assessed joint inflammation in mice with CIA. A significant reduction in STAT3 phosphorylation and a decrease in the number of Th17 cells were observed with RGE treatment. There was also a marked reduction in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis with treatment of RGE. The inhibitory effect of RGE on Th17 differentiation and osteoclastogenesis observed in mice was also confirmed in the subsequent experiments performed using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings provide the first evidence that RGE can regulate Th17 and reciprocally promote Treg cells by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3. Therefore, RGE can ameliorate arthritis in mice with CIA by targeting pathogenic Th17 and osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel therapy for treatment of RA.
PMCID: PMC4132415  PMID: 25147435
3.  Obesity aggravates the joint inflammation in a collagen-induced arthritis model through deviation to Th17 differentiation 
Experimental & Molecular Medicine  2012;44(7):424-431.
White fat cells secrete adipokines that induce inflammation and obesity has been reported to be characterized by high serum levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prototype of inflammatory arthritis, but the relationship between RA and obesity is controversial. We made an obese inflammatory arthritis model: obese collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). C57BL/6 mice were fed a 60-kcal high fat diet (HFD) from the age of 4 weeks and they were immunized twice with type II collagen (CII). After immunization, the obese CIA mice showed higher arthritis index scores and histology scores and a more increased incidence of developing arthritis than did the lean CIA mice. After treatment with CII, mixed lymphocyte reaction also showed CII-specific response more intensely in the obese CIA mice than lean CIA. The anti-CII IgG and anti-CII IgG2a levels in the sera of the obese CIA mice were higher than those of the lean CIA mice. The number of Th17 cells was higher and the IL-17 mRNA expression of the splenocytes in the obese CIA mice was higher than that of the lean CIA mice. Obese CIA mice also showed high IL-17 expression on synovium in immunohistochemistry. Although obesity may not play a pathogenic role in initiating arthritis, it could play an important role in amplifying the inflammation of arthritis through the Th1/Th17 response. The obese CIA murine model will be an important tool when we investigate the effect of several therapeutic target molecules to treat RA.
PMCID: PMC3406287  PMID: 22513335
arthritis, experimental; inflammation; mice; obesity; Th17 cells

Results 1-3 (3)