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author:("Kim, Ho-took")
1.  The effect of Ginkgo biloba extracts on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cilostazol and its active metabolites in healthy Korean subjects 
AIMS
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) on the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol and its metabolites. The secondary objective was to assess the effect of GBE on the pharmacodynamics of cilostazol.
METHODS
A randomized, double-blind, two-way crossover study was conducted with 34 healthy Korean subjects. All subjects were given an oral dose of cilostazol (100 mg) plus GBE (80 mg) or cilostazol (100 mg) plus placebo twice daily for 7 days. Plasma concentrations of cilostazol and its active metabolites (3,4-dehydrocilostazol and 4′-trans-hydroxycilostazol) were measured using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectroscopy on day 7 for pharmacokinetic assessment. The adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation and bleeding time were measured at baseline and on day 7 for pharmacodynamic assessment.
RESULTS
The geometric mean ratios of area under the concentration–time curve for dosing interval for cilostazol plus GBE vs. cilostazol plus placebo were 0.96 (90% confidence interval, 0.89–1.03; P = 0.20) for cilostazol, 0.96 (90% confidence interval, 0.90–1.02; P = 0.30) for 3,4-dehydrocilostazol and 0.98 (90% confidence interval, 0.93–1.03; P = 0.47) for 4′-trans-hydroxycilostazol. The change of aggregation after administration of cilostazol plus GBE seemed to be 1.31 times higher compared with cilostazol plus placebo, without statistical significance (P = 0.20). There were no significant changes in bleeding times and adverse drug reactions between the treatments.
CONCLUSIONS
Co-administration of GBE showed no statistically significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of cilostazol in healthy subjects. A large cohort study with long-term follow-up may be needed to evaluate the possible pharmacodynamic interaction between cilostazol and GBE, given that there was a remarkable, but not statistically significant, increase in inhibition of platelet aggregation.
doi:10.1111/bcp.12236
PMCID: PMC4004402  PMID: 24001154
cilostazol; Ginkgo biloba extracts; herb–drug interaction; pharmacodynamics; pharmacokinetics
2.  Effects of woohwangcheongsimwon suspension on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxybupropion, in healthy subjects 
AIMS
To examine the effects of woohwangcheongsimwon suspension on the pharmacokinetics of bupropion and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxybupropion, formed via CYP2B6 in vivo.
METHODS
A two-way crossover clinical trial with a 2 week washout period was conducted in 14 healthy volunteers. In phases I and II, subjects received 150 mg bupropion with or without woohwangcheongsimwon suspension four times (at −0.17, 3.5, 23.5 and 47.5 h, with the time of bupropion administration taken as 0 h) in a randomized balanced crossover order. Bupropion and 4-hydroxybupropion plasma concentrations were measured for up to 72 h by LC-MS/MS. Urine was collected up to 24 h to calculate the renal clearance. In addition, the CYP2B6*6 genotype was also analyzed.
RESULTS
The geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence interval of bupropion with woohwangcheongsimwon suspension relative to bupropion alone were 0.976 (0.917, 1.04) for AUC(0,∞) and 0.948 (0.830,1.08) for Cmax, respectively. The corresponding values for 4-hydroxybupropion were 0.856 (0.802, 0.912) and 0.845 (0.782, 0.914), respectively. The tmax values of bupropion and 4-hydroxybupropion were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05). The pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion and 4-hydroxybupropion were unaffected by woohwangcheongsimwon suspension.
CONCLUSIONS
These results indicate that woohwangcheongsimwon suspension has a negligible effect on the disposition of a single dose of bupropion in vivo. As a result, temporary co-administration with woohwangcheongsimwon suspension does not seem to require a dosage adjustment of bupropion.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03661.x
PMCID: PMC2909815  PMID: 20642555
4-hydroxybupropion; bupropion; CYP2B6; drug interaction; woohwangcheongsimwon suspension
3.  Development of a Multiplex and Cost-Effective Genotype Test toward More Personalized Medicine for the Antiplatelet Drug Clopidogrel 
There has been a wide range of inter-individual variations in platelet responses to clopidogrel. The variations in response to clopidogrel can be driven by genetic polymorphisms involved in the pathway of absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and the target receptor P2Y12. A set of genetic variants known for causing variations in clopidogrel responses was selected, which included CYP2C19*2, *3, *17, CYP2B6*4, *6, *9, CYP3A4*18, CYP3A5*3, MDR1 2677G > T/A, 3435C > T, and P2Y12 H2 (742T > C). The simultaneous detection of these 10 variants was developed by using a multiplex PCR and single-base extension (MSSE) methodology. The newly developed genotyping test was confirmed by direct DNA sequencing in the representative positive control samples and validated in an extended set of 100 healthy Korean subjects. Genotyping results from the developed MSSE exhibited a perfect concordance with the direct DNA sequencing data and all of variants tested in 100 healthy Korean subjects were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p > 0.05). The present molecular diagnostic studies provide an accurate, convenient, and fast genotyping method for the detection of multiple variants. This would be helpful for researchers, as well as clinicians, to use genetic information toward more personalized medicine of clopidogrel and other antiplatelet drugs in the future.
doi:10.3390/ijms15057699
PMCID: PMC4057700  PMID: 24857912
clopidogrel; genotypes; CYP2C19; P2Y12; SNaPshot; pharmacogenetics
4.  Effects of clopidogrel and itraconazole on the disposition of efavirenz and its hydroxyl metabolites: exploration of a novel CYP2B6 phenotyping index 
AIMS
To evaluate the effects of clopidogrel and itraconazole on the disposition of efavirenz and its hydroxyl metabolites in relation to the CYP2B6*6 genotype and explore potential phenotyping indices for CYP2B6 activity in vivo using a low dose of oral efavirenz.
METHODS
We conducted a randomized three phase crossover study in 17 healthy Korean subjects pre-genotyped for the CYP2B6*6 allele (CYP2B6*1/*1, n= 6; *1/*6, n= 6; *6/*6, n= 5). Subjects were pretreated with clopidogrel (75 mg day−1 for 4 days), itraconazole (200 mg day−1 for 6 days), or placebo and then given a single dose of efavirenz (200 mg). The plasma (0–120 h) and urine (0–24 h) concentrations of efavirenz and its metabolites (7- and 8-hydroxyefavirenz and 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz) were determined by LC/MS/MS.
RESULTS
This study is the first to delineate quantitatively the full (phase I and II) metabolic profile of efavirenz and its three hydroxyl metabolites in humans. Clopidogrel pretreatment markedly decreased AUC(0,48 h), Cmax and Ae(0,24 h) for 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz, compared with placebo; 95% CI of the ratios were 0.55, 0.73, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.25, 0.47, respectively. The 8,14-dihydroxyefavirenz : efavirenz AUC(0,120 h) ratio was significantly correlated with the weight-adjusted CL/F of efavirenz (r2≍ 0.4, P < 0.05), differed with CYP2B6*6 genotype and was affected by clopidogrel pretreatment (P < 0.05) but not by itraconazole pretreatment.
CONCLUSIONS
The disposition of 8,14-dihydroxy-EFV appears to be sensitive to CYP2B6 activity alterations in human subjects. The 8,14-dihydroxyefaviremz : efavirenz AUC(0,120 h) ratio is attractive as a candidate phenotyping index for CYP2B6 activity in vivo.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2012.04314.x
PMCID: PMC3555064  PMID: 22554354
clopidogrel; CYP2B6; drug–drug interaction; efavirenz; genetic polymorphism; phenotyping index
5.  Pharmacogenetic Warfarin Dose Refinements Remain Significantly Influenced by Genetic Factors after One Week of Therapy 
Thrombosis and Haemostasis  2011;107(2):232-240.
Summary
Introduction
By guiding initial warfarin dose, pharmacogenetic (PGx) algorithms may improve the safety of warfarin initiation. However, once INR response is known, the contribution of PGx to dose refinements is uncertain. This study sought to develop and validate clinical and PGx dosing algorithms for warfarin dose refinement on days 6–11 after therapy initiation.
Materials and Methods
An international sample of 2,022 patients at 13 medical centers on 3 continents provided clinical, INR, and genetic data at treatment days 6–11 to predict therapeutic warfarin dose. Independent derivation and retrospective validation samples were composed by randomly dividing the population (80%/20%). Prior warfarin doses were weighted by their expected effect on S-warfarin concentrations using an exponential-decay pharmacokinetic model. The INR divided by that “effective” dose constituted a treatment response index.
Results
Treatment response index, age, amiodarone, body surface area, warfarin indication, and target INR were associated with dose in the derivation sample. A clinical algorithm based on these factors was remarkably accurate: in the retrospective validation cohort its R2 was 61.2% and median absolute error (MAE) was 5.0 mg/week. Accuracy and safety was confirmed in a prospective cohort (N=43). CYP2C9 variants and VKORC1-1639 G→A were significant dose predictors in both the derivation and validation samples. In the retrospective validation cohort, the PGx algorithm had: R2= 69.1% (P<0.05 vs. clinical algorithm), MAE= 4.7 mg/week.
Conclusions
A pharmacogenetic warfarin dose-refinement algorithm based on clinical, INR, and genetic factors can explain at least 69.1% of therapeutic warfarin dose variability after about one week of therapy.
doi:10.1160/TH11-06-0388
PMCID: PMC3292349  PMID: 22186998
warfarin; VKORC1; CYP2C9; pharmacogenetic
6.  A haplotype of CYP2C9 associated with warfarin sensitivity in mechanical heart valve replacement patients 
AIMS
The objectives of this study were to determine the distribution of CYP2C9 variants in Koreans and investigate their association with warfarin dose requirements in patients who received MHVRs.
METHODS
All nine exons, intron–exon junction, and promoter region of CYP2C9 were amplified and directly sequenced in 50 healthy normal Koreans. Additional direct DNA sequencing of the CYP2C9 gene was conducted in 36 of the 267 MHVR patients who required low maintenance warfarin doses without carrying CYP2C9*3 and VKORC1 1173T mutations. The effects of CYP2C9 genetics on warfarin maintenance dose were assessed in 267 MHVR patients.
RESULTS
Thirty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including seven previously unidentified SNPs were identified in 50 Koreans by direct DNA sequencing. One of the CYP2C9 haplotypes exhibited an association with warfarin low dose requirement. The adjusted odds ratio for the haplotype between the low dose group and the normal subjects was 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.05, 6.16). This haplotype consisting of -1565C>T, -1188T>C, IVS3+197G>A, IVS3-334C>T, IVS3-65G>C, IVS4-115A>G, and IVS5-73A>G was found in 15% of 36 MHVR patients who required low warfarin doses, while 4% of 50 normal healthy subjects exhibited this haplotype. One of the SNPs comprising this haplotype, -1565C>T, apparently changed a protein binding pattern as observed in electrophoretic mobility shift assay.
CONCLUSION
The haplotype including -1565C>T, -1188T>C, IVS3+197G>A, IVS3-334C>T, IVS3-65G>C, IVS4-115A>G, and IVS5-73A>G seems to be associated with low warfarin dose requirement and this haplotype could be considered in the development of a warfarin dose prediction model for Asian populations.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03688.x
PMCID: PMC2911551  PMID: 20653674
CYP2C9; single nucleotide polymorphisms; warfarin
7.  The effect of ABCG2 V12M, Q141K and Q126X, known functional variants in vitro, on the disposition of lamivudine 
Aims
To evaluate the effects of three ABCG2 variants (Q141K, V12M and Q126X), which are known to have altered transport properties in vitro, on the disposition of lamivudine in healthy subjects.
Methods
To evaluate whether lamivudine is a substrate of ABCG2, intracellular accumulation and vectorial transport of 3H-lamivudine were determined in MDCK-ABCG2 cells. The pharmacokinetic parameters of lamivudine were compared among subjects with four different ABCG2 genotypes, including wild type (seven subjects), K141/K141 (six subjects), Q126/Stop126 (four subjects) and M12/M12 (five subjects) after a single oral dose of 100 mg lamivudine.
Results
The intracellular accumulation of lamivudine in MDCK-ABCG2 cells was significantly lower than that in MDCK-mock cells, but fumitremorgin C reversed the intracellular lamivudine concentration to that of MDCK-mock cells. The ABCG2-mediated transport of lamivudine was saturable and the values of Km and Vmax were 216.5 ± 58 µm and 20.42 ± 2.9 nmol h−1 per 106 cells, respectively. After lamivudine administration to healthy subjects, the AUC of lamivudine showed no difference among subjects with different ABCG2 genotypes; 2480 ± 502, 2207 ± 1019, 2422 ± 239, 2552 ± 698 ng h−1 ml−1 for wild type, K141/K141, Q126/Stop126 and M12/M12 genotype, respectively (P = 0.85). The estimated 95% confidence intervals for the mean difference between K141/K141, Q126/Stop126, M12/M12 and wild as reference were (−1053, 507), (−555, 439) and (−552, 696), respectively. No other pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated to be significantly different among four different ABCG2 genotypes tested.
Conclusions
Lamivudine appeared to be a substrate of ABCG2 in vitro, but the disposition of lamivudine was not significantly influenced by known in vitro functional variants of ABCG2, Q141K, V12M and Q126X in healthy subjects.
doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2007.02944.x
PMCID: PMC2203270  PMID: 17509035
ABCG2; lamivudine; pharmacokinetics; polymorphism

Results 1-7 (7)