Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder in hospitalized patients. Many studies documented that it was related to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and neurologic diseases. Although knowledge of hyponatremia has been cumulated, the optimal management of hyponatremia remains incompletely established in clinical practice because of the diversity of underlying disease states, and its multiple causes with differing pathophysiologic mechanisms. Since vasopressin receptor antagonists have unique aquaretic effect to selectively increase electrolytes-free water excretion, clinicians could apply a more effective method to treat hyponatremia. Tolvaptan has significant evidence that it improves serum sodium levels in patients with euvolemic or hypervolemic hyponatremia related with heart failure, cirrhosis or syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone. Tolvaptan has acceptable safety and tolerability for long-term usage in chronic hyponatremia, and the beneficial effects on serum Na+ occurred in patients with both mild and marked hyponatremia.
tolvaptan; hyponatremia; arginine vasopressin receptors
The purpose of this study is to systematically review and analyze disasters involving South Korean hospitals from 1990 and to introduce a newly developed implement to manage patients' evacuation.
Materials and Methods
We searched for studies reporting disaster preparedness and hospital injuries in South Korean hospitals from 1990 to 2008, by using the Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS, copyright Korean Studies Information Co, Ltd, Seoul, Korea) and, simultaneously, hospital injuries which were reported and regarded as a disaster. Then, each study and injury were analyzed.
Five studies (3 on prevention and structure, 1 on implement of new device, and 1 on basic supplement to current methods) and 8 injuries were found within this period. During the evacuations, the mean gait speed of walking patients was 0.82 m/s and the mean time of evacuation of individual patients was 38.39 seconds. Regarding structure evaluation, almost all hospitals had no balconies in patient rooms; hospital elevators were placed peripherally and were insufficient in number. As a new device, Savingsun (evacuation elevator) was introduced and had some merits as a fast and easy tool, regardless of patient status or the height of hospital.
In South Korea, preparation for hospital disasters was noted to be insufficient but has involved various departments such as architectural, clinical, and building operations. In addition, Savignsun has been shown to effectively evacuate and save patients in a hospital disaster.
Injury; disaster; hospital; preparedness
Epidural sacral nerve compression as an initial feature of leukaemia is a rare complication. The findings in a 16‐year‐old boy who presented to an emergency department with symptoms of faecal incontinence are reported herein. Radiological imaging demonstrated soft‐tissue masses in the sacral epidural space. The diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia was confirmed on bone marrow aspirate. The characteristics and management of extramedullary leukaemia are discussed.
The impact of glucose-free icodextrin (ID) for overnight dwell as compared to conventional glucose-containing dialysate (GD) on potassium (K+) metabolism in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients has not yet been investigated. Serum K+ in a total of 255 stable patients (116 on GD and 139 on ID) on CAPD for more than 6 months and in 139 patients on ID before and after ID use (Pre-ID and Post-ID) were observed along with nutritional markers in a 2-year study period (Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2007). The prevalence of hypokalemia was similar between patients on GD and ID (16.7% vs 17.3%), but was lower on Post-ID than Pre-ID (17.3% vs 20.5%) without statistic significance. The mean serum K+ level was higher on ID than on GD (P<0.05) as well as Post-ID than Pre-ID (P<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, serum K+ levels were positively correlated with serum albumin, and creatinine in all patients (P<0.05), and ID-use in younger patients (age≤56, P<0.001). Serum albumin, creatinine, total CO2, and body mass index were significantly higher on Post-ID than Pre-ID. Icodextrin dialysate for chronic overnight dwell could increase serum K+ levels and lower the prevalence of hypokalemia compared to conventional glucose-containing dialysate. The improved chronic K+ balance in CAPD patients on icodextrin could be related to enhanced nutritional status rather than its impact on acute intracellular K+ redistribution.
serum albumin; hypokalemia; icodextrin; nutritional status; peritoneal dialysis
This study aimed to compare the increment in plasma potassium concentration ([K+]) as well as the role of internal K+ balance for its changes following acute K+ supplementation between conventional 2.5% glucose (GD) and non-glucose containing dialysate (icodextrin, ID) in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. A total of 9 stable CAPD patients (5 men and 4 women; age, 56±13 years; 7 type-2 diabetics and 2 non-diabetics) on daily 4 exchanges of 2 L of glucose dialysate underwent the 6-hr dwell on fasting in the morning with 2 L of 2.5% glucose mixed with 20 mEq/L of KCl, and then the same regimen was repeated with icodextrin after 1-wk interval. The degree of intraperitoneal absorption was comparable, 65±2% in GD and 68±2% in ID, respectively (p=NS). However, despite the similar plasma K+ levels at the baseline of both regimens, its increment was significantly less in GD than ID, which was accompanied by more marked increase in the calculated intracellular K+ redistribution (68±3% vs. 52±3%, p<0.05). The basal levels of insulin were similar between the GD and ID groups. However, the change, checked up after 2 hours' dwell, from the basal insulin levels was much lower on ID. ID with a lesser degree of transcelluar K+ shift by the decreased secretion of insulin is more effective than the conventional glucose solution for acute K+ repletion via dialysate during CAPD. Furthermore, these results suggested that the role of insulin for the internal K+ balance was intact even in type-2 diabetic patients on CAPD.
hypokalemia; peritoneal dialysis, continuous ambulatory; potassium supplementation; icodextrin
On view of the absent or minimal osmotic diuresis in end stage renal disease, hyperglycemia on maintenance hemolysis as compared to nonketotic hyperosmolar status without underlying advanced renal failure has been noted to show a wide clinical spectrum form severe manifestations by hypertonicity to no clinical manifestations at all. We experienced a 60-year-old man with a known history of type 2 diabetes mellitus on maintenance hemodialysis for 2 years, who was admitted 4 times within 1 year with hyperglycemia (>500 mg/dL) accompanied by recurrent nausea and vomiting at each admission. However, the calculated effective osmolality (tonicity) in this case ranged only from 286 to 303 mOsm/kg H2O. During the past 6 months following meticulous education for the importance of compliance to medication, especially prokinetics for diabetic gastroparesis, he developed no further episode of hyperglycemia or nausea and vomiting.
hyperglycemia; hemodialysis; hyperosmolality
This study aimed to assess the effects of different dialysate bicarbonate concentrations in correcting acid-base imbalance in 53 stable hemodialysis patients in a university-hemodialysis unit. Three different bicarbonate concentrations were assigned, i.e. 25 mEq/L in 10, 30 mEq/L in 30, and 35 mEq/L in 13 patients. Blood gas analyses from arterial line blood samples before and after dialysis in the mid-week were performed for the determination of pH and serum bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration. The mean values of predialysis arterial HCO3- were mildly acidotic in all 3 groups, but not significantly different among them, whereas those of post-dialysis arterial HCO3- were alkalotic, especially in the group of 35 mEq/L as compared with the other two groups. The mean blood pH was not significantly different among the 3 groups. As expected, there was a positive correlation between pre-dialysis pH and post-dialysis pH (r=0.45, p=0.001), and pre-dialysis HCO3- and post-dialysis HCO3- (r=0.58, p=0.000), but with a negative correlation between pre-dialysis HCO3- and the increment of intradialytic HCO3- following hemodialysis (r=-0.46, p=0.001). In conclusion, this study shows that the impact of conventional dialysate bicarbonate concentrations ranging from 25 to 35 mEq/L is not quite different on the mild degree of predialysis acidemia, but the degree of postdialysis alkalemia is more prominent in higher bicarbonate concentrations. Base supply by hemodialysis alone does not seem to be the main factor to determine the predialysis acidosis in end-stage renal disease patients on chronic maintenance hemodialysis.
Acid-base imbalance; Hemodialysis; Bicarbonate dialysate
Metabolic acidosis has been considered as one of the reverse epidemiologic factors for the morbidity and mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients (MHP). Expectedly, in the recent large scale epidemiologic study (The Dialysis Outcome Practice Pattern Study, DOPPS), a mild to moderate degree of predialysis metabolic acidosis has shown better nutritional status and lower relative risk for mortality and hospitalization in MHP. Similarly, another recent study of the largest sample size of MHP of more than 55,000 revealed the lowest unadjusted mortality with mild to moderate degree of predialysis HCO3 levels (17 to 23 mEq/L). However, it was reversed after case-mix and multivariate adjustment, including the malnutrition-inflammation complex syndrome, so that predialysis HCO3 levels of more than 22 mEq/L had a lower death risk. On view of this up-to-date on-going controversy about the optimal acid-base status for MHP, this paper will review the historical and break-through data about the pros and cons of metabolic acidosis published in the clinical human studies of MHP, a special subgroup of chronic kidney disease patients. Based on these results, if possible, we would like to suggest the best practice guideline, particularly, for the optimal predialysis HCO3 level, dialysate HCO3 concentration, and dietary protein intake.
Metabolic acidosis; Hemodialysis
In end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients regardless of dialysis modes, i.e. maintenance hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), potassium (K) homeostasis is regulated primarily via dialysis and extrarenal K regulation in the diverse daily K intake. However, K metabolism has been known to differ greatly between the two main methods of dialysis. Hyperkalemia is a common complication (10-24%) and the most common cause of the death (3-5%) among electrolyte disorders in patients on maintenance HD. On the contrary, hypokalemia (10-36%) is responsible for a rather common complication and independent prognostic factor on CAPD. Although excessive K intake or inadequate dialysis on maintenance HD and poor nutritional K intake on CAPD are accused without doubts upto 50% of ESRD patients as a primary cause of the K-imbalance, i.e. hyperkalemia on HD and hypokalemia on CAPD, other contributory factors including certain medications and unknown causes remain still to be resolved. Accordingly, the effects of medications as another source of K-imbalance on HD with RAS blockades and beta blockers as well as those of conventional and glucose-free dialysates (Icodextrin) for internal K-redistribution on CAPD were evaluated with reviewing the literatures and our data. Furthermore, new developments in the clinical managements of hyperkalemia on HD following the exclusion of pseudohyperkalemia before the initiation of dialysis were suggested, especially, by the comparison of the effects between mono- and dual-therapy with medications for transcellular K shifting in the emergent situation. Also, the intraperitoneal K administration via conventional glucose-containing (2.5%) and glucose-free dialysates (Icodextrin) as a specific route of K-supplementation for hypokalemia on CAPD was examined for its efficiency and the degree of intracellular K shift between these two different types of dialysates.
Hyperkalemia; Hypokalemia; Hemodialysis; Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Arterial thrombosis is relatively rare compared with venous thrombosis in nephrotic syndrome. However, the assessment of its pathogenesis and risk factors in individual patient with nephrotic syndrome is necessary to allow appropriate prophylactic management because it is a potentially serious problem. Hereby, with review of the literature, we report a case of a 53 yr-old man with cerebral infarction associated with nephrotic syndrome due to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis during the course of treatments with diuretics and steroid. It reveals that the hypercoagulable state in nephrotic syndrome can be associated with cerebral infarction in adults. Prophylactic anticoagulants can be considered to reduce the risk of serious cerebral infarction in nephrotic patients with risk factors such as severe hypoalbuminemia and on diuretics or steroid treatment, even in young patients regardless of types of underlying glomerular diseases.
Nephrotic Syndrome; Cerebral Infarction; Risk Factors; Anticoagulants
Although renal calcium crystal deposits (nephrocalcinosis) may occur in acute phosphate poisoning as well as type 1 renal tubular acidosis (RTA), hyperphosphatemic hypocalcemia is common in the former while normocalcemic hypokalemia is typical in the latter. Here, as a unique coexistence of these two seperated clinical entities, we report a 30-yr-old woman presenting with carpal spasm related to hypocalcemia (ionized calcium of 1.90 mM/L) due to acute phosphate poisoning after oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation, which resolved rapidly after calcium gluconate intravenously. Subsequently, type 1 RTA due to Sjögren's syndrome was unveiled by sustained hypokalemia (3.3 to 3.4 mEq/L), persistent alkaline urine pH (> 6.0) despite metabolic acidosis, and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Through this case report, the differential points of nephrocalcinosis and electrolyte imbalances between them are discussed, and focused more on diagnostic tests and managements of type 1 RTA.
Hypocalcemia; Nephrocalcinosis; Sodium Phosphate; Distal RTA; Sjögren's Syndrome
We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.
Polyuria; Central diabetes insipidus; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Water deprivation test
Ultrasound-guided cannulation of a large-bore catheter into the internal jugular vein was performed to provide temporary hemodialysis vascular access for uremia in a 65-yr-old woman with acute renal failure and sepsis superimposed on chronic renal failure. Despite the absence of any clinical evidence such as bleeding or hematoma during the procedure, a chest x-ray and computed tomographic angiogram of the neck showed that the catheter had inadvertently been inserted into the subclavian artery. Without immediately removing the catheter and applying manual external compression, the arterial misplacement of the hemodialysis catheter was successfully managed by open surgical repair. The present case suggests that attention needs to be paid to preventing iatrogenic arterial cannulation during central vein catheterization with a large-bore catheter and to the management of its potentially devastating complications, since central vein catheterization is frequently performed by nephrologists as a common clinical procedure to provide temporary hemodialysis vascular access.
Hemodialysis; Complication; Central Venous Catheterization
Transpedicular screw fixation has some disadvantages such as postoperative back pain through wide muscle dissection, long operative time, and cephalad adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD). The purposes of this study are investigation and comparison of radiological and clinical results between interspinous fusion device (IFD) and pedicle screw.
From Jan. 2008 to Aug. 2009, 40 patients underwent spinal fusion with IFD combined with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). In same study period, 36 patients underwent spinal fusion with pedicle screw fixation as control group. Dynamic lateral radiographs, visual analogue scale (VAS), and Korean version of the Oswestry disability index (K-ODI) scores were evaluated in both groups.
The lumbar spine diseases in the IFD group were as followings; spinal stenosis in 26, degenerative spondylolisthesis in 12, and intervertebral disc herniation in 2. The mean follow up period was 14.24 months (range; 12 to 22 months) in the IFD group and 18.3 months (range; 12 to 28 months) in pedicle screw group. The mean VAS scores was preoperatively 7.16±2.1 and 8.03±2.3 in the IFD and pedicle screw groups, respectively, and improved postoperatively to 1.3±2.9 and 1.2±3.2 in 1-year follow ups (p<0.05). The K-ODI was decreased significantly in an equal amount in both groups one year postoperatively (p<0.05). The statistics revealed a higher incidence of ASD in pedicle screw group than the IFD group (p=0.029).
Posterior IFD has several advantages over the pedicle screw fixation in terms of skin incision, muscle dissection and short operative time and less intraoperative estimated blood loss. The IFD with PLIF may be a favorable technique to replace the pedicle screw fixation in selective case.
Degenerative; Fusion device; Interspinous; Lumbar disease; Posterior; Adjacent segmental degeneration
This is a case of a sudden cardio-pulmonary arrest in a 29 year-old female, which occurred immediately after a large bolus infusion of propofol (100 mg) intravenously during dilatation and curettage. The arrest suddenly occurred, and the patient was eventually transferred to our emergency room (ER) on cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At that time, severe hyperkalemia up to 9.1 mEq/L and ventricular fibrillation were noted. Resuscitation in ER worked successfully with conversion of electrocardiograph to sinus rhythm, but this patient expired unfortunately. On view of this acute event immediately after the bolus injection of propofol accompanied without other identified causes, severe hyperkalemia induced by propofol was strongly assumed to be the cause of death. To our understanding with the literature survey, propofol as a cause of hyperkalemia has not been well described yet. Through this case, the relationship as a cause and an effect between propofol and hyperkalemia is suggested.
propofol; hyperkalemia; heart arrest; propofol infusion syndrome
Epidural sacral nerve compression as an initial feature of leukaemia is a rare complication. The findings in a 16-year-old boy who presented to an emergency department with symptoms of faecal incontinence are reported herein. Radiological imaging demonstrated soft tissue masses in the sacral epidural space. The diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia was confirmed on bone marrow aspirate. The characteristics and management of extramedullary leukaemia are discussed.
Radiologic findings of Bing-Neel syndrome, which is an extremely uncommon complication resulting from malignant lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system (CNS) in patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM), have been infrequently reported due to extreme rarity of the case. A 75-year-old man with WM presented at a neurology clinic with progressive gait and memory disturbances, and dysarthria of 2 months duration. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum protein electrophoresis and immunofixation electrophoresis showed IgM kappa-type monoclonal gammopathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed multifocal, hyperintense lesions on T2 weighted-images. Brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated hyperintensities in cerebral and cerebellar lesions that appeared isointense on apparent diffusion coefficient maps, which were compatible with vasogenic edema. Although histologic analysis is a confirmative study to prove direct cell infiltration into the brain, brain MRI with DWI may be a good supportive study to diagnose Bing-Neel syndrome.
Bing-Neel syndrome; Waldenström's macroglobulinemia; MRI
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Secondary amyloidosis can occur as a complication of chronic systemic inflammatory and infectious diseases. Until now there has been no report of secondary amyloidosis associated with MS. We report herein a case of renal biopsy-proven secondary amyloidosis in a patient with MS.
A 41-year-old woman with MS was hospitalized due to aggravated quadriparesis and edema in both lower extremities. Laboratory findings showed nephrotic-range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. A percutaneous renal biopsy procedure was performed, the results of which revealed secondary amyloid-A-type amyloidosis associated with MS.
This is the first report of secondary amyloidosis associated with MS.
multiple sclerosis; secondary amyloidosis; nephrotic syndrome
Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a main parameter for arterial stiffness. In patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), PWV is known to be associated with increased mortality. But factors related to the increased PWV in ESRD patients are not well defined. In addition, the carotid-femoral PWV (cfPWV) measurement, which traditionally has been used to evaluate arterial stiffness, has low reproducibility. Recently, brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) measurement, which can be performed more easily than cfPWV measurement, has become available as a means of measuring PWV. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical factors associated with increased baPWV in ESRD patients. BaPWV was examined for 65 ESRD patients on maintenance hemodialysis during the period between the 7th to the 11th of February in 2005 using VP-1000. The clinical factors included age, sex, smoking history, blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index, interdialytic weight gain, duration of dialysis, lipid profile, uric acid, albumin, creatinine, C-reactive protein, calcium, phosphate, intact parathyroid hormone, and hematocrit were analyzed regarding associations (or to determine associations) with baPWV. The median age was 53.8±12.0, 31 males and 34 females. BaPWV was 18.9±5.2 m/s and there was no significant difference between gender (18.1±4.4 m/s vs 19.4±5.9 m/s, p=NS). In multiple regression models, age, predialysis systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were independent variables. In conclusion, age, systolic blood pressure, and diabetes were correlated with baPWV in ESRD patients. Thus baPWV measured by simple, noninvasive methods may become available for screening high risk groups in ESRD patients, although further longitudinal studies are necessary.
atherosclerosis; renal dialysis; blood pressure
Hyperphosphatemia is an unusual manifestation in patients with multiple myeloma without a significantly reduced glomerular filtration rate. Serum phosphate may be falsely elevated when a large amount of paraproteins is present in the serum, because ultraviolet light absorbance is elevated with the phosphomolybdate ultraviolet assay, which is most commonly used for serum phosphate measurement. This pseudohyperphosphatemia can be confirmed by deproteinization of the serum of patients. We report a case of multiple myeloma presenting with spurious hyperphosphatemia revealing pseudohyperphosphatemia by deproteinization of serum using sulfosalicylic acid.
Paraproteinemia; Multiple myeloma; Pseudohyperphosphatemia
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) have been recognized as a complication of immunosuppression and occur with a reported incidence of 1 to 8% of recipients receiving solid organ transplantation. PTLD are classified into two major categories, polymorphic and monomorphic PTLD. The majority of the monomorphic PTLD cases are non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of B-cell origin. Hodgkin's disease is not part of the typical spectrum of PTLD; however, it has been rarely reported. We describe a case of Hodgkin's disease following renal transplantation. A 41-year-old man developed right cervical lymphadenopathy following renal transplantation 116 months previously for chronic renal failure of unknown origin. He had been taking cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. A lymph node biopsy revealed mixed cellularity Hodgkin's disease. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD30 and EBV-latent membrane protein-1. No other site of disease was identified. The immunosuppressive agents were reduced (mycophenolate mofetil was discontinued, cyclosporine dose reduced from 200 mg to 150 mg and prednisone continued at 5 mg). After 2 cycles of ABVD followed by radiation therapy (3600 cGy), he achieved complete remission.
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder; Hodgkin's disease; Renal transplantation