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1.  Health-related quality of life changes associated with buprenorphine treatment for opioid dependence 
Background
Few studies have described improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) associated with opioid dependence treatment with buprenorphine (ODT-B).
Objective
To evaluate HRQOL changes in domain scores, physical and mental component summaries, and health utilities (HUs) associated with ODT-B using the Short Form 36 (SF-36).
Methods
We assessed HRQOL changes in a substudy of a pharmacokinetic study that compared buprenorphine oral tablet and liquid dosage formulations over 16 weeks. Individuals, aged 18–65 years, were screened for opioid dependence. They were excluded if they would not agree to birth control or had a serious medical condition. Subjects received psychosocial counseling and weekly group therapy. The SF-36 was administered upon enrollment and at 4-week intervals. We used the SF-6D to estimate HUs. We performed intention to treat (ITT) analyses based on the last observation available for each subject. Paired t tests of each domain and HU, limited to remaining patients at each 4-week interval, were also conducted.
Results
Of 96 subjects enrolled, cumulative dropouts over time resulted in 80, 69, 59, and 44 subjects remaining at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. There were no significant differences in opioid-positive urines, dropout rates, or dosage changes between formulations. In the ITT analyses, HRQOL improvements over time were bodily pain (62.1 vs. 69.1, P = 0.017), vitality (49.8 vs. 56.5, P = 0.001), mental health (59.9 vs. 66.0, P = 0.001), social function (66.4 vs. 74.7, P = 0.001), role emotional (59.4 vs. 71.9, P = 0.003), role physical (60.9 vs. 70.6, P = 0.005), and mental component summary (41.9 vs. 45.4, P<0.001). HU scores also improved (0.674 vs. 0.715, P = 0.001). Results from paired t tests, with only concurrently enrolled patients, showed similar improvements from baseline to 4, 8, 12, or 16 weeks.
Conclusion
Buprenorphine, accompanied with psychosocial counseling, was associated with improved HRQOL and HUs.
doi:10.1007/s11136-011-0027-0
PMCID: PMC4153754  PMID: 21987030
Buprenorphine; Opioid dependence; Quality of life; Health utility
2.  Predictors for mortality in hospitalized patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
SpringerPlus  2014;3:359.
Background
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been the only leading cause of death associated with a continuously increasing trend in the US over the past 30 years.
Objectives
The aim of this research was to identify predictors for all-cause in-hospital mortality for COPD patients.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with the discharge diagnosis of COPD, utilizing the 2007 Premier Perspective database. Inpatients aged 40 years and above were selected if they had a discharge with a primary diagnosis of COPD between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2007. All data analyses were based on individual level. If a patient had multiple discharges, only the last discharge was included for mortality analysis. Predictors for mortality were identified by multiple logistic regressions. Bonferroni correction for multiple logistic regression models was adapted to control for family-wise errors.
Results
The total of 57,224 patients was selected for data analysis in the study. All-cause in-hospital mortality for patients with COPD was 2.4%. Older age, insurance coverage, elective admission, intensive care unit admission, prolonged length of stay, increased Deyo-adapted Charlson Index (DCI) score and Elixhauser comorbidities of renal failure, metastatic cancer, solid tumor without metastasis, and weight loss were identified as independent predictors for all-cause in-hospital mortality. Antibiotics and β-blockers were predictors of lower all-cause in-hospital mortality risk after adjusting for other factors.
Conclusions
The nationwide discharge database provides useful information to identify predictors for all-cause in-hospital mortality of patients with COPD.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-359) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/2193-1801-3-359
PMCID: PMC4108717  PMID: 25061552
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Mortality; Predictor
3.  The feasibility and cost of neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure by measuring phosphatidylethanol in dried blood spots 
Background
Accurate confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is required as a diagnostic criterion for the majority of children adversely affected by PAE who do not manifest the physical features associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. A number of ethanol biomarkers have been used to assess PAE, often with suboptimal results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and cost of PAE screening in newborns by measuring phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) cards.
Methods
The feasibility of collecting an additional DBS card during routine newborn screening and the background prevalence of PAE were evaluated in a de-identified sample of newborn children delivered at the University of New Mexico Hospital. Electronic orders to collect DBS cards from newborns who continue to bleed after the routine newborn screen, glucose or hematocrit testing were initiated for all infants delivered during a 4-week timeframe. Specimens were sent to a contract laboratory for PEth analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A cost analysis was conducted to compare the cost of PAE screening by PEth in DBS vs. PEth in conventional blood specimens and by meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE).
Results
From 230 collected cards, 201 (87.4%) had at least one full blood spot (amount sufficient for PEth analysis), and 6.5% had PEth >20ng/mL indicative of potential PAE in late pregnancy. PAE screening by PEth in DBS is logistically simpler and less expensive compared to two other screening approaches.
Conclusions
These results indicate that screening for PAE in DBS cards is a feasible procedure and that a majority of infants have enough blood after the routine heel prick to fill an additional card. Moreover, screening by PEth analysis from DBS cards is cost-efficient. The acceptability of such screening by parents and corresponding ethical issues remain to be investigated.
doi:10.1111/acer.12045
PMCID: PMC3661684  PMID: 23421919
Newborn screening; Guthrie cards; Biomarkers; Alcohol; Pregnancy
4.  Results From the First Decade of Research Conducted by the Research on Adverse Drug events And Reports (RADAR) Project 
Introduction
In 1998, a multidisciplinary team of investigators initiated the Research on Adverse Drug events And Reports (RADAR) project, a post-marketing surveillance effort that systematically investigates and disseminates information describing serious and previously unrecognized serious adverse drug and device reactions (sADRs).
Objective
Herein, we describe the findings, dissemination efforts, and lessons learned from the first decade of the RADAR project.
Methods
After identifying serious and unexpected clinical events suitable for further investigation, RADAR collaborators derived case information from physician queries, published and unpublished clinical trials, case reports, US FDA databases and manufacturer sales figures.
Study Selection
All major RADAR publications from 1998 to the present are included in this analysis.
Data Extraction
For each RADAR publication, data were abstracted on data source, correlative basic science findings, dissemination and resultant safety information.
Results
RADAR investigators reported 43 serious ADRs. Data sources included case reports (17 sADRs), registries (5 sADRs), referral centers (8 sADRs) and clinical trial reports (13 sADRs). Correlative basic science findings were reported for ten sADRs. Thirty-seven sADRS were described as published case reports (5 sADRs) or published case-series (32 sADRs). Related safety information was disseminated as warnings or boxed warnings in the package insert (17 sADRs) and/or `Dear Healthcare Professional' letters (14 sADRs).
Conclusion
An independent National Institutes of Health-funded post-marketing surveillance programme can supplement existing regulatory and pharmaceutical manufacturer supported drug safety initiatives.
doi:10.1007/s40264-013-0042-x
PMCID: PMC3679367  PMID: 23553448
5.  A Review of Safety, Efficacy, and Utilization of Erythropoietin, Darbepoetin, and Peginesatide for Patients with Cancer or Chronic Kidney Disease: A Report from the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions (SONAR) 
The erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) erythropoietin and darbepoetin prevent transfusions among chemotherapy-associated anemia patients. Clinical trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines identify mortality, tumor progression, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) risks with ESA administration in this setting. Product labels advise against administering ESAs with potentially curative chemotherapy (United States) or to conduct risk–benefit assessments (Europe/Canada). Since 2007, fewer chemotherapy-associated anemia patients in the United States and Europe receive ESAs. ESAs and the erythropoietin receptor agonist peginesatide prevent transfusions among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients; clinical trials, guidelines, and meta-analyses demonstrate myocardial infarction, stroke, VTE, or mortality risks with ESAs targeting high hemoglobin levels. U.S. labels recommend administering ESAs or peginesatide at doses sufficient to prevent transfusions among dialysis CKD patients. For dialysis CKD patients, Canadian and European labels recommend targeting hemoglobin levels of 10 to 12 g/dL and 11 to 12 g/dL, respectively, with ESAs. ESA utilization for dialysis CKD patients has decreased in the United States.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1328884
PMCID: PMC3947540  PMID: 23111861
darbepoetin; epoetin; erythropoiesis-stimulating agents; peginesatide
6.  Ticlopidine-, Clopidogrel-, and Prasugrel-Associated Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A 20-Year Review from the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions (SONAR) 
Thienopyridine-derivatives (ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel) are the primary antiplatelet agents. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare drug-associated syndrome, with the thienopyridines being the most common drugs implicated in this syndrome. We reviewed 20 years of information on clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory findings for thienopyridine-associated TTP. Four, 11, and 11 cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP were reported in the first year of marketing of ticlopidine (1989), clopidogrel (1998), and prasugrel (2010), respectively. As of 2011, the FDA received reports of 97 ticlopidine-, 197 clopidogrel-, and 14 prasugrel-associated TTP cases. Severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) was present in 80% and antibodies to 100% of these TTP patients on ticlopidine, 0% of the patients with clopidogrel-associated TTP (p < 0.05), and an unknown percentage of patients with prasugrel-associated TTP. TTP is associated with use of each of the three thienopyridines, although the mechanistic pathways may differ.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1328894
PMCID: PMC3804561  PMID: 23111862
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; ticlopidine; clopidogrel; prasugrel; adverse event
7.  Depression Predicts All-Cause Mortality 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(8):1708-1715.
OBJECTIVE
Depression affects up to 20–25% of adults with type 2 diabetes and may increase all-cause mortality, but few well-designed studies have examined the effects of depression on the full range of cardiovascular disease outcomes in type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
A total of 2,053 participants in the ACCORD (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes) Health-Related Quality of Life substudy completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-9 measure of depression symptoms at baseline and 12, 36, and 48 months. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for the time-varying impact of depression on protocol-defined clinical outcomes with and without adjustment for demographic, trial-related, clinical, and behavioral variables.
RESULTS
In fully adjusted models, depression was not significantly related to the ACCORD primary composite outcome (cardiovascular death, nonfatal heart attack, or stroke) (HR 1.53 [95% CI 0.85–2.73]) or to the ACCORD microvascular composite outcome (0.93 [0.53–1.62]), but all-cause mortality was significantly increased both in those with PHQ-assessed probable major depression (2.24 [1.24–4.06]) and PHQ score of ≥10 (1.84 [1.17–2.89]). The effect of depression on all-cause mortality was not related to previous cardiovascular events or to assignment to intensive or standard glycemia control. Probable major depression (by PHQ-9) had a borderline impact on the ACCORD macrovascular end point (1.42 [0.99–2.04]).
CONCLUSIONS
Depression increases the risk of all-cause mortality and may increase the risk of macrovascular events among adults with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1791
PMCID: PMC3402260  PMID: 22619083
8.  Acute Kidney Injury and Bisphosphonate Use in Cancer: A Report From the Research on Adverse Drug Events and Reports (RADAR) Project 
Journal of Oncology Practice  2012;9(2):101-106.
Analysis of bisphosphonate-associated acute kidney injury reports for cancer cases within FDA's Adverse Events and Reporting System failed to demonstrate a significant safety signal, an unexpected finding given prior preclinical and clinical findings that suggested a causal association between BPs and AKI.
Purpose:
To determine whether acute kidney injury (AKI) is identified within the US Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Events and Reporting System (FDA AERS) as an adverse event resulting from bisphosphonate (BP) use in cancer therapy.
Methods:
A search of the FDA AERS records from January 1998 through June 2009 was performed; search terms were “renal problems” and all drug names for BPs. The search resulted in 2,091 reports. We analyzed for signals of disproportional association by calculating the proportional reporting ratio for zoledronic acid (ZOL) and pamidronate. Literature review of BP-associated renal injury within the cancer setting was conducted.
Results:
Four hundred eighty cases of BP-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) were identified in patients with cancer. Two hundred ninety-eight patients (56%) were female; mean age was 66 ± 10 years. Multiple myeloma (n = 220, 46%), breast cancer (n = 98, 20%), and prostate cancer (n = 24, 5%) were identified. Agents included ZOL (n = 411, 87.5%), pamidronate (n = 8, 17%), and alendronate (n = 36, 2%). Outcomes included hospitalization (n = 304, 63.3%) and death (n = 68, 14%). The proportional reporting ratio for ZOL was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.13 to 1.32) and for pamidronate was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.25 to 1.65), reflecting a nonsignificant safety signal for both drugs.
Conclusion:
AKI was identified in BP cancer clinical trials, although a safety signal for BPs and AKI within the FDA AERS was not detected. Our findings may be attributed, in part, to clinicians who believe that AKI occurs infrequently; ascribe the AKI to underlying premorbid disease, therapy, or cancer progression; or consider that AKI is a known adverse drug reaction of BPs and thus under-report AKI to the AERS.
doi:10.1200/JOP.2011.000486
PMCID: PMC3595436  PMID: 23814519
9.  Amiodarone-Associated Optic Neuropathy: A Critical Review 
The American Journal of Medicine  2012;125(5):447-453.
Although amiodarone is the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic drug, its use is limited by serious toxicities, including optic neuropathy. Current reports of amiodarone associated optic neuropathy identified from the Food and Drug Administration's Adverse Event Reporting System (FDA-AERS) and published case reports were reviewed. A total of 296 reports were identified: 214 from AERS, 59 from published case reports, and 23 from adverse events reports for patients enrolled in clinical trials. Mean duration of amiodarone therapy before vision loss was 9 months (range 1-84 months). Insidious onset of amiodarone associated optic neuropathy (44%) was the most common presentation, and nearly one-third were asymptomatic. Optic disc edema was present in 85% of cases. Following drug cessation, 58% had improved visual acuity, 21% were unchanged, and 21% had further decreased visual acuity. Legal blindness (< 20/200) was noted in at least one eye in 20% of cases. Close ophthalmologic surveillance of patients during the tenure of amiodarone administration is warranted.
doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2011.09.020
PMCID: PMC3322295  PMID: 22385784
amiodarone; vision loss; optic neuropathy
10.  Ticlopidine- and clopidogrel-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP): review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and pharmacovigilance findings (1989–2008) 
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a fulminant disease characterized by platelet aggregates, thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, neurologic changes, and mechanical injury to erythrocytes. Most idiopathic cases of TTP are characterized by a deficiency of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease, with thrombospondin-1-like domains) metalloprotease activity. Ironically, use of anti-platelet agents, the thienopyridine derivates clopidogrel and ticlopidine, is associated with drug induced TTP. Data were abstracted from a systematic review of English-language literature for thienopyridine-associated TTP identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the public website of the Food and Drug Administration, and abstracts from national scientific conferences from 1991 to April 2008. Ticlopidine and clopidogrel are the two most common drugs associated with TTP in FDA safety databases. Epidemiological studies identify recent initiation of anti-platelet agents as the most common risk factor associated with risks of developing TTP. Laboratory studies indicate that most cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP involve an antibody to ADAMTS13 metalloprotease, present with severe thrombocytopenia, and respond to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); a minority of thienopyridine-associated TTP presents with severe renal insufficiency, involves direct endothelial cell damage, and is less responsive to TPE. The evaluation of this potentially fatal drug toxicity can serve as a template for future efforts to comprehensively characterize other severe adverse drug reactions.
doi:10.1038/ki.2008.613
PMCID: PMC3500614  PMID: 19180126
drug-associated TTP; epidemiology; ADAMTS13
11.  Baseline comparison of three health utility measures and the feeling thermometer among participants in the action to control cardiovascular risk in diabetes trial 
Background
Health utility (HU) measures are used as overall measures of quality of life and to determine quality adjusted life years (QALYs) in economic analyses. We compared baseline values of three HUs including Short Form 6 Dimensions (SF-6D), and Health Utilities Index, Mark II and Mark III (HUI2 and HUI3) and the feeling thermometer (FT) among type 2 diabetes participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial. We assessed relationships between HU and FT values and patient demographics and clinical variables.
Methods
ACCORD was a randomized clinical trial to test if intensive controls of glucose, blood pressure and lipids can reduce the risk of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in type 2 diabetes patients with high risk of CVD. The health-related quality of life (HRQOL) sub-study includes 2,053 randomly selected participants. Interclass correlations (ICCs) and agreement between measures by quartile were used to evaluate relationships between HU’s and the FT. Multivariable regression models specified relationships between patient variables and each HU and the FT.
Results
The ICCs were 0.245 for FT/SF-6D, 0.313 for HUI3/SF-6D, 0.437 for HUI2/SF-6D, 0.338 for FT/HUI2, 0.337 for FT/HUI3 and 0.751 for HUI2/HUI3 (P < 0.001 for all). Common classification by quartile was found for the majority (62%) of values between HUI2 and HUI3, which was significantly (P < 0.001) higher than between other HUs and the FT: SF-6D/HUI3 = 40.8%, SF-6D/HUI2 = 40.9%, FT/HUI3 = 35.0%, FT/HUI2 = 34.9%, and FT/SF-6D = 31.9%. Common classification was higher between SF-6D/HUI2 and SF-6D/HUI3 (P < 0.001) than between FT/SF-6D, FT/HUI2, and FT/HUI3. The mean difference in HU values per patient ranged from −0.024 ± 0.225 for SF-6D/ HUI3 to −0.124 ± 0.133 for SF-6D/HUI2. Regression models were significant; clinical and demographic variables explained 6.1% (SF-6D) to 7.7% (HUI3) of the variance in HUs.
Conclusions
The agreements between the different HUs were poor except for the two HUI measures; therefore HU values derived different measures may not be comparable. The FT had low agreement with HUs. The relationships between HUs and demographic and clinical measures demonstrate how severity of diabetes and other clinical and demographic factors are associated with HUs and FT measures.
Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00000620
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-11-35
PMCID: PMC3395556  PMID: 22515638
Diabetes mellitus, Type 2/*complications /physiopathology/psychology; Health status indicators; Randomized controlled clinical trial; Humans; Regression analysis; Glycemic control
12.  Caveat Oncologist: Clinical Findings and Consequences of Distributing Counterfeit Erythropoietin in the United States 
Journal of Oncology Practice  2011;8(2):84-90.
Wider use of FDA anti-counterfeit initiatives, limiting pharmaceutical suppliers to reputable distributors, and educating providers and patients about signs of counterfeit drugs can improve the safety of cancer pharmaceuticals.
Purpose:
Counterfeit pharmaceuticals pose risks domestically. Because of their cost, cancer pharmaceuticals are vulnerable. We review findings from a domestic counterfeiting episode involving erythropoietin and outline anticounterfeiting recommendations for policy makers, patients, and health care professionals.
Materials and Methods:
Information was obtained on patients who received counterfeit erythropoietin, its distribution, and criminal investigations into counterfeiting networks. Interview sources included a physician, an attorney, employees of the Florida Department of Health and Human Services and the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Criminal Investigation, manufacturers, and wholesalers. Other sources included the book “Dangerous Doses,” LexisNexis (search terms “counterfeit” and “erythropoietin”) and the FDA database.
Results:
Counterfeit product consisted of 2,000 U vials with counterfeit labels denoting 40,000 U. The counterfeiters, in collaboration with a Miami pharmacy, purchased 110,000 erythropoietin 2,000 U vials and affixed counterfeit labels to each vial. Products were then sold via the pharmaceutical “gray market” to wholesalers, then pharmacy chains. Investigations by Florida government officials implicated 17 persons, all of whom were found guilty of trafficking in counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Despite the large size of the operation, the FDA received reports of only 12 patients who had received counterfeit erythropoietin and detailed information for only two individuals. A 17-year-old liver transplant recipient and a 61-year-old patient with breast cancer experienced loss of efficacy after receiving counterfeit erythropoietin.
Conclusion:
Wider use of FDA anticounterfeit initiatives, limiting pharmaceutical suppliers to reputable distributors, and educating providers and patients about signs of counterfeit drugs can improve the safety of cancer pharmaceuticals.
doi:10.1200/JOP.2011.000325
PMCID: PMC3457834  PMID: 23077434
13.  Cancer therapy associated bone loss: Implications for hip fractures in mid-life women with breast cancer 
Purpose
Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been recently associated with hip fractures. We present a case series of breast cancer survivors and a systematic review of bone health care in breast cancer.
Experimental Design
We completed clinical assessments and bone density testing (BMD) of hip fractures from January 2005–December 2008. Pre-fracture and 12-month functional status was obtained. Systematic review included case reports and review of MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FDA AERS) from January 1998–December 2008 (search terms: breast cancer, bone loss, osteopenia, osteoporosis, malignancy, cancer treatment, menopause, adriamycin, cytoxan, tamoxifen, and AIs).
Results
Median age was 53.5 years; five women had osteopenia, one osteoporosis. Five cases were ER (+), and received surgery, XRT chemotherapy, and anastrozole. Functional decline was noted at 12 months, with difficulty in performing heavy housekeeping, climbing stairs and shopping. The FDA AERS database included 228 cases of fractures associated with breast cancer therapy; 77/228 (29.4%) were hip or femur fractures. Among mid-life women under the age of 64 years there were 78 fractures; 15/228 (19%) were hip and femur fractures. AIs were the most common drug class associated with fractures (n=149, 65%).
Conclusions
CTIBL results in hip fractures among mid-life women with breast cancer. Hip fractures occur at younger ages and higher BMD than expected for patients in this age group without breast cancer. Hip fractures result in considerable functional decline. Greater awareness of this adverse drug effect is needed.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-1595
PMCID: PMC3058419  PMID: 21288927
aromatase inhibitors; menopause; osteopenia; osteoporosis; fracture prevention; cancer treatment induced bone loss
14.  Two Mechanistic Pathways for Thienopyridine-Associated Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Objectives
We sought to describe clinical and laboratory findings for a large cohort of patients with thienopyridine-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).
Background
The thienopyridine derivatives, ticlopidine and clopidogrel, are the 2 most common drugs associated with TTP in databases maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Methods
Clinical reports of TTP associated with clopidogrel and ticlopidine were identified from medical records, published case reports, and FDA case reports (n = 128). Duration of thienopyridine exposure, clinical and laboratory findings, and survival were recorded. ADAMTS13 activity (n = 39) and inhibitor (n = 30) were measured for a subset of individuals.
Results
Compared with clopidogrel-associated TTP cases (n = 35), ticlopidine-associated TTP cases (n = 93) were more likely to have received more than 2 weeks of drug (90% vs. 26%), to be severely thrombocytopenic (84% vs. 60%), and to have normal renal function (72% vs. 45%) (p < 0.01 for each). Compared with TTP patients with ADAMTS13 activity >15% (n = 13), TTP patients with severely deficient ADAMTS13 activity (n = 26) were more likely to have received ticlopidine (92.3% vs. 46.2%, p < 0.003). Among patients who developed TTP >2 weeks after thienopyridine, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) increased likelihood of survival (84% vs. 38%, p < 0.05). Among patients who developed TTP within 2 weeks of starting thienopyridines, survival was 77% with TPE and 78% without.
Conclusions
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a rare complication of thienopyridine treatment. This drug toxicity appears to occur by 2 different mechanistic pathways, characterized primarily by time of onset before versus after 2 weeks of thienopyridine administration. If TTP occurs after 2 weeks of ticlopidine or clopidogrel therapy, therapeutic plasma exchange must be promptly instituted to enhance likelihood of survival.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.04.093
PMCID: PMC3167088  PMID: 17868804
15.  Evaluation of a Potential Clinical Interaction between Ceftriaxone and Calcium▿  
In April 2009, the FDA retracted a warning asserting that ceftriaxone and intravenous calcium products should not be coadministered to any patient to prevent precipitation events leading to end-organ damage. Following that announcement, we sought to evaluate if the retraction was justified. A search of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System was conducted to identify any ceftriaxone-calcium interactions that resulted in serious adverse drug events. Ceftazidime-calcium was used as a comparator agent. One hundred four events with ceftriaxone-calcium and 99 events with ceftazidime-calcium were identified. Adverse drug events were recorded according to the listed description of drug involvement (primary or secondary suspect) and were interpreted as probable, possible, unlikely, or unrelated. For ceftriaxone-calcium-related adverse events, 7.7% and 20.2% of the events were classified as probable and possible for embolism, respectively. Ceftazidime-calcium resulted in fewer probable embolic events (4%) but more possible embolic events (30.3%). Among cases that considered ceftriaxone or ceftazidime and calcium as the primary or secondary drug, one case was classified as a probable embolic event. That patient received ceftriaxone-calcium and died, although an attribution of causality was not possible. Our analysis suggests a lack of support for the occurrence of ceftriaxone-calcium precipitation events in adults. The results of the current analysis reinforce the revised FDA recommendations suggesting that patients >28 days old may receive ceftriaxone and calcium sequentially and provide a transparent and reproducible methodology for such evaluations.
doi:10.1128/AAC.01111-09
PMCID: PMC2849391  PMID: 20086152
16.  Accelerated Approval of Cancer Drugs: Improved Access to Therapeutic Breakthroughs or Early Release of Unsafe and Ineffective Drugs? 
Journal of Clinical Oncology  2009;27(26):4398-4405.
Purpose
Accelerated approval (AA) was initiated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to shorten development times of drugs for serious medical illnesses. Sponsors must confirm efficacy in postapproval trials. Confronted with several drugs that received AA on the basis of phase II trials and for which confirmatory trials were incomplete, FDA officials have encouraged sponsors to design AA applications on the basis of interim analyses of phase III trials.
Methods
We reviewed data on orphan drug status, development time, safety, and status of confirmatory trials of AAs and regular FDA approvals of new molecular entities (NMEs) for oncology indications since 1995.
Results
Median development times for AA NMEs (n = 19 drugs) and regular-approval oncology NMEs (n = 32 drugs) were 7.3 and 7.2 years, respectively. Phase III trials supported efficacy for 75% of regular-approval versus 26% of AA NMEs and for 73% of non–orphan versus 45% of orphan drug approvals. AA accounted for 78% of approvals for oncology NMEs between 2001 and 2003 but accounted for 32% in more recent years. Among AA NMEs, confirmatory trials were nine-fold less likely to be completed for orphan drug versus non–orphan drug indications. Postapproval, black box warnings were added to labels for four oncology NMEs (17%) that had received AA and for two oncology NMEs (9%) that had received regular approval.
Conclusion
AA oncology NMEs are safe and effective, although development times are not accelerated. A return to endorsing phase II trial designs for AA for oncology NMEs, particularly for orphan drug indications, may facilitate timely FDA approval of novel cancer drugs.
doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.21.1961
PMCID: PMC2744277  PMID: 19636013
18.  Hepatotoxicity Associated with Long-versus Short-Course HIV-Prophylactic Nevirapine Use 
Background and objective
The antiretroviral nevirapine can cause severe hepatotoxicity when used ‘off-label’ for preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT), newborn post-exposure prophylaxis and for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis among non-HIV-infected individuals. We describe the incidence of hepatotoxicity with short- versus long-course nevirapine-containing regimens in these groups.
Methods
We reviewed hepatotoxicity cases among non-HIV-infected individuals and HIV-infected pregnant women and their offspring receiving short- (≤4 days) versus long-course (≥5 days) nevirapine prophylaxis. Sources included adverse event reports from pharmaceutical manufacturers and the US FDA, reports from peer-reviewed journals/scientific meetings and the Research on Adverse Drug events And Reports (RADAR) project. Hepatotoxicity was scored using the AIDS Clinical Trial Group criteria.
Results
Toxicity data for 8216 patients treated with nevirapine-containing regimens were reviewed. Among 402 non-HIV-infected individuals receiving short- (n = 251) or long-course (n = 151) nevirapine, rates of grade 1–2 hepatotoxicity were 1.99%versus 5.30%, respectively, and rates of grade 3–4 hepatotoxicity were 0.00% versus 13.25%, respectively (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Among 4740 HIV-infected pregnant women receiving short- (n = 3031) versus long-course (n = 1709) nevirapine, rates of grade 1–2 hepatotoxicity were 0.62% and 7.04%, respectively, and rates of grade 3–4 hepatotoxicity were 0.23% versus 4.39%, respectively (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). The rates of grade 3–4 hepatotoxicity among 3074 neonates of nevirapine-exposed HIV-infected pregnant women were 0.8% for those receiving short-course (n = 2801) versus 1.1%for those receiving long-course (n = 273) therapy (p < 0.72).
Conclusions
Therapy duration appears to significantly predict nevirapine hepatotoxicity. Short-course nevirapine for HIV prophylaxis is associated with fewer hepatotoxic reactions for non-HIV-infected individuals or pregnant HIV-infected women and their offspring, but administration of prophylactic nevirapine for ≥2 weeks appears to be associated with high rates of hepatotoxicity among non-HIV-infected individuals and HIV-infected pregnant mothers. When full highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens are not available, single-dose nevirapine plus short-course nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors to decrease the development of HIV viral resistance is an essential therapeutic option for PMTCT and these data support the safety of single-dose nevirapine in this setting.
PMCID: PMC2768573  PMID: 19236121
19.  Epoetin-associated pure red cell aplasia: past, present, and future considerations 
Transfusion  2008;48(8):1754-1762.
BACKGROUND
Since 1988, millions of patients have received epoetin products intravenously (IV) and subcutaneously. In 1998, epoetin-associated pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) was first reported and causation was attributed to formulations without human serum albumin (HSA), subcutaneous administration, and uncoated rubber stoppers.
STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS
Data on erythropoietin (EPO)-associated PRCA were obtained from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), regulatory authorities in other countries, and the manufacturers of epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, and darbepoetin. The data included information on numbers of PRCA cases and estimated exposure-adjusted incidence rates by EPO product, anemia etiology, administration route, country of PRCA identification, and date reported.
RESULTS
In 1999, academicians in Paris identified 12 EPO-treated patients with antibody-mediated PRCA; 11 of these patients were on hemodialysis and had received subcutaneous Eprex (Johnson & Johnson). In 2002, authorities in Europe, Australia, Singapore, and Canada mandated Eprex by IV route to hemodialysis patients, and the relevant manufacturers added Teflon coating to prefilled syringes of Eprex; PRCA cases subsequently decreased by 90 percent. By 2003, 180 Eprex-associated PRCA cases were identified in Europe, Canada, Australia, and Asia, despite improvements in handling. Since 2002, FDA safety databases include information on 59 new cases of antibody-associated PRCA, primarily associated with subcutaneous epoetin alfa and darbepoetin that does not contain HSA.
CONCLUSION
Independent actions by regulatory authorities, manufacturers, and academic researchers identified significant numbers of PRCA cases between 1998 and 2003 and characterized the probable etiology. Today, antibody-mediated PRCA is an infrequent class toxicity occurring among some hemodialysis patients on EPOs.
doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2008.01749.x
PMCID: PMC2730535  PMID: 18482185
20.  Pharmacokinetics and Tolerability of Oseltamivir Combined with Probenecid▿ †  
Oseltamivir is an inhibitor of influenza virus neuraminidase, which is approved for use for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A and B virus infections. In the event of an influenza pandemic, oseltamivir supplies may be limited; thus, alternative dosing strategies for oseltamivir prophylaxis should be explored. Healthy volunteers were randomized to a three-arm, open-label study and given 75 mg oral oseltamivir every 24 h (group 1), 75 mg oseltamivir every 48 h (q48h) combined with 500 mg probenecid four times a day (group 2), or 75 mg oseltamivir q48h combined with 500 mg probenecid twice a day (group 3) for 15 days. Pharmacokinetic data, obtained by noncompartmental methods, and safety data are reported. Forty-eight subjects completed the pharmacokinetic analysis. The study drugs were generally well tolerated, except for one case of reversible grade 4 thrombocytopenia in a subject in group 2. The calculated 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean ratios between groups 2 and 3 and group 1 were outside the bioequivalence criteria boundary (0.80 to 1.25) at 0.63 to 0.89 for group 2 versus group 1 and 0.57 to 0.90 for group 3 versus group 1. The steady-state apparent oral clearance of oseltamivir carboxylate was significantly less in groups 2 (7.4 liters/h; 90% CI, 6.08 to 8.71) and 3 (7.19 liters/h; 90% CI, 6.41 to 7.98) than in group 1 (9.75 liters/h; 90% CI, 6.91 to 12.60) (P < 0.05 for both comparisons by analysis of variance). The (arithmetic) mean concentration at 48 h for group 2 was not significantly different from the mean concentration at 24 h for group 1 (42 ± 76 and 81 ± 54 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.194), but the mean concentration at 48 h for group 3 was significantly less than the mean concentration at 24 h for group 1 (23 ± 26 and 81 ± 54 ng/ml, respectively; P = 0.012). Alternate-day dosing of oseltamivir plus dosing with probenecid four times daily achieved trough oseltamivir carboxylate concentrations adequate for neuraminidase inhibition in vitro, and this combination should be studied further.
doi:10.1128/AAC.00047-08
PMCID: PMC2533494  PMID: 18559644
21.  Using Feedback Letters to Influence the Use of Antiulcer Agents in a Medicaid Program 
OBJECTIVE
To determine the impact of printed patient-specific feedback regarding potential misprescribing of antiulcer agents (AUAs). Measures of impact included improvements in patients’ dispensing profiles, assessed according to predetermined criteria, and decreases in cost and quantity of AUAs dispensed.
DESIGN
Controlled study. After evaluation for compliance with predetermined criteria, prescribers identified as having one or two patient profiles with potential errors were assigned alternatively to control or experimental groups. An intervention was mailed to the experimental group.
SETTING
Outpatient setting in the New Mexico Medicaid population.
PARTICIPANTS
Patients and prescribers identified as having potential misprescribing of AUAs.
INTERVENTION
The intervention consisted of a cover letter describing the purpose of the drug utilization review program, an educational fact sheet regarding prescribing AUAs, patient profiles with potential misprescribing, and physician response forms.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS
There were greater improvements in dispensing to patients in the intervention group (χ2, p < .001). Significant odds ratios for the intervention group were 2.29 for AUAs discontinued, 1.98 for all improvements combined, 13.13 for improvement in listing of proper diagnosis for AUAs, and 2.84 for appropriate indication when prescribing the higher acute daily dosage. Using data from 3 months before and after the intervention, we found greater decreases in mean monthly costs (p = .044) and mean monthly quantity of AUAs dispensed (p = .049) in the intervention group.
CONCLUSIONS
This intervention significantly decreased AUA dispensing to patients whose prescribers were mailed the patient-specific feedback intervention.
doi:10.1046/j.1525-1497.1999.00305.x
PMCID: PMC1496557  PMID: 10203619
drug utilization review; prescribing; antiulcer medications

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