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1.  Extension of lifespan and protection against oxidative stress by an antioxidant herb mixture complex (KPG-7) in Caenorhabditis elegans 
Excessive generation of reactive oxygen species within cells results in oxidative stress. Furthermore, accumulation of reactive oxygen species has been shown to reduce cell longevity. Many dietary supplements are believed to have anti-aging effects. The herb mixture KPG-7 contains several components with antioxidant activity. We aim to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the antioxidant activity of KPG-7 and to establish whether KPG-7 has an anti-aging effect. We examined whether dietary supplementation with KPG-7 could provide protection against oxidative stress, extend lifespan, and delay aging in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans). We found that KPG-7 extended lifespan and delayed aging in adult C. elegans. The expression of oxidation resistance 1 protein was induced by juglone and this effect was significantly suppressed in KPG-7-treated. In addition, the amount of oxidized protein was significantly lower in KPG-7-treated worms than untreated worms. Furthermore, locomotive activity was increased in C. elegans at 3 days of age following the treatment with KPG-7. On the other hand, the level of cellular ATP was lower at 3 days of age in worms treated with KPG-7 than in untreated worms. KPG-7 increases lifespan and delays aging in C. elegans, well corresponding to its activity to protect against oxidative stress.
doi:10.3164/jcbn.13-11
PMCID: PMC3774924  PMID: 24062604
oxidative stress; C. elegans; aging; herb mixture; antioxidant
2.  Two Mechanistic Pathways for Thienopyridine-Associated Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Objectives
We sought to describe clinical and laboratory findings for a large cohort of patients with thienopyridine-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).
Background
The thienopyridine derivatives, ticlopidine and clopidogrel, are the 2 most common drugs associated with TTP in databases maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Methods
Clinical reports of TTP associated with clopidogrel and ticlopidine were identified from medical records, published case reports, and FDA case reports (n = 128). Duration of thienopyridine exposure, clinical and laboratory findings, and survival were recorded. ADAMTS13 activity (n = 39) and inhibitor (n = 30) were measured for a subset of individuals.
Results
Compared with clopidogrel-associated TTP cases (n = 35), ticlopidine-associated TTP cases (n = 93) were more likely to have received more than 2 weeks of drug (90% vs. 26%), to be severely thrombocytopenic (84% vs. 60%), and to have normal renal function (72% vs. 45%) (p < 0.01 for each). Compared with TTP patients with ADAMTS13 activity >15% (n = 13), TTP patients with severely deficient ADAMTS13 activity (n = 26) were more likely to have received ticlopidine (92.3% vs. 46.2%, p < 0.003). Among patients who developed TTP >2 weeks after thienopyridine, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) increased likelihood of survival (84% vs. 38%, p < 0.05). Among patients who developed TTP within 2 weeks of starting thienopyridines, survival was 77% with TPE and 78% without.
Conclusions
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a rare complication of thienopyridine treatment. This drug toxicity appears to occur by 2 different mechanistic pathways, characterized primarily by time of onset before versus after 2 weeks of thienopyridine administration. If TTP occurs after 2 weeks of ticlopidine or clopidogrel therapy, therapeutic plasma exchange must be promptly instituted to enhance likelihood of survival.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.04.093
PMCID: PMC3167088  PMID: 17868804

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