Incidence estimates for pituitary adenomas vary widely, suggesting the effects of numerous risk factors or varying levels of tumor surveillance. We studied the epidemiology of pituitary adenomas using 2004–2007 data collected by 17 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Programs in the United States (N = 8,276). We observed that incidence rates generally increased with age and were higher in females in early life and higher in males in later life. Males are diagnosed with larger tumors on average than females. Diagnosis may be delayed for males, giving tumors a chance to grow larger before clinical detection. We also observed that American Blacks have higher incidence rates for pituitary adenomas compared with other ethnic groups. There are several potential explanations for this finding with some evidence that at least part of the effect may be due to differential diagnosis between races.
pituitary; adenoma; incidence; race; sex
Anthracycline-based chemotherapy (ABC) is the most effective therapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The addition of rituximab to ABC in controlled trials has demonstrated superior survival, yet ABC is inconsistently utilized in elderly patients, and little is known about the penetrance or impact of rituximab with other treatments. We analyzed the treatment and survival patterns of 7559 patients with DLBCL over age 66 diagnosed from 1992 to 2002 using a linked Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)–Medicare database. Rituximab use was first detected in 1999 and by 2002 was incorporated in 79% of ABC-treated patients and 71% of patients treated with non-anthracycline chemotherapy, but only 12% of patients not receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. ABC rates remained constant across time as did rates of no therapy, which were highest among the very old. Rituximab-associated survival improvements were seen among elderly treated with or without anthracyclines. Patients treated with rituximab but not anthracyclines had comparable survival to those treated with anthracycline but not rituximab.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma; immunotherapy; survival; elderly
Despite a 20-year-old guideline from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Development Conference recommending breast conserving surgery with radiation (BCSR) over mastectomy for woman with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) because it preserves the breast, recent evidence shows mastectomy rates increasing and higher-staged ESBC patients are more likely to receive mastectomy. These observations suggest that some patients and their providers believe that mastectomy has advantages over BCSR and these advantages increase with stage. These beliefs may persist because the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that served as the basis for the NIH guideline were populated mainly with lower-staged patients. Our objective is to assess the survival implications associated with mastectomy choice by patient alignment with the RCT populations. We used instrumental variable methods to estimate the relationship between surgery choice and survival for ESBC patients based on variation in local area surgery styles. We find results consistent with the RCTs for patients closely aligned to the RCT populations. However, for patients unlike those in the RCTs, our results suggest that higher mastectomy rates are associated with reduced survival. We are careful to interpret our estimates in terms of limitations of our estimation approach.
Myeloid colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) decrease the risk of febrile neutropenia (FN) from high-risk chemotherapy regimens administered to patients at 20% or greater risk of FN, but little is known about their use in clinical practice. We evaluated CSF use in a multiregional population-based cohort of lung and colorectal cancer patients (N = 1849). Only 17% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8% to 26%) patients treated with high-risk chemotherapy regimens received CSFs, compared with 18% (95% CI = 16% to 20%) and 10% (95% CI = 8% to 12%) of patients treated with intermediate- (10%–20% risk of FN) and low-risk (<10% risk of FN) chemotherapy regimens, respectively. Using a generalized estimating equation model, we found that enrollment in a health maintenance organization (HMO) was strongly associated with a lower adjusted odds of discretionary CSF use, compared with non-HMO patients (odds ratio = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.32 to 0.60, P < .001). All statistical tests were two-sided. Overall, 96% (95% CI = 93% to 98%) of CSFs were administered in scenarios where CSF therapy is not recommended by evidence-based guidelines. This finding suggests that policies to decrease CSF use in patients at lower or intermediate risk of FN may yield substantial cost savings without compromising patient outcomes.
Recent studies suggest trends toward more mastectomies for primary breast cancer treatment. We assessed survival after mastectomy and breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation for early-stage breast cancer among non-selected populations of women and among women similar to those in clinical trials. Using population-based data from Surveillance Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries linked with Medicare administrative data from 1992 to 2005, we conducted propensity score analysis of survival following primary therapy for early-stage breast cancer, including BCS with radiation, BCS without radiation, mastectomy with radiation, and mastectomy without radiation. Adjusted survival was greatest among women who had BCS with radiation (median survival = 10.98 years). Compared with this group, mortality was higher among women who had mastectomy without radiation (median survival 10.04 years, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14–1.23), mastectomy with radiation (median survival 10.02 years, HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.14–1.27), and BCS without radiation (median survival 7.63 years, HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.70–1.92). Among women representative of those eligible for clinical trials (age ≤70 years, Charlson comorbidity score = 0/1, and stage 1 tumors), there were no differences in survival for women who underwent BCS with radiation or mastectomy. In conclusion, after careful adjustment for differences in patient, physician, and hospital characteristics, we found better survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among older early-stage breast cancer patients, with no difference in survival for BCS with radiation versus mastectomy among women representative of those in clinical trials. These findings are reassuring in light of recent trends towards more aggressive primary breast cancer therapy.
Breast cancer; Surgery; Outcomes; Mastectomy; Breast conservation
To identify determinants of new use of the first-line SGAs associated with weight gain.
Retrospective chart review.
Outpatient and inpatient psychiatry services at a tertiary, academic medical center.
Sample of 340 consecutive patients over two time periods with major depression with psychotic features, bipolar I, bipolar II, bipolar not otherwise specified, and schizoaffective disorder.
Measurements and Main Results
Clinical and sociodemographic variables associated with new use of olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine were identified using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Several clinical factors were individually associated with initiation of these SGAs: mania (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.2–10.8), psychosis (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.5–6.9), and inpatient treatment (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.8–7.9). Prevalent use of lithium (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.9) and being married (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.8) were inversely associated. Mania, psychosis, married status, and lithium use remained independently associated on multivariate analysis. Factors related to metabolic or vascular risk were not associated with SGA initiation.
Psychiatric clinicians weigh clinical features related to mental status and acuity heavily in determining whether to initiate SGAs. However, factors related to vascular risk were not associated. Future observational studies should consider current clinical status as an important factor in determining propensity to receive antipsychotics or other acute treatments for bipolar disorder.
Antipsychotic agents; Bipolar disorder; Inpatients; Logistic models; Major Depressive Disorder; Outpatients; Propensity Score; Psychotic Disorders
Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in the United States. However, recent reports have documented that C. difficile infections (CDIs) are occurring among patients without traditional risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiology of CA-CDI, by estimating the incidence of CA-CDI and HA-CDI, identifying patient-related risk factors for CA-CDI, and describing adverse health outcomes of CA-CDI.
We conducted a population-based, retrospective, nested, case-control study within the University of Iowa Wellmark Data Repository from January 2004 to December 2007. We identified persons with CDI, determined whether infection was community-associated (CA) or hospital-acquired (HA), and calculated incidence rates. We collected demographic, clinical, and pharmacologic information for CA-CDI cases and controls (i.e., persons without CDI). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for potential risk factors for CA-CDI.
The incidence rates for CA-CDI and HA-CDI were 11.16 and 12.1 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively. CA-CDI cases were more likely than controls to receive antimicrobials (adjusted OR, 6.09 [95% CI 4.59-8.08]) and gastric acid suppressants (adjusted OR, 2.30 [95% CI 1.56-3.39]) in the 180 days before diagnosis. Controlling for other covariates, increased risk for CA-CDI was associated with use of beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and penicillins. However, 27% of CA-CDI cases did not receive antimicrobials in the 180 days before their diagnoses, and 17% did not have any traditional risk factors for CDI.
Our study documented that the epidemiology of CDI is changing, with CA-CDI occurring in populations not traditionally considered "high-risk" for the disease. Clinicians should consider this diagnosis and obtain appropriate diagnostic testing for outpatients with persistent or severe diarrhea who have even remote antimicrobial exposure.
We investigated whether prior hospitalization was a risk factor for heart attacks among older adults in the survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old.
Baseline (1993–1994) interview data were linked to 1993–2005 Medicare claims for 5,511 self-respondents aged 70 years and older and not enrolled in managed Medicare. Primary hospital International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) 410.xx discharge codes identified postbaseline hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarctions (AMIs). Participants were censored at death or postbaseline managed Medicare enrollment. Traditional risk factors and other covariates were included. Recent postbaseline non-AMI hospitalizations (ie, prior hospitalizations) were indicated by a time-dependent marker, and sensitivity analyses identified their peak effect.
The total number of person-years of surveillance was 44,740 with a mean of 8.1 (median = 9.1) per person. Overall, 483 participants (8.8%) suffered postbaseline heart attacks, with 423 participants (7.7%) having their first-ever AMI. As expected, significant traditional risk factors were sex (men); race (whites); marital status (never being married); education (noncollege); geography (living in the South); and reporting a baseline history of angina, arthritis, diabetes, and heart disease. Risk factors were similar for both any postbaseline and first-ever postbaseline AMI analyses. The time-dependent recent non-AMI hospitalization marker did not alter the effects of the traditional risk factors but increased AMI risk by 366% (adjusted hazards ratio = 4.66, p < .0001).
Our results suggest that some small percentage (<3%) of heart attacks among older adults might be prevented if effective short-term postdischarge planning and monitoring interventions were developed and implemented.
Heart attack; Recent hospitalization; Epidemiology; Prospective cohort study
Numerous studies have demonstrated the value of team-based care to improve blood pressure (BP) control but there is limited information on whether these models would be adopted in diverse populations. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a collaborative model between physicians and pharmacists can improve BP control in multiple primary care medical offices with diverse geographic and patient characteristics and whether long-term BP control can be sustained.
This study is a randomized prospective trial in 27 primary care offices first stratified by the percent of under-represented minorities and the level of clinical pharmacy services within the office. Each medical office was then randomized to either a 9 or 24 month intervention or to a control group. Patients will be enrolled in this study until 2012.
The results of this study should provide information on whether this model can be implemented in large numbers of diverse offices, if it is effective in diverse populations and whether BP control can be sustained long-term.
hypertension management; clinical trial; pharmacist management; blood pressure control
We examined whether older adults who had continuity of care with a primary care physician (PCP) had lower mortality.
Secondary analyses were conducted using baseline interview data (1993–1994) from the nationally representative Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The analytic sample included 5,457 self-respondents 70 years old or more who were not enrolled in managed care plans. AHEAD data were linked to Medicare claims for 1991–2005, providing up to 12 years of follow-up. Two time-dependent measures of continuity addressed whether there was more than an 8-month interval between any two visits to the same PCP during the prior 2-year period. The “present exposure” measure calculated this criterion on a daily basis and could switch “on” or “off” daily, whereas the “cumulative exposure” measure reflected the percentage of follow-up days, also on a daily basis allowing it to switch on or off daily, for which the criterion was met.
Two thousand nine hundred and fifty-four (54%) participants died during the follow-up period. Using the cumulative exposure measure, 27% never had continuity of care, whereas 31%, 20%, 14%, and 8%, respectively, had continuity for 1%–33%, 34%–67%, 68%–99%, and 100% of their follow-up days. Adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic status, social support, health lifestyle, and morbidity, both measures of continuity were associated (p < .001) with lower mortality (adjusted hazard ratios of 0.84 for the present exposure measure and 0.31, 0.39, 0.46, and 0.62, respectively, for the 1%–33%, 34%–67%, 68%–99%, and 100% categories of the cumulative exposure measure).
Continuity of care with a PCP, as assessed by two distinct measures, was associated with substantial reductions in long-term mortality.
Continuity; Primary care; Mortality; Medical home
To evaluate blood pressure (BP) control following discontinuation of a physician\pharmacist collaborative intervention.
BP was previously measured at baseline and at the end of a 9-month cluster-randomized intervention trial. This study abstracted medical record data for mean BP and BP control at 18 months (9 months after the discontinuation of the intervention) and at 27 months (18 months after discontinuation of the intervention).
Five primary care medical offices operated by a university health system.
Subjects with hypertension who were enrolled in a previous controlled trial and who consented to have data abstracted for an additional 18 months following the end of that study.
A physician\pharmacist collaborative intervention to improve BP control was withdrawn after 9 months and BP and the change in BPs following withdrawal of the intervention were evaluated.
A research nurse measured BP during the 9-month interventional study. BP values were then abstracted from the medical record for the 18 month period after the end of that study.
104 patients had BP values at all 4 time periods. At baseline, systolic BP (SBP) was 152.5 ± 9.5 and 150.1 ± 9.6 mm Hg in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p=0.22). At 9 months, SBP decreased to 124.5 ± 10.7 and 132.0 ± 15.1 mm Hg (p=0.0038 between groups) and BP was controlled in 78.5% and 48.7% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p=0.0017). By 18 months, SBP had deteriorated to 131.0 ± 12.2 and 143.3 ± 17.5 mm Hg (p<0.001) and BP control rates deteriorated to 53.9% and 30.8% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p=0.02). By 27 months, SBP was 131.3 ± 13.0 and 141.2 ± 15.8 mm Hg (p=0.0008) and BP control was 55.3% and 35.9% in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p=0.05).
This study found a sustained effect on BP control up to 18 months following discontinuation of a pharmacist intervention. However, BP control deteriorated at a similar rate in both the intervention and control group but remained significantly higher in the intervention group. This study suggests that continued interventions by pharmacists may be necessary to maintain high rates of BP control, especially in those patients who lose BP control.
hypertension management; clinical trial; pharmacist management; team-care; blood pressure control
To describe chemotherapy use and adverse events (AEs) for advanced-stage, non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in community practice, including descriptions according to variation by age.
We interviewed patients with newly diagnosed, stages IIIB and IV NSCLC in the population-based cohort studied by the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium, and we abstracted the patient medical records. AEs were medical events occurring during chemotherapy. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between age and chemotherapy; with Poisson regression, we estimated event rate ratios and adjusted the analysis for age, sex, ethnicity, radiation therapy, stage, histology, and presence and grade of 27 comorbidities.
Of 1,371 patients, 58% (95% CI, 55% to 61%) received chemotherapy and 35% (95% CI, 32% to 38%) had AEs. After adjustment, 72% (95% CI, 65% to 79%) of those younger than 55 years and 47% (95% CI, 42% to 52%) of those age 75 years and older received chemotherapy. Platinum-based therapies were less common in the older-age groups. Pretreatment medical event rates were 18.6% for patients younger than 55 years and were only 9.2% for those age 75 years and older (adjusted rate ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.91). In contrast, older adults were more likely to have AEs during chemotherapy. The adjusted rate ratios compared with age younger than 55 years were 1.70 for 65- to 74-year-olds (95% CI, 1.19 to 2.43) and 1.34 for those age 75 years and older (95% CI, 0.90 to 2.00).
Older patients who received chemotherapy had fewer pretherapy events than younger patients and were less likely to receive platinum-based regimens. Nevertheless, older patients had more adverse events during chemotherapy, independent of comorbidity. Potential implicit trade-offs between symptom management and treatment toxicity should be made explicit and additionally studied.
Studies have demonstrated that blood pressure (BP) control can be improved when clinical pharmacists assist with patient management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a physician/pharmacist intervention to improve BP control.
This was a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial with clinics randomized to control (n=3) or intervention (n=3) groups. The study enrolled 402 patients with uncontrolled hypertension (mean age 58.3 years). Clinical pharmacists made drug-therapy recommendations to physicians based on national guidelines. Research nurses performed BP measurements and 24-hour BP monitoring.
Guideline adherence scores increased from 49.4 ± 19.3 at baseline to 53.4 ± 18.1 at 6 months (9% increase) in the control group and from 40.4 ± 22.6 to 62.8 ± 13.5 (57% increase) in the intervention group (p=0.089 adjusted comparison between groups). Mean BP decreased 6.8/4.5 and 20.7/9.7 mm Hg in the control and intervention groups, respectively, (p<0.05 for between-group systolic BP (SBP) comparison). The adjusted difference in SBP was −12.0 (95% CI: −24.0, 0.0) mm Hg, while the difference in diastolic BP (DBP) was −1.8 (CI: −11.9, 8.3). The 24-hour BP levels showed similar effect sizes. BP was controlled in 29.9% of patients in the control group and 63.9% in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio 3.2; CI: 2.0, 5.1; p<0.001).
A physician/pharmacist collaborative intervention achieved significantly better mean BP and overall BP control rates when compared to a control group. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate efficient strategies to implement team-based chronic disease management.
hypertension management; clinical trial; pharmacist management; blood pressure control; guideline adherence
The authors prospectively explored the consequences of hip fracture with regard to discharge placement, functional status, and mortality using the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). Data from baseline (1993) AHEAD interviews and biennial follow-up interviews were linked to Medicare claims data from 1993–2005. There were 495 postbaseline hip fractures among 5,511 respondents aged ≥69 years. Mean age at hip fracture was 85 years; 73% of fracture patients were white women, 45% had pertrochanteric fractures, and 55% underwent surgical pinning. Most patients (58%) were discharged to a nursing facility, with 14% being discharged to their homes. In-hospital, 6-month, and 1-year mortality were 2.7%, 19%, and 26%, respectively. Declines in functional-status-scale scores ranged from 29% on the fine motor skills scale to 56% on the mobility index. Mean scale score declines were 1.9 for activities of daily living, 1.7 for instrumental activities of daily living, and 2.2 for depressive symptoms; scores on mobility, large muscle, gross motor, and cognitive status scales worsened by 2.3, 1.6, 2.2, and 2.5 points, respectively. Hip fracture characteristics, socioeconomic status, and year of fracture were significantly associated with discharge placement. Sex, age, dementia, and frailty were significantly associated with mortality. This is one of the few studies to prospectively capture these declines in functional status after hip fracture.
activities of daily living; hip fractures; mobility limitation; mortality; patient discharge
We identified 4-year (2 years before and 2 years after the index [baseline] interview) ED use patterns in older adults and the factors associated with them.
A secondary analysis of baseline interview data from the nationally representative Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old linked to Medicare claims data. Participants were 4310 self-respondents 70 years old or older. Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes 99281 and 99282 identified low-intensity use, and CPT codes 99283–99285 identified high-intensity use. Exploratory factor analysis and multivariable multinomial logistic regression were used.
The majority (56.6%) of participants had no ED visits during the 4-year period. Just 5.7% had only low-intensity ED use patterns, whereas 28.9% used the ED only for high-intensity visits, and 8.7% had a mixture of low-intensity and high-intensity use. Participants with lower immediate word recall scores and those who did not live in major metropolitan areas were more likely to be low-intensity-only ED users. Older individuals, those who did not live in rural counties, had greater morbidity and functional status burdens, and lower immediate word recall scores were more likely to be high-intensity-only ED users. Participants who were older, did not live in major cities, had lower education levels, had greater morbidity and functional status burdens, and lower immediate word recall scores were more likely to have mixed ED use patterns.
Nearly half of these older adults used the ED at least once over a 4-year period, with a mean annual ED use percentage of 18.4. Few, however, used the ED only for visits that may have been avoidable. This finding suggests that triaging Medicare patients would not decrease ED overcrowding, although continued surveillance is necessary to detect potential changes in ED use patterns among older adults.
Emergency department; Utilization patterns; Medicare, Claims data
This article presents an interpersonal continuity of care measure.
We operationalized continuity of care as no more than an 8-month interval between any two visits during a 2-year period to either (a) the same primary care physician or (b) the same physician regardless of specialty. Sensitivity analyses evaluated two interval censoring algorithms and two alternative intervals. We linked Medicare Part A and B claims to baseline survey data for 4,596 respondents to the Survey on Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old. We addressed the potential for selection bias by using propensity score methods, and we explored construct validity.
Interpersonal continuity with a primary care physician was 17.3%, and interpersonal continuity of care with any physician was 26.1%. Older participants; men; individuals who lived alone; people who had difficulty walking; and respondents with medical histories of arthritis, cancer, diabetes, heart conditions, hypertension, and stroke were most likely to have continuity. Individuals who had never married, were widowed, were working, or had low subjective life expectancy were least likely to have continuity.
Researchers can measure interpersonal continuity of care using Medicare Part B claims. Replication of these findings and further construct validation, however, are needed prior to widespread adoption of this method.
Randomized trials suggest adjuvant chemotherapy is effective for elderly patients with stage III colon cancer. However, the elderly are less likely to receive this therapy than younger patients, perhaps because of concern about adverse effects.
To evaluate adjuvant chemotherapy use and outcomes for older patients with stage III colon cancer from well-defined population-based settings and healthcare systems.
Observational study of adjuvant chemotherapy use and outcomes by age, using Poisson regression to estimate the number of adverse events adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, including comorbid illness and specific elements of chemotherapy regimens documented with clinically detailed medical record reviews and patient and surrogate surveys.
Five geographically defined regions (Alabama, Iowa, Los Angeles County, Northern California, and North Carolina), five integrated health-care delivery systems, and 15 Veterans hospitals.
All 675 patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer during 2003-2005 who underwent surgical resection were followed up to 15 months post-diagnosis.
Main outcome measures
Chemotherapy regimen, dose, duration and annualized mean number of adverse events stratified by age.
Half of the 202 patients >=75 years received adjuvant chemotherapy compared with 87% of 473 younger patients (diff 37%, 95% CI 30%-45%). Among adjuvant chemotherapy users, 14 (14%) of patients >=75 years and 178 (44%) of younger patients received a regimen containing oxaliplatin (diff 30%, 95% CI 21%-38%). Older patients were less likely to continue. By 150 days, 99 (40%) patients >= 65 years and 68 (25%) younger patients had discontinued chemotherapy (diff 15%, 95% CI 7%-23%). Overall, 162 (24%) patients had at least one adverse clinical event, with more events among patients treated with vs. without adjuvant chemotherapy (mean 0.394 vs. 0.160, diff 0.234, 95% CI 0.11-0.36, p<0.001). Among adjuvant chemotherapy users, adjusted rates of late clinical adverse events show a reverse U-distribution with lower rates for patients >= 75 years (0.277) versus for younger patients (0.345 for 18-54, 0.519 for 55-64, and 0.446 for 65-75 years, p=0.008 for any age effect).
Older patients in the community receive less toxic and shorter chemotherapy regimens, and those treated had fewer adverse events than younger patients. The effect of these differences on clinical outcomes is not clear.
stage III colon caner; colorectal neoplasia; adjuvant chemotherapy; adverse events; community settings
Episodes of Emergency Department (ED) service use among older adults previously have not been constructed, or evaluated as multi-dimensional phenomena. In this study, we constructed episodes of ED service use among a cohort of older adults over a 15-year observation period, measured the episodes by severity and intensity, and compared these measures in predicting subsequent hospitalization.
We conducted a secondary analysis of the prospective cohort study entitled the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). Baseline (1993) data on 5,511 self-respondents ≥70 years old were linked to their Medicare claims for 1991-2005. Claims then were organized into episodes of ED care according to Medicare guidelines. The severity of ED episodes was measured with a modified-NYU algorithm using ICD9-CM diagnoses, and the intensity of the episodes was measured using CPT codes. Measures were evaluated against subsequent hospitalization to estimate comparative predictive validity.
Over 15 years, three-fourths (4,171) of the 5,511 AHEAD participants had at least 1 ED episode, with a mean of 4.5 episodes. Cross-classification indicated the modified-NYU severity measure and the CPT-based intensity measure captured different aspects of ED episodes (kappa = 0.18). While both measures were significant independent predictors of hospital admission from ED episodes, the CPT measure had substantially higher predictive validity than the modified-NYU measure (AORs 5.70 vs. 3.31; p < .001).
We demonstrated an innovative approach for how claims data can be used to construct episodes of ED care among a sample of older adults. We also determined that the modified-NYU measure of severity and the CPT measure of intensity tap different aspects of ED episodes, and that both measures were predictive of subsequent hospitalization.
We identified hip fracture risks in a prospective national study.
Baseline (1993–1994) interview data were linked to Medicare claims for 1993–2005. Participants were 5,511 self-respondents aged 70 years and older and not in managed Medicare. ICD9-CM 820.xx (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modification) codes identified hip fracture. Participants were censored at death or enrollment into managed Medicare. Static risk factors included sociodemographic, socioeconomic, place of residence, health behavior, disease history, and functional and cognitive status measures. A time-dependent marker reflecting postbaseline hospitalizations was included.
A total of 495 (8.9%) participants suffered a postbaseline hip fracture. In the static proportional hazards model, the greatest risks involved age (adjusted hazard ratios [AHRs] of 2.01, 2.82, and 4.91 for 75–79, 80–84, and ≥85 year age groups vs those aged 70–74 years; p values <.001), sex (AHR = 0.45 for men vs women; p < .001), race (AHRs of 0.37 and 0.46 for African Americans and Hispanics vs whites; p values <.001 and <.01), body mass (AHRs of 0.40, 0.77, and 1.73 for obese, overweight, and underweight vs normal weight; p values <.001, <.05, and <.01), smoking status (AHRs = 1.49 and 1.52 for current and former smokers vs nonsmokers; p values <.05 and <.001), and diabetes (AHR = 1.99; p < .001). The time-dependent recent hospitalization marker did not alter the static model effect estimates, but it did substantially increase the risk of hip fracture (AHR = 2.51; p < .001).
Enhanced discharge planning and home care for non–hip fracture hospitalizations could reduce subsequent hip fracture rates.
Hip fracture; Administrative; Claims data; Epidemiology
The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine family practice physician and staff views on the benefits of, barriers to, and use of personal health records (PHRs). Four focus groups were conducted at four family medicine practices in Iowa and included a total of 28 providers. Overall, participants seemed to view PHRs as a source of medical information for healthcare providers when the patient's medical record is not available. Providers appeared unaware of the patient-centered features available in many electronic PHRs and how such features might affect patients and their medical practice. While physicians identified numerous patient groups that could benefit from using PHRs, they also perceived several unique barriers, including the potential of PHRs to facilitate narcotic abuse, low levels of patient computer and health literacy, low levels of patient motivation, and difficulties with PHR and electronic medical record interoperability. Physicians' relatively narrow view of PHR functions and benefits and perception of barriers to using PHRs may restrict widespread support of PHR use.
personal health record; health information technology; primary care; family practice; physicians; electronic medical record
Determine the effectiveness of TIMER (Tool to Improve Medications in the Elderly via Review) in helping pharmacists and pharmacy students identify drug-related problems during patient medication reviews.
In a randomized, controlled study design, geriatric patient cases were sent to 136 pharmacists and 108 third-year pharmacy students who were asked to identify drug related-problems (DRPs) with and without using TIMER.
Pharmacists identified more tool-related DRPs using TIMER (p = 0.027). Pharmacy students identified more tool-related DRPs using TIMER in the first case (p = 0.02), but not in the second.
TIMER increased the number of DRPs identified by practicing pharmacists and pharmacy students during medication reviews of hypothetical patient cases.
medication therapy management; drug-related problems; elderly; community pharmacy
5.8 M living Americans have experienced a stroke at some time in their lives, 780K had either their first or a recurrent stroke this year, and 150K died from strokes this year. Stroke costs about $66B annually in the US, and also results in serious, long-term disability. Therefore, it is prudent to identify all possible risk factors and their effects so that appropriate intervention points may be targeted.
Baseline (1993–1994) interview data from the nationally representative Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) were linked to 1993–2005 Medicare claims. Participants were 5,511 self-respondents ≥ 70 years old. Two ICD9-CM case-identification approaches were used. Two approaches to stroke case-identification based on ICD9-CM codes were used, one emphasized sensitivity and the other emphasized specificity. Participants were censored at death or enrollment into managed Medicare. Baseline risk factors included sociodemographic, socioeconomic, place of residence, health behavior, disease history, and functional and cognitive status measures. A time-dependent marker reflecting post-baseline non-stroke hospitalizations was included to reflect health shocks, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to identify its peak effect. Competing risk, proportional hazards regression was used.
Post-baseline strokes occurred for 545 (9.9%; high sensitivity approach) and 374 (6.8%; high specificity approach) participants. The greatest static risks involved increased age, being widowed or never married, living in multi-story buildings, reporting a baseline history of diabetes, hypertension, or stroke, and reporting difficulty picking up a dime, refusing to answer the delayed word recall test, or having poor cognition. Risks were similar for both case-identification approaches and for recurrent and first-ever vs. only first-ever strokes. The time-dependent health shock (recent hospitalization) marker did not alter the static model effect estimates, but increased stroke risk by 200% or more.
The effect of our health shock marker (a time-dependent recent hospitalization indicator) was large and did not mediate the effects of the traditional risk factors. This suggests an especially vulnerable post-hospital transition period from adverse effects associated with both their underlying health shock (the reasons for the recent hospital admission) and the consequences of their treatments.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate a physician/pharmacist collaborative model to improve BP control. The study was a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial that enrolled 179 patients with uncontrolled primary hypertension aged 21−85 years (mean 61 years). At 9 months, the mean adjusted difference in SBP was 8.7 (95% CI: 4.4, 12.9) mm Hg, while the difference in DBP was 5.4 (CI: 2.8, 8.0) mm Hg. The 24-hour BP levels showed similar effects with mean SBP 8.8 (CI: 5.0, 12.6) mm Hg and DBP 4.6 (CI: 2.4, 6.8) mm Hg lower in the intervention group. BP was controlled in 89.1% of patients in the intervention group and 52.9% in the control group (adjusted odds ratio 8.9; CI: 3.8, 20.7; p<0.001). Physician/pharmacist collaboration achieved significantly better mean BP and overall BP control rates primarily by intensification of medication therapy and improving patient adherence.
hypertension management; clinical trial; pharmacist management; blood pressure control
To compare the estimated effects of dialysis center profit status on patient survival using alternative estimation strategies with retrospective data.
Data Sources/Study Setting
Patient and provider-level retrospective data from the United States Renal Data System (USRDS), 1996–1999.
Observational risk adjustment and instrumental variable methods.
Data Collection/Extraction Methods
Study collected measures from various USRDS files describing clinical characteristics, survival, and the profit status of the initial dialysis center for incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients aged 67+. USRDS facility files were used to assess dialysis center profit status and measure patient distances to dialysis centers.
Found survival effect related to profit status in the range of previous research using risk-adjusting covariates similar to those used in previous models. Adding further risk-adjusting covariates halved this effect. The relative proximity of for-profit and nonprofit dialysis centers to the patient residence was the strongest determinant of the profit status of the patient's initial dialysis center. The effect of profit status on survival was eliminated using the two-stage least squares variant of instrumental variable estimation with the relative proximity of for-profit and nonprofit dialysis centers to the patient's residence as the instrument.
Using only the variation in initial dialysis center profit status that was related to the relative proximity of for-profit and nonprofit dialysis centers to the patient, we found no relationship between dialysis center profit status and patient survival. These results are in contrast to results obtained using risk-adjustment methods with a limited set of risk-adjusting covariates.
Dialysis; instrumental variables; survival; profit status; risk adjustment