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1.  Valproic acid without intensified antiviral therapy has limited impact on persistent HIV infection of resting CD4+ T cells 
AIDS (London, England)  2008;22(10):10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282fd6df4.
Objectives
Valproic acid and intensified antiretroviral therapy may deplete resting CD4+ T-cell HIV infection. We tested the ability of valproic acid to deplete resting CD4+ T-cell infection in patients receiving standard antiretroviral therapy.
Methods
Resting CD4+ T-cell infection was measured in 11 stably aviremic volunteers twice prior to, and twice after Depakote ER 1000 mg was added to standard antiretroviral therapy. Resting CD4+ T-cell infection frequency was measured by outgrowth assay. Low-level viremia was quantitated by single copy plasma HIV RNA assay.
Results
A decrease in resting CD4+ T-cell infection was observed in only four of the 11 patients. Levels of immune activation and HIV-specific T-cell response were low and stable. Valproic acid levels ranged from 26 to 96 μg/ml when measured near trough. Single copy assay was performed in nine patients. In three patients with depletion of resting CD4+ T-cell infection following valproic acid, single copy assay ranged from less than 1–5 copies/ml. Continuous low-level viremia was observed in three patients with stable resting CD4+ T-cell infection (24–87, 8–87, and 1–7 copies/ml respectively) in whom multiple samples were analyzed.
Conclusion
The prospective addition of valproic acid to stable antiretroviral therapy reduced the frequency of resting CD4+ T-cell infection in a minority of volunteers. In patients in whom resting CD4+ T-cell infection depletion was observed, viremia was rarely detectable by single copy assay.
doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282fd6df4
PMCID: PMC3863687  PMID: 18525258
antiretroviral therapy; HIV; latency; resting CD4+ T cells; valproic acid
2.  Impact of Transfusion of Autologous 7 versus 42 day old AS-3 Red Blood Cells on Tissue Oxygenation and the Microcirculation in Healthy Volunteers 
Transfusion  2012;52(11):2459-2464.
Background
Stored RBCs accumulate biochemical and biophysical changes. Maximum storage duration is based on acceptable in vitro characteristics and 24-hour survival, but not RBC function. Relatively little is known about the impact of RBC-storage duration on oxygenation and the microcirculation.
Study Design and Methods
Eight healthy subjects donated a double RBC apheresis, which were prestorage leukocyte-reduced, and processed in AS-3. Subjects were transfused one unit of RBCs at 7- and 42-days following blood collection. Measurements of percent (%) tissue oxygenation in the thenar eminence muscle (StO2) and brain (SctO2) were recorded with FDA-cleared non-invasive devices. Sublingual microvascular blood flow (MFI) was quantified prior to and after RBC transfusion using a video microscope. Raw electronic data for all measurements were analyzed by a blinded observer at a core laboratory.
Results
The only pre-versus-posttransfusion change observed in measurements of SctO2, StO2, or MFI was a very small increase in SctO2, from 70.4 to 71.8 (means, p=0.032) at 7 days. There was no significant difference in the amount of pre-post change at 7 days versus 42 days for any of the measures.
Conclusion
Transfusion of one unit of 42-day stored RBCs to healthy subjects has no overt detrimental effect on tissue oxygenation or the microcirculation assessed by clinically available monitors.
doi:10.1111/j.1537-2995.2012.03615.x
PMCID: PMC3387324  PMID: 22452273
transfusion; packed red blood cells (RBCs); tissue oxygenation; microvascular blood flow; near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); microcirculatory flow index (MFI); age of blood
3.  Ticlopidine-, Clopidogrel-, and Prasugrel-Associated Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura: A 20-Year Review from the Southern Network on Adverse Reactions (SONAR) 
Thienopyridine-derivatives (ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and prasugrel) are the primary antiplatelet agents. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare drug-associated syndrome, with the thienopyridines being the most common drugs implicated in this syndrome. We reviewed 20 years of information on clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory findings for thienopyridine-associated TTP. Four, 11, and 11 cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP were reported in the first year of marketing of ticlopidine (1989), clopidogrel (1998), and prasugrel (2010), respectively. As of 2011, the FDA received reports of 97 ticlopidine-, 197 clopidogrel-, and 14 prasugrel-associated TTP cases. Severe deficiency of ADAMTS-13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13) was present in 80% and antibodies to 100% of these TTP patients on ticlopidine, 0% of the patients with clopidogrel-associated TTP (p < 0.05), and an unknown percentage of patients with prasugrel-associated TTP. TTP is associated with use of each of the three thienopyridines, although the mechanistic pathways may differ.
doi:10.1055/s-0032-1328894
PMCID: PMC3804561  PMID: 23111862
thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; ticlopidine; clopidogrel; prasugrel; adverse event
5.  Platelet Factor 4/Heparin Antibodies in Blood Bank Donors 
Platelet factor 4 (PF4)/heparin antibody, typically associated with heparin therapy, is reported in some heparin-naive people. Seroprevalence in the general population, however, remains unclear. We prospectively evaluated PF4/heparin antibody in approximately 4,000 blood bank donors using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for initial and then repeated (confirmatory) testing. Antibody was detected initially in 249 (6.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.8%-7.4%) of 3,795 donors and repeatedly in 163 (4.3%; 95% CI, 3.7%-5.0%) of 3,789 evaluable donors. “Unconfirmed” positives were mostly (93%) low positives (optical density [OD] = 0.40-0.59). Of 163 repeatedly positive samples, 116 (71.2%) were low positives, and 124 (76.1%) exhibited heparin-dependent binding. Predominant isotypes of intermediate to high seropositive samples (OD >0.6) were IgG (20/39 [51%]), IgM (9/39 [23%]), and indeterminate (10/39 [26%]). The marked background seroprevalence of PF4/heparin antibody (4.3%-6.6%) with the preponderance of low (and frequently nonreproducible) positives in blood donors suggests the need for further assay calibration, categorization of antibody level, and studies evaluating clinical relevance of “naturally occurring” PF4/heparin antibodies.
doi:10.1309/AJCPG0MNR5NGKNFX
PMCID: PMC3766530  PMID: 20959660
Platelet factor 4; Heparin; Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; Antibody; Seroprevalence; Blood bank
6.  Ticlopidine- and clopidogrel-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP): review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and pharmacovigilance findings (1989–2008) 
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a fulminant disease characterized by platelet aggregates, thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, neurologic changes, and mechanical injury to erythrocytes. Most idiopathic cases of TTP are characterized by a deficiency of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease, with thrombospondin-1-like domains) metalloprotease activity. Ironically, use of anti-platelet agents, the thienopyridine derivates clopidogrel and ticlopidine, is associated with drug induced TTP. Data were abstracted from a systematic review of English-language literature for thienopyridine-associated TTP identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the public website of the Food and Drug Administration, and abstracts from national scientific conferences from 1991 to April 2008. Ticlopidine and clopidogrel are the two most common drugs associated with TTP in FDA safety databases. Epidemiological studies identify recent initiation of anti-platelet agents as the most common risk factor associated with risks of developing TTP. Laboratory studies indicate that most cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP involve an antibody to ADAMTS13 metalloprotease, present with severe thrombocytopenia, and respond to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); a minority of thienopyridine-associated TTP presents with severe renal insufficiency, involves direct endothelial cell damage, and is less responsive to TPE. The evaluation of this potentially fatal drug toxicity can serve as a template for future efforts to comprehensively characterize other severe adverse drug reactions.
doi:10.1038/ki.2008.613
PMCID: PMC3500614  PMID: 19180126
drug-associated TTP; epidemiology; ADAMTS13
7.  Two Mechanistic Pathways for Thienopyridine-Associated Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura 
Objectives
We sought to describe clinical and laboratory findings for a large cohort of patients with thienopyridine-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP).
Background
The thienopyridine derivatives, ticlopidine and clopidogrel, are the 2 most common drugs associated with TTP in databases maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Methods
Clinical reports of TTP associated with clopidogrel and ticlopidine were identified from medical records, published case reports, and FDA case reports (n = 128). Duration of thienopyridine exposure, clinical and laboratory findings, and survival were recorded. ADAMTS13 activity (n = 39) and inhibitor (n = 30) were measured for a subset of individuals.
Results
Compared with clopidogrel-associated TTP cases (n = 35), ticlopidine-associated TTP cases (n = 93) were more likely to have received more than 2 weeks of drug (90% vs. 26%), to be severely thrombocytopenic (84% vs. 60%), and to have normal renal function (72% vs. 45%) (p < 0.01 for each). Compared with TTP patients with ADAMTS13 activity >15% (n = 13), TTP patients with severely deficient ADAMTS13 activity (n = 26) were more likely to have received ticlopidine (92.3% vs. 46.2%, p < 0.003). Among patients who developed TTP >2 weeks after thienopyridine, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) increased likelihood of survival (84% vs. 38%, p < 0.05). Among patients who developed TTP within 2 weeks of starting thienopyridines, survival was 77% with TPE and 78% without.
Conclusions
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is a rare complication of thienopyridine treatment. This drug toxicity appears to occur by 2 different mechanistic pathways, characterized primarily by time of onset before versus after 2 weeks of thienopyridine administration. If TTP occurs after 2 weeks of ticlopidine or clopidogrel therapy, therapeutic plasma exchange must be promptly instituted to enhance likelihood of survival.
doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.04.093
PMCID: PMC3167088  PMID: 17868804

Results 1-7 (7)