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1.  Ethnic Differences in Glycaemic Control in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Living in Scotland 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e83292.
Background and Aims
Previous studies have investigated the association between ethnicity and processes of care and intermediate outcomes of diabetes, but there are limited population-based studies available. The aim of this study was to use population-based data to investigate the relationships between ethnicity and glycaemic control in men and women with diabetes mellitus living in Scotland
Methods
We used a 2008 extract from the population-based national electronic diabetes database of Scotland. The association between ethnicity with mean glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus was examined in a retrospective cohort study, including adjustment for a number of variables including age, sex, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI), prescribed treatment and duration of diabetes.
Results
Complete data for analyses were available for 56,333 White Scottish adults, 2,535 Pakistanis, 857 Indians, 427 Chinese and 223 African-Caribbeans. All other ethnic groups had significantly (p<0.05) greater proportions of people with suboptimal glycaemic control (HbA1c >58 mmol/mol, 7.5%) compared to the White Scottish group, despite generally younger mean age and lower BMI. Fully adjusted odds ratios for suboptimal glycaemic control were significantly higher among Pakistanis and Indians (1.85, 95% CI: 1.68–2.04, and 1.62,95% CI: 1.38–1.89) respectively.
Conclusions
Pakistanis and Indians with type 2 diabetes mellitus were more likely to have suboptimal glycaemic control than the white Scottish population. Further research on health services and self-management are needed to understand the association between ethnicity and glycaemic control to address ethnic disparities in glycaemic control.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083292
PMCID: PMC3865180  PMID: 24358273
2.  Fatty Liver, Insulin Resistance, and Features of Metabolic Syndrome 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(11):2359-2364.
OBJECTIVE
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) coexists with insulin resistance (IR), but it is uncertain whether NAFLD and IR contribute independently to atherosclerosis. We tested whether fatty liver, IR, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) features (waist, glucose, triglyceride, HDL cholesterol [HDL-C], and blood pressure) were associated with a marker of atherosclerosis (coronary artery calcium [CAC] score >0), independently of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease (CVD).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Data were analyzed from a South Korean occupational cohort of 10,153 people who all received ultrasound measurements of fatty liver and a cardiac computed tomography CAC score. IR was defined by homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) ≥75th percentile. Odds ratios (ORs) (95% CIs) for the presence of a CAC score >0 were estimated using logistic regression.
RESULTS
There were 915 people with a CAC score >0. MetS features were increased (glucose, blood pressure, triglyceride, and waist) or decreased (HDL-C) among people with a CAC score >0 (all comparisons against CAC score ≤0; P < 0.0001). Of subjects with a CAC score >0, 55% had fatty liver and 33.7% were insulin resistant. Fatty liver (OR 1.21 [95% CI 1.01–1.45]; P = 0.04) and HOMA-IR (1.10 [1.02–1.18]; P = 0.02) were associated with CAC score >0, independently of all MetS features, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and prior evidence of CVD. The presence of IR and fatty liver combined was associated with CAC score >0 (1.53 [1.20–1.95]; P = 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Fatty liver and HOMA-IR are both associated with a CAC score >0 (independently of each other), features of MetS, conventional cardiovascular risk factors, and existing CVD.
doi:10.2337/dc12-0515
PMCID: PMC3476919  PMID: 22829522
3.  Combined Influence of Insulin Resistance, Overweight/Obesity, and Fatty Liver as Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2012;35(4):717-722.
OBJECTIVE
There is dissociation between insulin resistance, overweight/obesity, and fatty liver as risk factors for type 2 diabetes, suggesting that different mechanisms are involved. Our aim was to 1) quantify risk of incident diabetes at follow-up with different combinations of these risk factors at baseline and 2) determine whether each is an independent risk factor for diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We examined 12,853 subjects without diabetes from a South Korean occupational cohort, and insulin resistance (IR) (homeostasis model assessment-IR ≥75th centile, ≥2.0), fatty liver (defined by standard ultrasound criteria), and overweight/obesity (BMI ≥25 kg/m2) identified at baseline. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident diabetes at 5-year follow-up were estimated using logistic regression.
RESULTS
We identified 223 incident cases of diabetes from which 26 subjects had none of the three risk factors, 37 had one, 56 had two, and 104 had three. In the fully adjusted model, the OR and CI for diabetes were 3.92 (2.86–5.37) for IR, 1.62 (1.17–2.24) for overweight/obesity, and 2.42 (1.74–3.36) for fatty liver. The OR for the presence of all three factors in a fully adjusted model was 14.13 (8.99–22.21).
CONCLUSIONS
The clustering of IR, overweight/obesity, and fatty liver is common and markedly increases the odds of developing type 2 diabetes, but these factors also have effects independently of each other and of confounding factors. The data suggest that treatment for each factor is needed to decrease risk of type 2 diabetes.
doi:10.2337/dc11-1853
PMCID: PMC3308286  PMID: 22338098
4.  Genotype-Phenotype Correlation in 153 Adult Patients With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: Analysis of the United Kingdom Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive (CaHASE) Cohort 
Context:
In congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a strong genotype-phenotype correlation exists in childhood. However, similar data in adults are lacking.
Objective:
The objective of the study was to test whether the severity of disease-causing CYP21A2 mutations influences the treatment and health status in adults with CAH.
Research Design and Methods:
We analyzed the genotype in correlation with treatment and health status in 153 adults with CAH from the United Kingdom Congenital adrenal Hyperplasia Adult Study Executive cohort.
Results:
CYP21A2 mutations were distributed similarly to previously reported case series. In 7 patients a mutation was identified on only 1 allele. Novel mutations were detected on 1.7% of alleles (5 of 306). Rare mutations were found on 2.3% of alleles (7 of 306). For further analysis, patients were categorized into CYP21A2 mutation groups according to predicted residual enzyme function: null (n = 34), A (n = 42), B (n = 36), C (n = 34), and D (n = 7). Daily glucocorticoid dose was highest in group null and lowest in group C. Fludrocortisone was used more frequently in patients with more severe genotypes. Except for lower female height in group B, no statistically significant associations between genotype and clinical parameters were found. Androgens, blood pressure, lipids, blood glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance were not different between groups. Subjective health status was similarly impaired across groups.
Conclusions:
In adults with classic CAH and women with nonclassic CAH, there was a weak association between genotype and treatment, but health outcomes were not associated with genotype. The underrepresentation of males with nonclassic CAH may reflect that milder genotypes result in a milder condition that is neither diagnosed nor followed up in adulthood. Overall, our results suggest that the impaired health status of adults with CAH coming to medical attention is acquired rather than genetically determined and therefore could potentially be improved through modification of treatment.
doi:10.1210/jc.2012-3343
PMCID: PMC3651585  PMID: 23337727
5.  Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Total Mortality in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes: Scottish Registry Linkage Study 
PLoS Medicine  2012;9(10):e1001321.
Helen Colhoun and colleagues report findings from a Scottish registry linkage study regarding contemporary risks for cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality among individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.
Background
Randomized controlled trials have shown the importance of tight glucose control in type 1 diabetes (T1DM), but few recent studies have evaluated the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality among adults with T1DM. We evaluated these risks in adults with T1DM compared with the non-diabetic population in a nationwide study from Scotland and examined control of CVD risk factors in those with T1DM.
Methods and Findings
The Scottish Care Information-Diabetes Collaboration database was used to identify all people registered with T1DM and aged ≥20 years in 2005–2007 and to provide risk factor data. Major CVD events and deaths were obtained from the national hospital admissions database and death register. The age-adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) for CVD and mortality in T1DM (n = 21,789) versus the non-diabetic population (3.96 million) was estimated using Poisson regression. The age-adjusted IRR for first CVD event associated with T1DM versus the non-diabetic population was higher in women (3.0: 95% CI 2.4–3.8, p<0.001) than men (2.3: 2.0–2.7, p<0.001) while the IRR for all-cause mortality associated with T1DM was comparable at 2.6 (2.2–3.0, p<0.001) in men and 2.7 (2.2–3.4, p<0.001) in women. Between 2005–2007, among individuals with T1DM, 34 of 123 deaths among 10,173 who were <40 years and 37 of 907 deaths among 12,739 who were ≥40 years had an underlying cause of death of coma or diabetic ketoacidosis. Among individuals 60–69 years, approximately three extra deaths per 100 per year occurred among men with T1DM (28.51/1,000 person years at risk), and two per 100 per year for women (17.99/1,000 person years at risk). 28% of those with T1DM were current smokers, 13% achieved target HbA1c of <7% and 37% had very poor (≥9%) glycaemic control. Among those aged ≥40, 37% had blood pressures above even conservative targets (≥140/90 mmHg) and 39% of those ≥40 years were not on a statin. Although many of these risk factors were comparable to those previously reported in other developed countries, CVD and mortality rates may not be generalizable to other countries. Limitations included lack of information on the specific insulin therapy used.
Conclusions
Although the relative risks for CVD and total mortality associated with T1DM in this population have declined relative to earlier studies, T1DM continues to be associated with higher CVD and death rates than the non-diabetic population. Risk factor management should be improved to further reduce risk but better treatment approaches for achieving good glycaemic control are badly needed.
Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary
Editors' Summary
Background. People with diabetes are more likely to have cardiovascular disease such as heart attacks and strokes. They also have a higher risk of dying prematurely from any cause. Controlling blood sugar (glucose), blood pressure, and cholesterol can help reduce these risks. Some people with type 1 diabetes can achieve tight blood glucose control through a strict regimen that includes a carefully calculated diet, frequent physical activity, regular blood glucose testing several times a day, and multiple daily doses of insulin. Other drugs can reduce blood pressure and cholesterol levels. Keeping one's weight in the normal range and not smoking are important ways in which all people, including those with type 1 diabetes can reduce their risks of heart disease and premature death.
Why Was This Study Done? Researchers and doctors have known for almost two decades what patients with type 1 diabetes can do to minimize the complications from the disease and thereby reduce their risks for cardiovascular disease and early death. So for some time now, patients should have been treated and counseled accordingly. This study was done to evaluate the current risks for have cardiovascular disease and premature death amongst people living with type 1 diabetes in a high-income country (Scotland).
What Did the Researchers Do and Find? From a national register of all people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland, the researchers selected those who were older than 20 years and alive at any time from January 2005 to May 2008. This included about 19,000 people who had been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 2005. Another 2,600 were diagnosed between 2005 and 2008. They also obtained data on heart attacks and strokes in these patients from hospital records and on deaths from the natural death register. To obtain a good picture of the current relative risks, they compared the patients with type 1 diabetes with the non-diabetic general Scottish population with regard to the risk of heart attacks/strokes and death from all causes. They also collected information on how well the people with diabetes controlled their blood glucose, on their weight, and whether they smoked.
They found that the current risks compared with the general Scottish population are quite a bit lower than those of people with type 1 diabetes in earlier decades. However, people with type 1 diabetes in Scotland still have much higher (more than twice) the risk of heart attacks, strokes, or premature death than the general population. Moreover, the researchers found a high number of deaths in younger people with diabetes from coma—caused by either too much blood sugar (hyperglycemia) or too little (hypoglycemia). Severe hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia happen when blood glucose control is poor. When the scientists looked at test results for HbA1c levels (a test that is done once or twice a year to see how well patients controlled their blood sugar over the previous 3 months) for all patients, they found that the majority of them did not come close to controlling their blood glucose within the recommended range.
When the researchers compared body mass index (a measure of weight that takes height into account) and smoking between the people with type 1 diabetes and the general population, they found similar proportions of smokers and overweight or obese people.
What Do these Findings Mean? The results represent a snapshot of the recent situation regarding complications from type 1 diabetes in the Scottish population. The results suggest that within this population, strategies over the past two decades to reduce complications from type 1 diabetes that cause cardiovascular disease and death are working, in principle. However, there is much need for further improvement. This includes the urgent need to understand why so few people with type 1 diabetes achieve good control of their blood sugar, and what can be done to improve this situation. It is also important to put more effort into keeping people with diabetes from taking up smoking or getting them to quit, as well as preventing them from getting overweight or promoting weight reduction, because this could further reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease and premature death.
Additional Information
Please access these Web sites via the online version of this summary at http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001321
National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, a service of the US National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, has information on heart disease and diabetes, on general complications of diabetes, and on the HbA1c test (on this site and some others called A1C test) that measures control of blood sugar over the past 3 months
Diabetes.co.uk provides general information on type 1 diabetes, its complications, and what people with the disease can do to reduce their risks
The Canadian Diabetes Association offers a cardiovascular risk self-assessment tool and other relevant information
The American Diabetes Association has information on the benefits and challenges of tight blood sugar control and how it is tested
The Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation funds research to prevent, cure, and treat type 1 diabetes
Diabetes UK provides extensive information on diabetes for patients, carers, and clinicians
doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001321
PMCID: PMC3462745  PMID: 23055834
6.  Achieved Levels of HbA1c and Likelihood of Hospital Admission in People With Type 1 Diabetes in the Scottish Population 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(9):1992-1997.
OBJECTIVE
People with type 1 diabetes have increased risk of hospital admission compared with those without diabetes. We hypothesized that HbA1c would be an important indicator of risk of hospital admission.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
The Scottish Care Information–Diabetes Collaboration, a dynamic national register of diagnosed cases of diabetes in Scotland, was linked to national data on admissions. We identified 24,750 people with type 1 diabetes during January 2005 to December 2007. We assessed the relationship between deciles of mean HbA1c and hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes adjusting for patient characteristics.
RESULTS
There were 3,229 hospital admissions. Of the admissions, 8.1% of people had mean HbA1c <7.0% (53 mmol/mol) and 16.3% had HbA1c <7.5% (58 mmol/mol). The lowest odds of admission were associated with HbA1c 7.7–8.7% (61–72 mmol/mol). When compared with this decile, a J-shaped relationship existed between HbA1c and admission. The highest HbA1c decile (10.8–18.4%/95–178 mmol/mol) showed significantly higher odds ratio (95% CI) for any admission (2.80, 2.51–3.12); the lowest HbA1c decile (4.4–7.1%/25–54 mmol/mol) showed an increase in odds of admission of 1.29 (1.10–1.51). The highest HbA1c decile experienced significantly higher odds of diabetes-related (3.31, 2.94–3.72) and diabetes ketoacidosis admissions (10.18, 7.96–13.01).
CONCLUSIONS
People with type 1 diabetes with highest and lowest mean HbA1c values were associated with increased odds of admission. People with high HbA1c (>10.8%/95 mmol/mol) were at particularly high risk. There is the need to develop effective interventions to reduce this risk.
doi:10.2337/dc10-2099
PMCID: PMC3161268  PMID: 21788623
7.  Genome-wide analysis of epistasis in body mass index using multiple human populations 
We surveyed gene–gene interactions (epistasis) in human body mass index (BMI) in four European populations (n<1200) via exhaustive pair-wise genome scans where interactions were computed as F ratios by testing a linear regression model fitting two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with interactions against the one without. Before the association tests, BMI was corrected for sex and age, normalised and adjusted for relatedness. Neither single SNPs nor SNP interactions were genome-wide significant in either cohort based on the consensus threshold (P=5.0E−08) and a Bonferroni corrected threshold (P=1.1E−12), respectively. Next we compared sub genome-wide significant SNP interactions (P<5.0E−08) across cohorts to identify common epistatic signals, where SNPs were annotated to genes to test for gene ontology (GO) enrichment. Among the epistatic genes contributing to the commonly enriched GO terms, 19 were shared across study cohorts of which 15 are previously published genome-wide association loci, including CDH13 (cadherin 13) associated with height and SORCS2 (sortilin-related VPS10 domain containing receptor 2) associated with circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 and binding protein 3. Interactions between the 19 shared epistatic genes and those involving BMI candidate loci (P<5.0E−08) were tested across cohorts and found eight replicated at the SNP level (P<0.05) in at least one cohort, which were further tested and showed limited replication in a separate European population (n>5000). We conclude that genome-wide analysis of epistasis in multiple populations is an effective approach to provide new insights into the genetic regulation of BMI but requires additional efforts to confirm the findings.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.17
PMCID: PMC3400731  PMID: 22333899
body mass index; BMI; gene interaction; epistasis; pair-wise genome scan
8.  Genetic architecture of circulating lipid levels 
Serum concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs) and total cholesterol (TC) are important heritable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of circulating lipid levels have identified numerous loci, a substantial portion of the heritability of these traits remains unexplained. Evidence of unexplained genetic variance can be detected by combining multiple independent markers into additive genetic risk scores. Such polygenic scores, constructed using results from the ENGAGE Consortium GWAS on serum lipids, were applied to predict lipid levels in an independent population-based study, the Rotterdam Study-II (RS-II). We additionally tested for evidence of a shared genetic basis for different lipid phenotypes. Finally, the polygenic score approach was used to identify an alternative genome-wide significance threshold before pathway analysis and those results were compared with those based on the classical genome-wide significance threshold. Our study provides evidence suggesting that many loci influencing circulating lipid levels remain undiscovered. Cross-prediction models suggested a small overlap between the polygenic backgrounds involved in determining LDL-C, HDL-C and TG levels. Pathway analysis utilizing the best polygenic score for TC uncovered extra information compared with using only genome-wide significant loci. These results suggest that the genetic architecture of circulating lipids involves a number of undiscovered variants with very small effects, and that increasing GWAS sample sizes will enable the identification of novel variants that regulate lipid levels.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2011.21
PMCID: PMC3137496  PMID: 21448234
serum lipids; polygenic; genome-wide association; polygenic score; pathway analysis
9.  Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Mortality Among People With Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2011;34(5):1127-1132.
OBJECTIVE
The study objective was to describe the effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on mortality among people with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We used a population-based national electronic diabetes database for 35- to 84-year-olds in Scotland for 2001–2007 linked to mortality records. SES was derived from an area-based measure with Q5 and Q1 representing the most deprived and affluent quintiles, respectively. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) for mortality among people with type 2 diabetes compared with the population without diabetes stratified by age (35–64 and 65–84 years), sex, duration of diabetes (<2 and ≥2 years), and SES.
RESULTS
Complete data were available for 210,994 eligible individuals (99.4%), and there were 33,842 deaths. Absolute mortality from all causes among people with type 2 diabetes increased with increasing age and socioeconomic deprivation and was higher for men than women. RR for mortality associated with type 2 diabetes was highest for women aged 35–64 years in Q1 with diabetes duration <2 years at 4.83 (95% CI 3.15–7.40) and lowest for men aged 65–84 years in Q5 with diabetes duration ≥2 years at 1.13 (1.03–1.24).
CONCLUSIONS
SES modifies the association between type 2 diabetes and mortality so that RR for mortality is lower among more deprived populations. Age, sex, and duration of diabetes also interact with type 2 diabetes to influence RR of mortality. Differences in prevalence of comorbidities may explain these findings.
doi:10.2337/dc10-1862
PMCID: PMC3114515  PMID: 21421800
10.  Genes predict village of origin in rural Europe 
European Journal of Human Genetics  2010;18(11):1269-1270.
The genetic structure of human populations is important in population genetics, forensics and medicine. Using genome-wide scans and individuals with all four grandparents born in the same settlement, we here demonstrate remarkable geographical structure across 8–30 km in three different parts of rural Europe. After excluding close kin and inbreeding, village of origin could still be predicted correctly on the basis of genetic data for 89–100% of individuals.
doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.92
PMCID: PMC2987479  PMID: 20571506
population structure; principal components; genome-wide genotyping
11.  Genetic predictors of fibrin D-dimer levels in healthy adults 
Circulation  2011;123(17):1864-1872.
Background
Fibrin fragment D-dimer is one of several peptides produced when cross-linked fibrin is degraded by plasmin, and is the most widely-used clinical marker of activated blood coagulation. To identity genetic loci influencing D-dimer levels, we performed the first large-scale, genome-wide association search.
Methods and Results
A genome-wide investigation of the genomic correlates of plasma D-dimer levels was conducted among 21,052 European-ancestry adults. Plasma levels of D-dimer were measured independently in each of 13 cohorts. Each study analyzed the association between ~2.6 million genotyped and imputed variants across the 22 autosomal chromosomes and natural-log transformed D-dimer levels using linear regression in additive genetic models adjusted for age and sex. Among all variants, 74 exceeded the genome-wide significance threshold and marked 3 regions. At 1p22, rs12029080 (p-value 6.4×10−52) was 46.0 kb upstream from F3, coagulation factor III (tissue factor). At 1q24, rs6687813 (p-value 2.4×10−14) was 79.7 kb downstream of F5, coagulation factor V. At 4q32, rs13109457 (p-value 2.9×10−18) was located between 2 fibrinogen genes: 10.4 kb downstream from FGG and 3.0 kb upstream from FGA. Variants were associated with a 0.099, 0.096, and 0.061 unit difference, respectively, in natural-log transformed D-dimer and together accounted for 1.8% of the total variance. When adjusted for non-synonymous substitutions in F5 and FGA loci known to be associated with D-dimer levels, there was no evidence of an additional association at either locus.
Conclusions
Three genes were associated with fibrin D-dimer levels, of which the F3 association was the strongest and has not been previously reported.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.009480
PMCID: PMC3095913  PMID: 21502573
genome-wide variation; D-dimer; epidemiology; meta-analysis; thrombosis; hemostasis
12.  Copy Number Variation across European Populations 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(8):e23087.
Genome analysis provides a powerful approach to test for evidence of genetic variation within and between geographical regions and local populations. Copy number variants which comprise insertions, deletions and duplications of genomic sequence provide one such convenient and informative source. Here, we investigate copy number variants from genome wide scans of single nucleotide polymorphisms in three European population isolates, the island of Vis in Croatia, the islands of Orkney in Scotland and the South Tyrol in Italy. We show that whereas the overall copy number variant frequencies are similar between populations, their distribution is highly specific to the population of origin, a finding which is supported by evidence for increased kinship correlation for specific copy number variants within populations.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0023087
PMCID: PMC3150386  PMID: 21829696
13.  Generation Scotland: Donor DNA Databank; A control DNA resource 
BMC Medical Genetics  2010;11:166.
Background
Many medical disorders of public health importance are complex diseases caused by multiple genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Recent technological advances have made it possible to analyse the genetic variants that predispose to complex diseases. Reliable detection of these variants requires genome-wide association studies in sufficiently large numbers of cases and controls. This approach is often hampered by difficulties in collecting appropriate control samples. The Generation Scotland: Donor DNA Databank (GS:3D) aims to help solve this problem by providing a resource of control DNA and plasma samples accessible for research.
Methods
GS:3D participants were recruited from volunteer blood donors attending Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) clinics across Scotland. All participants gave full written consent for GS:3D to take spare blood from their normal donation. Participants also supplied demographic data by completing a short questionnaire.
Results
Over five thousand complete sets of samples, data and consent forms were collected. DNA and plasma were extracted and stored. The data and samples were unlinked from their original SNBTS identifier number. The plasma, DNA and demographic data are available for research. New data obtained from analysis of the resource will be fed back to GS:3D and will be made available to other researchers as appropriate.
Conclusions
Recruitment of blood donors is an efficient and cost-effective way of collecting thousands of control samples. Because the collection is large, subsets of controls can be selected, based on age range, gender, and ethnic or geographic origin. The GS:3D resource should reduce time and expense for investigators who would otherwise have had to recruit their own controls.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-166
PMCID: PMC3002899  PMID: 21092308
14.  Health Status of Adults with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Cohort Study of 203 Patients 
Context: No consensus exists for management of adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to a paucity of data from cohorts of meaningful size.
Objective: Our objective was to establish the health status of adults with CAH.
Design and Setting: We conducted a prospective cross-sectional study of adults with CAH attending specialized endocrine centers across the United Kingdom.
Patients: Participants included 203 CAH patients (199 with 21-hydroxylase deficiency): 138 women, 65 men, median age 34 (range 18–69) years.
Main Outcome Measures: Anthropometric, metabolic, and subjective health status was evaluated. Anthropometric measurements were compared with Health Survey for England data, and psychometric data were compared with appropriate reference cohorts.
Results: Glucocorticoid treatment consisted of hydrocortisone (26%), prednisolone (43%), dexamethasone (19%), or a combination (10%), with reverse circadian administration in 41% of patients. Control of androgens was highly variable with a normal serum androstenedione found in only 36% of patients, whereas 38% had suppressed levels suggesting glucocorticoid overtreatment. In comparison with Health Survey for England participants, CAH patients were significantly shorter and had a higher body mass index, and women with classic CAH had increased diastolic blood pressure. Metabolic abnormalities were common, including obesity (41%), hypercholesterolemia (46%), insulin resistance (29%), osteopenia (40%), and osteoporosis (7%). Subjective health status was significantly impaired and fertility compromised.
Conclusions: Currently, a minority of adult United Kingdom CAH patients appear to be under endocrine specialist care. In the patients studied, glucocorticoid replacement was generally nonphysiological, and androgen levels were poorly controlled. This was associated with an adverse metabolic profile and impaired fertility and quality of life. Improvements in the clinical management of adults with CAH are required.
Adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) have poor subjective health status and only a minority of CAH adults receives regular review by endocrine specialists.
doi:10.1210/jc.2010-0917
PMCID: PMC3066446  PMID: 20719839
15.  Muscle Microvascular Dysfunction in Central Obesity Is Related to Muscle Insulin Insensitivity but Is Not Reversed by High-Dose Statin Treatment 
Diabetes  2009;58(5):1185-1191.
OBJECTIVE
To test the hypotheses that decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal in muscle is associated with a reduced muscle microvascular exchange capacity (Kf) and that 6 months of high-dose statin therapy would improve microvascular function in people with central obesity.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
We assessed skeletal muscle microvascular function, visceral fat mass, physical activity levels, fitness, and insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle in 22 female and 17 male volunteers with central obesity whose age (mean ± SD) was 51 ± 9 years. We tested the effect of atorvastatin (40 mg daily) on muscle microvascular function in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial lasting 6 months.
RESULTS
Kf was negatively associated with a measure of glycemia (A1C; r = −0.44, P = 0.006) and positively associated with insulin sensitivity (the ratio of insulin-stimulated glucose effectiveness, or M value, to the mean insulin concentration, or I value; r = 0.39, P = 0.02). In regression modeling, A1C, visceral fat mass, and M:I explained 38% of the variance in Kf (in a linear regression model with Kf as the outcome [R2 = 0.38, P = 0.005]). M:I was associated with Kf independently of visceral fat mass (B coefficient 3.13 [95% CI 0.22–6.02], P = 0.036). Although 6 months' treatment with atorvastatin decreased LDL cholesterol by 51% (P < 0.001) and plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein by 75% (P = 0.02), microvascular function was unchanged.
CONCLUSIONS
Decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired muscle microvascular exchange capacity (Kf), independently of visceral fat mass. Muscle microvascular function is not improved by 6 months of high-dose statin treatment, despite marked statin-mediated improvements in lipid metabolism and decreased inflammation.
doi:10.2337/db08-1688
PMCID: PMC2671046  PMID: 19208914
16.  A genome-wide association scan of RR and QT interval duration in three European genetically isolated populations. The EUROSPAN project 
Background
We set out to identify common genetic determinants of the length of RR and QT intervals in 2,325 individuals from isolated European populations.
Methods and Results
We analyzed heart rate at rest, measured as RR interval, and length of corrected QT interval for association to 318,237 SNPs. RR interval was associated to common variants within GPR133, a G-Protein Coupled Receptor (rs885389, P = 3.9 × 10-8). QT interval was associated to the earlier reported NOS1AP gene (rs2880058, P = 2.00 × 10-10) and to a region on chromosome 13 (rs2478333, P = 4.34 × 10-8), which is 100 kb from the closest known transcript LOC730174 and has previously not been associated with length of QT interval.
Conclusion
Our results suggested association between RR interval and GPR133 and confirmed association between QT interval and NOS1AP.
doi:10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.108.833806
PMCID: PMC2760953  PMID: 20031603
genetics; heart rate; population
17.  Modeling of Environmental Effects in Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies SLC2A2 and HP as Novel Loci Influencing Serum Cholesterol Levels 
PLoS Genetics  2010;6(1):e1000798.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 38 larger genetic regions affecting classical blood lipid levels without adjusting for important environmental influences. We modeled diet and physical activity in a GWAS in order to identify novel loci affecting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. The Swedish (SE) EUROSPAN cohort (NSE = 656) was screened for candidate genes and the non-Swedish (NS) EUROSPAN cohorts (NNS = 3,282) were used for replication. In total, 3 SNPs were associated in the Swedish sample and were replicated in the non-Swedish cohorts. While SNP rs1532624 was a replication of the previously published association between CETP and HDL cholesterol, the other two were novel findings. For the latter SNPs, the p-value for association was substantially improved by inclusion of environmental covariates: SNP rs5400 (pSE,unadjusted = 3.6×10−5, pSE,adjusted = 2.2×10−6, pNS,unadjusted = 0.047) in the SLC2A2 (Glucose transporter type 2) and rs2000999 (pSE,unadjusted = 1.1×10−3, pSE,adjusted = 3.8×10−4, pNS,unadjusted = 0.035) in the HP gene (Haptoglobin-related protein precursor). Both showed evidence of association with total cholesterol. These results demonstrate that inclusion of important environmental factors in the analysis model can reveal new genetic susceptibility loci.
Author Summary
In this article we report a genome-wide association study on cholesterol levels in the human blood. We used a Swedish cohort to select genetic polymorphisms that showed the strongest association with cholesterol levels adjusted for diet and physical activity. We replicated several genetic loci in other European cohorts. This approach extends present genome-wide association studies on lipid levels, which did not take these lifestyle factors into account, to improve statistical results and discover novel genes. In our analysis, we could identify two genetic loci in the SLC2A2 (Glucose transporter type 2) and the HP (Haptoglobin-related protein precursor) gene whose effects on total cholesterol have not been reported yet. The results show that inclusion of important environmental factors in the analysis model can reveal new insights into genetic determinants of clinical parameters relevant for metabolic and cardiovascular disease.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000798
PMCID: PMC2792712  PMID: 20066028
18.  Mutations in HNF1A Result in Marked Alterations of Plasma Glycan Profile 
Diabetes  2013;62(4):1329-1337.
A recent genome-wide association study identified hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-α (HNF1A) as a key regulator of fucosylation. We hypothesized that loss-of-function HNF1A mutations causal for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) would display altered fucosylation of N-linked glycans on plasma proteins and that glycan biomarkers could improve the efficiency of a diagnosis of HNF1A-MODY. In a pilot comparison of 33 subjects with HNF1A-MODY and 41 subjects with type 2 diabetes, 15 of 29 glycan measurements differed between the two groups. The DG9-glycan index, which is the ratio of fucosylated to nonfucosylated triantennary glycans, provided optimum discrimination in the pilot study and was examined further among additional subjects with HNF1A-MODY (n = 188), glucokinase (GCK)-MODY (n = 118), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-α (HNF4A)-MODY (n = 40), type 1 diabetes (n = 98), type 2 diabetes (n = 167), and nondiabetic controls (n = 98). The DG9-glycan index was markedly lower in HNF1A-MODY than in controls or other diabetes subtypes, offered good discrimination between HNF1A-MODY and both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (C statistic ≥0.90), and enabled us to detect three previously undetected HNF1A mutations in patients with diabetes. In conclusion, glycan profiles are altered substantially in HNF1A-MODY, and the DG9-glycan index has potential clinical value as a diagnostic biomarker of HNF1A dysfunction.
doi:10.2337/db12-0880
PMCID: PMC3609552  PMID: 23274891
19.  Risk factors for diabetes and coronary heart disease  
BMJ : British Medical Journal  2006;333(7576):1009-1011.
doi:10.1136/bmj.39024.568738.43
PMCID: PMC1635590  PMID: 17095784
22.  Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations 
Köttgen, Anna | Albrecht, Eva | Teumer, Alexander | Vitart, Veronique | Krumsiek, Jan | Hundertmark, Claudia | Pistis, Giorgio | Ruggiero, Daniela | O’Seaghdha, Conall M | Haller, Toomas | Yang, Qiong | Tanaka, Toshiko | Johnson, Andrew D | Kutalik, Zoltán | Smith, Albert V | Shi, Julia | Struchalin, Maksim | Middelberg, Rita P S | Brown, Morris J | Gaffo, Angelo L | Pirastu, Nicola | Li, Guo | Hayward, Caroline | Zemunik, Tatijana | Huffman, Jennifer | Yengo, Loic | Zhao, Jing Hua | Demirkan, Ayse | Feitosa, Mary F | Liu, Xuan | Malerba, Giovanni | Lopez, Lorna M | van der Harst, Pim | Li, Xinzhong | Kleber, Marcus E | Hicks, Andrew A | Nolte, Ilja M | Johansson, Asa | Murgia, Federico | Wild, Sarah H | Bakker, Stephan J L | Peden, John F | Dehghan, Abbas | Steri, Maristella | Tenesa, Albert | Lagou, Vasiliki | Salo, Perttu | Mangino, Massimo | Rose, Lynda M | Lehtimäki, Terho | Woodward, Owen M | Okada, Yukinori | Tin, Adrienne | Müller, Christian | Oldmeadow, Christopher | Putku, Margus | Czamara, Darina | Kraft, Peter | Frogheri, Laura | Thun, Gian Andri | Grotevendt, Anne | Gislason, Gauti Kjartan | Harris, Tamara B | Launer, Lenore J | McArdle, Patrick | Shuldiner, Alan R | Boerwinkle, Eric | Coresh, Josef | Schmidt, Helena | Schallert, Michael | Martin, Nicholas G | Montgomery, Grant W | Kubo, Michiaki | Nakamura, Yusuke | Tanaka, Toshihiro | Munroe, Patricia B | Samani, Nilesh J | Jacobs, David R | Liu, Kiang | D’Adamo, Pio | Ulivi, Sheila | Rotter, Jerome I | Psaty, Bruce M | Vollenweider, Peter | Waeber, Gerard | Campbell, Susan | Devuyst, Olivier | Navarro, Pau | Kolcic, Ivana | Hastie, Nicholas | Balkau, Beverley | Froguel, Philippe | Esko, Tõnu | Salumets, Andres | Khaw, Kay Tee | Langenberg, Claudia | Wareham, Nicholas J | Isaacs, Aaron | Kraja, Aldi | Zhang, Qunyuan | Wild, Philipp S | Scott, Rodney J | Holliday, Elizabeth G | Org, Elin | Viigimaa, Margus | Bandinelli, Stefania | Metter, Jeffrey E | Lupo, Antonio | Trabetti, Elisabetta | Sorice, Rossella | Döring, Angela | Lattka, Eva | Strauch, Konstantin | Theis, Fabian | Waldenberger, Melanie | Wichmann, H-Erich | Davies, Gail | Gow, Alan J | Bruinenberg, Marcel | Study, LifeLines Cohort | Stolk, Ronald P | Kooner, Jaspal S | Zhang, Weihua | Winkelmann, Bernhard R | Boehm, Bernhard O | Lucae, Susanne | Penninx, Brenda W | Smit, Johannes H | Curhan, Gary | Mudgal, Poorva | Plenge, Robert M | Portas, Laura | Persico, Ivana | Kirin, Mirna | Wilson, James F | Leach, Irene Mateo | van Gilst, Wiek H | Goel, Anuj | Ongen, Halit | Hofman, Albert | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Uitterlinden, Andre G | Imboden, Medea | von Eckardstein, Arnold | Cucca, Francesco | Nagaraja, Ramaiah | Piras, Maria Grazia | Nauck, Matthias | Schurmann, Claudia | Budde, Kathrin | Ernst, Florian | Farrington, Susan M | Theodoratou, Evropi | Prokopenko, Inga | Stumvoll, Michael | Jula, Antti | Perola, Markus | Salomaa, Veikko | Shin, So-Youn | Spector, Tim D | Sala, Cinzia | Ridker, Paul M | Kähönen, Mika | Viikari, Jorma | Hengstenberg, Christian | Nelson, Christopher P | Consortium, CARDIoGRAM | Consortium, DIAGRAM | Consortium, ICBP | Consortium, MAGIC | Meschia, James F | Nalls, Michael A | Sharma, Pankaj | Singleton, Andrew B | Kamatani, Naoyuki | Zeller, Tanja | Burnier, Michel | Attia, John | Laan, Maris | Klopp, Norman | Hillege, Hans L | Kloiber, Stefan | Choi, Hyon | Pirastu, Mario | Tore, Silvia | Probst-Hensch, Nicole M | Völzke, Henry | Gudnason, Vilmundur | Parsa, Afshin | Schmidt, Reinhold | Whitfield, John B | Fornage, Myriam | Gasparini, Paolo | Siscovick, David S | Polašek, Ozren | Campbell, Harry | Rudan, Igor | Bouatia-Naji, Nabila | Metspalu, Andres | Loos, Ruth J F | van Duijn, Cornelia M | Borecki, Ingrid B | Ferrucci, Luigi | Gambaro, Giovanni | Deary, Ian J | Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R | Chambers, John C | März, Winfried | Pramstaller, Peter P | Snieder, Harold | Gyllensten, Ulf | Wright, Alan F | Navis, Gerjan | Watkins, Hugh | Witteman, Jacqueline C M | Sanna, Serena | Schipf, Sabine | Dunlop, Malcolm G | Tönjes, Anke | Ripatti, Samuli | Soranzo, Nicole | Toniolo, Daniela | Chasman, Daniel I | Raitakari, Olli | Kao, W H Linda | Ciullo, Marina | Fox, Caroline S | Caulfield, Mark | Bochud, Murielle | Gieger, Christian
Nature genetics  2012;45(2):145-154.
Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with serum urate concentrations (18 new regions in or near TRIM46, INHBB, SFMBT1, TMEM171, VEGFA, BAZ1B, PRKAG2, STC1, HNF4G, A1CF, ATXN2, UBE2Q2, IGF1R, NFAT5, MAF, HLF, ACVR1B-ACVRL1 and B3GNT4). Associations for many of the loci were of similar magnitude in individuals of non-European ancestry. We further characterized these loci for associations with gout, transcript expression and the fractional excretion of urate. Network analyses implicate the inhibins-activins signaling pathways and glucose metabolism in systemic urate control. New candidate genes for serum urate concentration highlight the importance of metabolic control of urate production and excretion, which may have implications for the treatment and prevention of gout.
doi:10.1038/ng.2500
PMCID: PMC3663712  PMID: 23263486
23.  Forced Expiratory Volume in One Second Predicts Length of Stay and In-Hospital Mortality in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Cohort Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e64565.
Objective
An aging population and increasing use of percutaneous therapies have resulted in older patients with more co-morbidity being referred for cardiac surgery. Objective measurements of physiological reserve and severity of co-morbid disease are required to improve risk stratification. We hypothesised that FEV1 would predict mortality and length of stay following cardiac surgery.
Methods
We assessed clinical outcomes in 2,241 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve surgery from 2001 to 2007 in a regional cardiac centre. Generalized linear models of the association between FEV1 and length of hospital stay and mortality were adjusted for age, sex, height, body mass index, socioeconomic status, smoking, cardiovascular risk factors, long-term use of bronchodilators or steroids for lung disease, and type and urgency of surgery. FEV1 was compared to an established risk prediction model, the EuroSCORE.
Results
Spirometry was performed in 2,082 patients (93%) whose mean (SD) age was 67 (10) years. Median hospital stay was 3 days longer in patients in the lowest compared to the highest quintile for FEV1, 1.35-fold higher (95% CI 1.20–1.52; p<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio for mortality was increased 2.11-fold (95% CI 1.45–3.08; p<0.001) per standard deviation decrement in FEV1 (800 ml). FEV1 improved discrimination of the EuroSCORE for mortality. Similar associations were found after excluding people with known pulmonary disease and/or airflow limitation on spirometry.
Conclusions
Reduced FEV1 strongly predicted increased length of stay and in-hospital mortality following cardiac surgery. FEV1 is a widely available measure of physiological health that may improve risk stratification of complex patients undergoing cardiac surgery and should be evaluated for inclusion in new prediction tools.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0064565
PMCID: PMC3665784  PMID: 23724061
24.  Evidence of Inbreeding Depression on Human Height 
McQuillan, Ruth | Eklund, Niina | Pirastu, Nicola | Kuningas, Maris | McEvoy, Brian P. | Esko, Tõnu | Corre, Tanguy | Davies, Gail | Kaakinen, Marika | Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka | Kristiansson, Kati | Havulinna, Aki S. | Gögele, Martin | Vitart, Veronique | Tenesa, Albert | Aulchenko, Yurii | Hayward, Caroline | Johansson, Åsa | Boban, Mladen | Ulivi, Sheila | Robino, Antonietta | Boraska, Vesna | Igl, Wilmar | Wild, Sarah H. | Zgaga, Lina | Amin, Najaf | Theodoratou, Evropi | Polašek, Ozren | Girotto, Giorgia | Lopez, Lorna M. | Sala, Cinzia | Lahti, Jari | Laatikainen, Tiina | Prokopenko, Inga | Kals, Mart | Viikari, Jorma | Yang, Jian | Pouta, Anneli | Estrada, Karol | Hofman, Albert | Freimer, Nelson | Martin, Nicholas G. | Kähönen, Mika | Milani, Lili | Heliövaara, Markku | Vartiainen, Erkki | Räikkönen, Katri | Masciullo, Corrado | Starr, John M. | Hicks, Andrew A. | Esposito, Laura | Kolčić, Ivana | Farrington, Susan M. | Oostra, Ben | Zemunik, Tatijana | Campbell, Harry | Kirin, Mirna | Pehlic, Marina | Faletra, Flavio | Porteous, David | Pistis, Giorgio | Widén, Elisabeth | Salomaa, Veikko | Koskinen, Seppo | Fischer, Krista | Lehtimäki, Terho | Heath, Andrew | McCarthy, Mark I. | Rivadeneira, Fernando | Montgomery, Grant W. | Tiemeier, Henning | Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa | Madden, Pamela A. F. | d'Adamo, Pio | Hastie, Nicholas D. | Gyllensten, Ulf | Wright, Alan F. | van Duijn, Cornelia M. | Dunlop, Malcolm | Rudan, Igor | Gasparini, Paolo | Pramstaller, Peter P. | Deary, Ian J. | Toniolo, Daniela | Eriksson, Johan G. | Jula, Antti | Raitakari, Olli T. | Metspalu, Andres | Perola, Markus | Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta | Uitterlinden, André | Visscher, Peter M. | Wilson, James F. | Gibson, Greg
PLoS Genetics  2012;8(7):e1002655.
Stature is a classical and highly heritable complex trait, with 80%–90% of variation explained by genetic factors. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified many common additive variants influencing human height; however, little attention has been given to the potential role of recessive genetic effects. Here, we investigated genome-wide recessive effects by an analysis of inbreeding depression on adult height in over 35,000 people from 21 different population samples. We found a highly significant inverse association between height and genome-wide homozygosity, equivalent to a height reduction of up to 3 cm in the offspring of first cousins compared with the offspring of unrelated individuals, an effect which remained after controlling for the effects of socio-economic status, an important confounder (χ2 = 83.89, df = 1; p = 5.2×10−20). There was, however, a high degree of heterogeneity among populations: whereas the direction of the effect was consistent across most population samples, the effect size differed significantly among populations. It is likely that this reflects true biological heterogeneity: whether or not an effect can be observed will depend on both the variance in homozygosity in the population and the chance inheritance of individual recessive genotypes. These results predict that multiple, rare, recessive variants influence human height. Although this exploratory work focuses on height alone, the methodology developed is generally applicable to heritable quantitative traits (QT), paving the way for an investigation into inbreeding effects, and therefore genetic architecture, on a range of QT of biomedical importance.
Author Summary
Studies investigating the extent to which genetics influences human characteristics such as height have concentrated mainly on common variants of genes, where having one or two copies of a given variant influences the trait or risk of disease. This study explores whether a different type of genetic variant might also be important. We investigate the role of recessive genetic variants, where two identical copies of a variant are required to have an effect. By measuring genome-wide homozygosity—the phenomenon of inheriting two identical copies at a given point of the genome—in 35,000 individuals from 21 European populations, and by comparing this to individual height, we found that the more homozygous the genome, the shorter the individual. The offspring of first cousins (who have increased homozygosity) were predicted to be up to 3 cm shorter on average than the offspring of unrelated parents. Height is influenced by the combined effect of many recessive variants dispersed across the genome. This may also be true for other human characteristics and diseases, opening up a new way to understand how genetic variation influences our health.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002655
PMCID: PMC3400549  PMID: 22829771
25.  Predicting incident fatty liver using simple cardio-metabolic risk factors at baseline 
BMC Gastroenterology  2012;12:84.
Background
Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and chronic liver disease but identifying patients who have NAFLD without resorting to expensive imaging tests is challenging. In order to help identify people for imaging investigation of the liver who are at high risk of NAFLD, our aim was to: a) identify easily measured risk factors at baseline that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up, and then b) to test the diagnostic performance of thresholds of these factors at baseline, to predict or to exclude incident fatty liver at follow up.
Methods
2589 people with absence of fatty liver on ultrasound examination at baseline were re-examined after a mean of 4.4 years in a Korean occupational cohort study. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were used to identify baseline factors that were independently associated with incident fatty liver at follow up. The diagnostic performance of thresholds of these baseline factors to identify people with incident fatty liver at follow-up was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
Results
430 incident cases of fatty liver were identified. Several factors were independently associated with incident fatty liver: increased triglyceride (per mmol/l increase) OR 1.378 [95%CIs 1.179, 1.611], p < 0.0001; glucose (per mmol/l increase) OR 1.215 [95%CIs 1.042, 1.416], p = 0.013; waist (per cm increase) OR 1.078 [95%CIs 1.057, 1.099], p < 0.001; ALT (per IU/L increase) OR 1.009 [95%CIs 1.002, 1.017], p = 0.016; and platelets (per 1x109/L increase) OR 1.004 [1.001, 1.006], p = 0.001; were each independently associated with incident fatty liver. Binary thresholds of the five factors were applied and the area under the ROC curve for incident fatty liver was 0.75 (95%CI 0.72–0.78) for the combination of all five factors above these thresholds.
Conclusion
Simple risk factors that overlap considerably with risk factors for type 2 diabetes allow identification of people at high risk of incident fatty liver at who use of hepatic imaging could be targeted.
doi:10.1186/1471-230X-12-84
PMCID: PMC3502272  PMID: 22770479
Non alcoholic fatty liver disease; Fatty liver; Etiology; Risk prediction; Metabolic syndrome

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