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1.  ALDH2 Mediates 5-Nitrofuran Activity in Multiple Species 
Chemistry & biology  2012;19(7):883-892.
SUMMARY
Understanding how drugs work in vivo is critical for drug design and for maximizing the potential of currently available drugs. 5-nitrofurans are a class of prodrugs widely used to treat bacterial and trypanosome infections, but despite relative specificity, 5-nitrofurans often cause serious toxic side effects in people. Here, we use yeast and zebrafish, as well as human in vitro systems, to assess the biological activity of 5-nitrofurans, and we identify a conserved interaction between aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 and 5-nitrofurans across these species. In addition, we show that the activity of nifurtimox, a 5-nitrofuran anti-trypanosome prodrug, is dependent on zebrafish Aldh2 and is a substrate for human ALDH2. This study reveals a conserved and biologically relevant ALDH2-5-nitrofuran interaction that may have important implications for managing the toxicity of 5-nitrofuran treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2012.05.017
PMCID: PMC3684953  PMID: 22840776
2.  ALDH2 Mediates 5-Nitrofuran Activity in Multiple Species 
Chemistry & Biology  2012;19(7):883-892.
Summary
Understanding how drugs work in vivo is critical for drug design and for maximizing the potential of currently available drugs. 5-nitrofurans are a class of prodrugs widely used to treat bacterial and trypanosome infections, but despite relative specificity, 5-nitrofurans often cause serious toxic side effects in people. Here, we use yeast and zebrafish, as well as human in vitro systems, to assess the biological activity of 5-nitrofurans, and we identify a conserved interaction between aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 and 5-nitrofurans across these species. In addition, we show that the activity of nifurtimox, a 5-nitrofuran anti-trypanosome prodrug, is dependent on zebrafish Aldh2 and is a substrate for human ALDH2. This study reveals a conserved and biologically relevant ALDH2-5-nitrofuran interaction that may have important implications for managing the toxicity of 5-nitrofuran treatment.
Graphical Abstract
Highlights
► Zebrafish provide a viable assay for the biological toxicity of 5-nitrofurans ► ALDH2 inhibitors prevent 5-nitrofuran toxicity in zebrafish and yeast ► Genetic dependence on ALDH2 for 5-nitrofuran toxicity in zebrafish and yeast systems ► 5-Nitrofurans bind to and are substrates of human ALDH2
5-nitrofurans are antibiotics activated by pathogen specific enzymes, however, less is known about what happens in the host. Zhou et al. identify aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 as a 5-nitrofuran activating enzyme that has implications for managing some of the toxicity associated with 5-nitrofuran treatment.
doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2012.05.017
PMCID: PMC3684953  PMID: 22840776
3.  Generation Scotland: Donor DNA Databank; A control DNA resource 
BMC Medical Genetics  2010;11:166.
Background
Many medical disorders of public health importance are complex diseases caused by multiple genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. Recent technological advances have made it possible to analyse the genetic variants that predispose to complex diseases. Reliable detection of these variants requires genome-wide association studies in sufficiently large numbers of cases and controls. This approach is often hampered by difficulties in collecting appropriate control samples. The Generation Scotland: Donor DNA Databank (GS:3D) aims to help solve this problem by providing a resource of control DNA and plasma samples accessible for research.
Methods
GS:3D participants were recruited from volunteer blood donors attending Scottish National Blood Transfusion Service (SNBTS) clinics across Scotland. All participants gave full written consent for GS:3D to take spare blood from their normal donation. Participants also supplied demographic data by completing a short questionnaire.
Results
Over five thousand complete sets of samples, data and consent forms were collected. DNA and plasma were extracted and stored. The data and samples were unlinked from their original SNBTS identifier number. The plasma, DNA and demographic data are available for research. New data obtained from analysis of the resource will be fed back to GS:3D and will be made available to other researchers as appropriate.
Conclusions
Recruitment of blood donors is an efficient and cost-effective way of collecting thousands of control samples. Because the collection is large, subsets of controls can be selected, based on age range, gender, and ethnic or geographic origin. The GS:3D resource should reduce time and expense for investigators who would otherwise have had to recruit their own controls.
doi:10.1186/1471-2350-11-166
PMCID: PMC3002899  PMID: 21092308
4.  Small molecule screening in zebrafish: an in vivo approach to identifying new chemical tools and drug leads 
In the past two decades, zebrafish genetic screens have identified a wealth of mutations that have been essential to the understanding of development and disease biology. More recently, chemical screens in zebrafish have identified small molecules that can modulate specific developmental and behavioural processes. Zebrafish are a unique vertebrate system in which to study chemical genetic systems, identify drug leads, and explore new applications for known drugs. Here, we discuss some of the advantages of using zebrafish in chemical biology, and describe some important and creative examples of small molecule screening, drug discovery and target identification.
doi:10.1186/1478-811X-8-11
PMCID: PMC2912314  PMID: 20540792

Results 1-4 (4)