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1.  Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwestern Ethiopia 
BMC Infectious Diseases  2012;12:337.
Background
Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection caused by an obligate intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii. If primary toxoplasmosis occurs during pregnancy about one third of the cases could lead to congenital toxoplasmosis, with subsequent pathological effects. This study aimed at determining the seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia.
Methods
A community based cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and associated factors in pregnant women from August to September, 2011. A total of 201 study participants were included in this study. Data on socio-demographic and predisposing factors were collected from each study participant. Moreover, venous blood specimens were collected following Standard Operating Procedures. All the collected specimens were tested for IgM and IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results
The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 83.6%. One hundred and sixty three (81.1%) of the pregnant women were IgG seropositive, five (2.5%) were IgM seropositive. Three of the 5 pregnant women were positive for both IgG and IgM. Presence of domestic cat at home showed significant association with anti-T. gondii seropositivity (OR = 5.82, 95% CI: 1.61- 20.99; p < 0.05).
Conclusion
The seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies was high among the pregnant women. Pregnant women having domestic cat at their home were at higher risk of T. gondii infection. Hence, health education and awareness on the disease and its transmission to women of reproductive age group in general and pregnant women in particular should be created during antenatal follow up to reduce the risk of T. gondii infection in pregnant women.
doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-337
PMCID: PMC3519766  PMID: 23216887
Seroprevalence; Pregnant women; T. gondii; Ethiopia
2.  Association of Hepatitis C Virus Infection with Type II Diabetes in Ethiopia: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study 
Background. Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) has become the global “epidemic” with an estimated 123 million people currently infected worldwide. As the same time diabetes is also rapidly emerging as a global health care problem that threatens to reach pandemic levels by 2030. Objective. To investigate the magnitude of HCV infection in type II diabetes as compared to controls. Methodology. A case control study design was conducted at Jimma University Specialized Hospital from May to June 2010. A total of 604 study subjects were included in this study. Sociodemographic and risk factor data were collected by questionnaire. From serum sample, HCVAb screening was done by rapid antibody screening test. Liver functioning tests and total cholesterol tests were done by Dr. Lange LP 800 spectrophotometer. Results. The prevalence of HCV in type II diabetes and nondiabetic controls was 9.9% and 3.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, HCV seropositives have high risk of developing diabetes as compared with seronegatives (AOR = 2.997, 95% CI: (1.08, 8.315)). Conclusion. In this study, we found a positive association between past HCV infection and type II diabetes. As we did not perform HCV RNA test, we could not assess the association with HCV viremia.
doi:10.1155/2012/354656
PMCID: PMC3461610  PMID: 23049551
3.  Oral Health Status of Patients with Mental Disorders in Southwest Ethiopia 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(6):e39142.
Background
Psychiatric disorders are known to be a risk factor for the development of different oral health problems especially for dental caries and periodontal diseases. In spite of this fact, no study has been conducted to reveal its magnitude in Ethiopia. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the oral health status of psychiatric patients at Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Psychiatric Clinic.
Methods
A hospital based cross- sectional study was used from January to May 2011. A total of 240 participants were included in the study. Dental examination was done to measure indices of oral health: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and community periodontal index (CPI). Oral examination was performed using mirror, probe and explorer by experienced dental doctors. A simple random sampling technique was implemented to collect data. ANOVA test, binary logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were done using SPSS 16.0 statistical software.
Results
The mean DMFT score among the psychiatric patients was 1.94±2.12 (mean±SD) with 1.28±1.69, 0.51±1.19 and 0.14±0.48 (mean±SD) for decayed, missed and filled teeth respectively. Only about 24% of the psychiatric patients had a healthy CPI score. Incorrect tooth brushing technique was significantly associated with a DMFT score greater than 2 (AOR = 3.58; 95% CI: 1.65, 7.79). The habit of sweet intake was also associated with dental caries (AOR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.43, 5.95). Similarly, patients with a smoking habit also demonstrated statistically significant association with dental caries (AOR = 18.98; 95% CI: 5.06, 71.24).
Conclusion
The oral health status of the psychiatric patients was poor. Thus, health education about oral hygiene should be given for psychiatric patients so they can avoid the frequent intake of sweets, smoking and learn correct tooth brushing technique.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039142
PMCID: PMC3377615  PMID: 22723950
4.  Smear Posetive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) Prevalence Amongst Patients at Agaro Teaching Health Center, South West Ethiopia 
Background
World Health organization (WHO) declared tuberculosis as a global emergency because it poses a serious public health threat in different countries especially, in Africa. According to WHO report of 2007, Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) coverage in Ethiopia reached 95 percent of the population; despite this fact the trend of tuberculosis in most of the districts of Ethiopia is not known. Hence, this study has revealed the trend and determined the overall prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in five years (2005/6–2009/10) in Agaro teaching health center, south west Ethiopia.
Methods
A retrospective study based on record review was conducted at Agaro Teaching Health center on sputum examination record of patient's from 2005/6–2009/10(five years). Socio demographic data and sputum laboratory results were collected using pre-designed questionnaire and the data was entered into a computer using SPSS version 16 for windows. Finally, cross tab analysis and Chi-square was calculated at P-value less than 0.05 to check possible association between socio-demographic variables and smear positivity.
Results
The overall five years prevalence of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis was found out to be 10.9%. On the other hand, the percentage of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases showed gradual decrease from 19.5% in 2005/6 to 5.8% cases in 2009/10.
Conclusion
Tuberculosis is still the major problem of Agaro health center catchment area even though there is a decrease in trend from year to year. Hence, the respective health bureau and other stake holders should still need to strengthen their effort to control it.
PMCID: PMC3437982  PMID: 22984333
Retrospective study; Pulmonary Tuberculosis; prevalence; Mycobacterium tuberculosis
5.  M. tuberculosis in Lymph Node Biopsy Paraffin-Embedded Sections 
Background. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is one of the most common forms of all extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Objective. To evaluate the magnitude of M. tuberculosis from lymph node biopsy paraffin-embedded sections among suspected patients visiting the Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Method. A cross-sectional study design of histological examination among lymph node biopsy paraffin-embedded sections by Ziehl-Neelsen and hematoxylin/eosin staining technique was conducted from December, 2009, to October, 2010, at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Pathology. Result. Histopathological examination of the specimens by hematoxylin and eosin staining technique revealed the presence of granulomas. But for the caseation and necrosis they were present in 85% cases of nodal tissue biopsies. From those, 56.7% were from females. The presence of acid-fast bacilli was microscopically confirmed by ZN staining in 37 (61.7%) of the nodal tissue biopsies. Conclusion and Recommendation. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is significantly more common in females. Hence, attention should be given for control and prevention of extrapulmonary tuberculosis.
doi:10.1155/2011/127817
PMCID: PMC3335535  PMID: 22567262

Results 1-5 (5)