Thinking about how asthma and allergic diseases arise is undergoing several shifts. In ‘Bedside to Bench’, Clare M. Lloyd and Sejal Saglani examine how recent human studies are putting the focus on the epithelium as a major contributor to asthma. The findings shift the emphasis away from the T helper type 2 immune response, and call into question the utility of current animal models of the disease. Although asthma and other allergic disorders are known to have origins in infancy, some researchers are looking even earlier, to effects in utero and before conception. In ‘Bench to Bedside’, Catherine Hawrylowicz and Kimuli Ryanna highlight animal studies that outline some of the effects of the maternal environment, and they examine the potential implications for prevention of disease.
Th2 cytokines are not responsible for the on-going symptoms and pathology in children with severe therapy resistant asthma (STRA). Interleukin (IL)-33 induces airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), but its role in airway remodelling and steroid resistance is unknown.
To investigate the relationship between IL-33 and airway remodelling in paediatric STRA.
IL-33 was quantified in neonatal mice given inhaled house dust mite (HDM), and the effect of blocking IL-13 on remodelling and IL-33 was assessed. HDM induced allergic airways disease (AAD) in neonatal ST2−/− mice lacking the IL-33 receptor was assessed, together with collagen production following IL-33 administration. Impact of steroid therapy on IL-33 levels in neonatal AAD was explored. IL-33 expression was quantified in endobronchial biopsies from children with STRA and related to remodelling, and collagen production by paediatric airway fibroblasts stimulated with IL-33 and budesonide quantified.
Blocking IL-13 after AAD was established in neonatal mice did not reduce remodelling or IL-33 levels; AHR was only partially reduced. IL-33 promoted collagen synthesis both from paediatric asthmatic fibroblasts, and following intra-nasal administration in mice. Increased cellular expression of IL-33, but not IL-13, was associated with increased reticular basement membrane thickness in endobronchial biopsies from children with STRA, whilst remodelling was absent in HDM exposed ST2−/− mice. IL-33 was maintained whilst IL-13 was abrogated by steroid treatment in neonatal HDM exposed mice, and in endobronchial biopsies from children with STRA.
IL-33 is a relatively steroid resistant mediator that promotes airway remodelling in STRA, and is an important therapeutic target.
Asthma; paediatric; airway remodelling; steroid resistance; IL-33; therapy
The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is implicated in severe asthma and rapid onset life-threatening exacerbations of disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie this severe pathogenicity remain unclear.
We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby Alternaria was capable of initiating severe, rapid onset allergic inflammation.
IL-33 levels were quantified in wild-type and ST2−/− mice that lacked the IL-33 receptor given inhaled house dust mite, cat dander, or Alternaria, and the effect of inhibiting allergen-specific protease activities on IL-33 levels was assessed. An exacerbation model of allergic airway disease was established whereby mice were sensitized with house dust mite before subsequently being challenged with Alternaria (with or without serine protease activity), and inflammation, remodeling, and lung function assessed 24 hours later.
Alternaria, but not other common aeroallergens, possessed intrinsic serine protease activity that elicited the rapid release of IL-33 into the airways of mice through a mechanism that was dependent upon the activation of protease activated receptor-2 and adenosine triphosphate signaling. The unique capacity of Alternaria to drive this early IL-33 release resulted in a greater pulmonary inflammation by 24 hours after challenge relative to the common aeroallergen house dust mite. Furthermore, this Alternaria serine protease–IL-33 axis triggered a rapid, augmented inflammation, mucus release, and loss of lung function in our exacerbation model.
Alternaria-specific serine protease activity causes rapid IL-33 release, which underlies the development of a robust TH2 inflammation and exacerbation of allergic airway disease.
Alternaria alternata; allergic airway disease; asthma exacerbation; protease; IL-33; AEBSF, 4-(2-Aminoethyl)benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride; ALT, Alternaria; BALF, BAL fluid; CAT, Cat dander; HDM, House dust mite; MCPT-1, Mast cell protease-1; MMP-9, Matrix metalloproteinase-9; PAP, Papain; PAR-2, Protease activated receptor 2; RAG, Ragweed; TRYP, Trypsin
CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells can inhibit excessive T-cell responses in vivo. We have previously demonstrated that prophylactic administration of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells suppresses the development of acute allergen-induced airway inflammation in vivo.
We sought to determine the effect of therapeutic transfer of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells on established pulmonary inflammation and the subsequent development of airway remodeling.
CD4+CD25+ cells were transferred after the onset of allergic inflammation, and airway challenges were continued to induce chronic inflammation and airway remodeling.
Administration of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells reduced established lung eosinophilia, TH2 infiltration, and expression of IL-5, IL-13, and TGF-β. Moreover, subsequent mucus hypersecretion and peribronchial collagen deposition were reduced after prolonged challenge. In contrast, transfer of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells had no effect on established airway hyperreactivity either 7 days or 4 weeks after transfer.
In this study we demonstrate for the first time that therapeutic transfer of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells can resolve features of chronic allergen-induced inflammation and prevent development of airway remodeling.
Regulatory T cells; TH2 cells; eosinophils; TGF-β; airway remodeling; allergic inflammation
Airway remodeling is a central feature of asthma and includes the formation of new peribronchial blood vessels, which is termed angiogenesis. In a number of disease models, bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to contribute to the angiogenic response. In this study we set out to determine whether EPCs were recruited into the lungs in a model of allergic airways disease and to identify the factors regulating EPC trafficking in this model. We observed a significant increase in the number of peribronchial blood vessels at day 24, during the acute inflammatory phase of the model. This angiogenic response was associated with an increase in the quantity of EPCs recoverable from the lung. These EPCs formed colonies after 21 days in culture and were shown to express CD31, von Willebrand factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2, but were negative for CD45 and CD14. The influx in EPCs was associated with a significant increase in the proangiogenic factors VEGF-A and the CXCR2 ligands, CXCL1 and CXCL2. However, we show directly that, while the CXCL1 and CXCL2 chemokines can recruit EPCs into the lungs of allergen-sensitized mice, VEGF-A was ineffective in this respect. Further, the blockade of CXCR2 significantly reduced EPC numbers in the lungs after allergen exposure and led to a decrease in the numbers of peribronchial blood vessels after allergen challenge with no effect on inflammation. The data presented here provide in vivo evidence that CXCR2 is critical for both EPC recruitment and the angiogenic response in this model of allergic inflammation of the airways.
CXC chemokines; Progenitor cell; Asthma; Angiogenesis
IL-9-secreting (TH9) T cells are thought to represent a distinct T-cell subset. However, evidence for their functionality in disease is uncertain.
To define a functional phenotype for TH9-driven pathology in vivo.
We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify circulating TH9 cells in atopic and nonatopic subjects. In mice we utilized a model of allergic airways disease induced by house dust mite to determine TH9 cell function in vivo and the role of activin A in TH9 generation.
Allergic patients have elevated TH9 cell numbers in comparison to nonatopic donors, which correlates with elevated IgE levels. In a murine model, allergen challenge with house dust mite leads to rapid TH9 differentiation and proliferation, with much faster kinetics than for TH2 cell differentiation, resulting in the specific recruitment and activation of mast cells. The TGF-β superfamily member activin A replicates the function of TGF-β1 in driving the in vitro generation of TH9 cells. Importantly, the in vivo inhibition of TH9 differentiation induced by allergen was achieved only when activin A and TGF-β were blocked in conjunction but not alone, resulting in reduced airway hyperreactivity and collagen deposition. Conversely, adoptive transfer of TH9 cells results in enhanced pathology.
Our data identify a distinct functional role for TH9 cells and outline a novel pathway for their generation in vitro and in vivo. Functionally, TH9 cells promote allergic responses resulting in enhanced pathology mediated by the specific recruitment and activation of mast cells in the lungs.
Activin A; TH9 cells; IL-9; asthma; allergy; mast cells; house dust mite; TGF-β
Allergic asthma is a complex disease that has been modeled extensively in small rodents. Airway eosinophilia and changes in lung function have been documented using a variety of protocols. However, recent efforts have improved these models by trying to replicate the structural remodeling that occurs in the lung as a consequence of chronic allergen-driven inflammation. This review documents the recent developments in protocols and systems designed to examine pathways leading to allergen-induced airway remodeling.
Asthma frequently commences in early life during airway and immune development and exposure to new environmental challenges. Endobronchial biopsies from children with asthma are abnormal, and lung function is maximally reduced by 6 years of age. As longitudinal biopsy studies are unethical in children, the relationship between development of pathology and reduced lung function is unknown. We aimed to establish a novel neonatal mouse model of allergic airways disease to investigate the developmental sequence of the pathophysiologic features of asthma. Neonatal Balb/c mice were challenged three times weekly from Day 3 of life using intranasal house dust mite (HDM) or saline for up to 12 weeks. Weekly assessments of airway inflammation and remodeling were made. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine was assessed from Week 2 onward. Total and eosinophilic inflammation was significantly increased in the lungs of HDM-exposed neonates from Week 2 onwards, and a peak was seen at 3 weeks. Goblet cells and peribronchiolar reticulin deposition were significantly increased in HDM-exposed neonates from Week 3, and peribronchiolar collagen was significantly greater from Week 4. HDM-exposed neonates had increased AHR from Week 2 onward. Although inflammation and AHR had subsided after 4 weeks without allergen challenge, the increased reticulin and collagen deposition persisted in HDM-exposed mice. Neonatal mice exposed to intranasal HDM developed eosinophilic inflammation, airway remodeling, and AHR as reported in pediatric asthma. Importantly, all abnormalities developed in parallel, not sequentially, between 2 and 3 weeks of age.
pediatric; remodeling; asthma pathophysiology; mouse model; allergic airways disease
The discovery of IL-33 as the ligand for the orphan Th2 associated receptor ST2 has uncovered a whole range of different avenues for this pathway. Although the extracellular functions of ST2 as a marker for Th2 cell and mast cell activity were well defined, the complexities of IL-33 regulation, nuclear function and secretion are only just being realised. The well documented expression pattern of ST2 has identified a role for the IL-33/ST2 axis in the classical Th2 cell and mast cell driven pathogenesis of asthma and anaphylaxis. However, the induction of IL-33 expression by environmental or endogenous triggers now suggests a wider role for the pathway during infection, inflammation and tissue damage.
Rationale: Airway hyperreactivity and remodeling are characteristic features of asthma. Interactions between the airway epithelium and environmental allergens are believed to be important in driving development of pathology, particularly because altered epithelial gene expression is common in individuals with asthma.
Objectives: To investigate the interactions between a modified airway epithelium and a common aeroallergen in vivo.
Methods: We used an adenoviral vector to generate mice overexpressing the transforming growth factor-β signaling molecule, Smad2, in the airway epithelium and exposed them to house dust mite (HDM) extract intranasally.
Measurements and Main Results: Smad2 overexpression resulted in enhanced airway hyperreactivity after allergen challenge concomitant with changes in airway remodeling. Subepithelial collagen deposition was increased and smooth muscle hyperplasia was evident resulting in thickening of the airway smooth muscle layer. However, there was no increase in airway inflammation in mice given the Smad2 vector compared with the control vector. Enhanced airway hyperreactivity and remodeling did not correlate with elevated levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-13 or IL-4. However, mice overexpressing Smad2 in the airway epithelium showed significantly enhanced levels of IL-25 and activin A after HDM exposure. Blocking activin A with a neutralizing antibody prevented the increase in lung IL-25 and inhibited subsequent collagen deposition and also the enhanced airway hyperreactivity observed in the Smad2 overexpressing HDM-exposed mice.
Conclusions: Epithelial overexpression of Smad2 can specifically alter airway hyperreactivity and remodeling in response to an aeroallergen. Moreover, we have identified novel roles for IL-25 and activin A in driving airway hyperreactivity and remodeling.
asthma; lung; epithelium; smooth muscle; collagen
Treatment of patients with allergic asthma using low doses of peptides containing T cell epitopes from Fel d 1, the major cat allergen, reduces allergic sensitization and improves surrogate markers of disease. Here, we demonstrate a key immunological mechanism, linked epitope suppression, associated with this therapeutic effect. Treatment with selected epitopes from a single allergen resulted in suppression of responses to other (“linked”) epitopes within the same molecule. This phenomenon was induced after peptide immunotherapy in human asthmatic subjects and in a novel HLA-DR1 transgenic mouse model of asthma. Tracking of allergen-specific T cells using DR1 tetramers determined that suppression was associated with the induction of interleukin (IL)-10+ T cells that were more abundant than T cells specific for the single-treatment peptide and was reversed by anti–IL-10 receptor administration. Resolution of airway pathophysiology in this model was associated with reduced recruitment, proliferation, and effector function of allergen-specific Th2 cells. Our results provide, for the first time, in vivo evidence of linked epitope suppression and IL-10 induction in both human allergic disease and a mouse model designed to closely mimic peptide therapy in humans.
T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain–containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a surface molecule that is preferentially expressed on activated Th1 cells in comparison to Th2 cells. Blockade of Tim-3 has been shown to enhance Th1-driven pathology in vivo, suggesting that blockade of Tim-3 may improve the development of Th2-associated responses such as allergy. To examine the effects of Tim-3 blockade on the Th2 response in vivo, we administered anti–Tim-3 antibody during pulmonary inflammation induced by transfer of ovalbumin (OVA)-reactive Th2 cells, and subsequent aerosol challenge with OVA. In this model, anti–Tim-3 antibody treatment before each airway challenge significantly reduced airway hyperreactivity, with a concomitant decrease in eosinophils and Th2 cells in the lung. We examined Th1 and Th2 cytokine levels in the lung after allergen challenge and found that pulmonary expression of the Th2 cytokine IL-5 was significantly reduced, whereas IFN-γ levels were significantly increased by anti–Tim-3 antibody treatment. Thus, blocking Tim-3 function has a beneficial effect during pulmonary inflammation by skewing the Th2 response toward that of a Th1 type, suggesting an important role for Tim-3 in the regulation of allergic disease.
Deficient suppression of T cell responses to allergen by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells has been observed in patients with allergic disease. Our current experiments used a mouse model of airway inflammation to examine the suppressive activity of allergen-specific CD4+CD25+ T cells in vivo. Transfer of ovalbumin (OVA) peptide–specific CD4+CD25+ T cells to OVA-sensitized mice reduced airway hyperreactivity (AHR), recruitment of eosinophils, and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine expression in the lung after allergen challenge. This suppression was dependent on interleukin (IL) 10 because increased lung expression of IL-10 was detected after transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells, and regulation was reversed by anti–IL-10R antibody. However, suppression of AHR, airway inflammation, and increased expression of IL-10 were still observed when CD4+CD25+ T cells from IL-10 gene–deficient mice were transferred. Intracellular cytokine staining confirmed that transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells induced IL-10 expression in recipient CD4+ T cells, but no increase in IL-10 expression was detected in airway macrophages, dendritic cells, or B cells. These data suggest that CD4+CD25+ T cells can suppress the Th2 cell–driven response to allergen in vivo by an IL-10–dependent mechanism but that IL-10 production by the regulatory T cells themselves is not required for such suppression.
Deficient suppression of T cell responses to allergen by CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells has been observed in patients with allergic disease. Our current experiments used a mouse model of airway inflammation to examine the suppressive activity of allergen-specific CD4+CD25+ T cells in vivo. Transfer of ovalbumin (OVA) peptide-specific CD4+CD25+ T cells to OVA-sensitized mice reduced airway hyperreactivity (AHR), recruitment of eosinophils, and T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine expression in the lung after allergen challenge. This suppression was dependent on interleukin (IL) 10 because increased lung expression of IL-10 was detected after transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells, and regulation was reversed by anti-IL-10R antibody. However, suppression of AHR, airway inflammation, and increased expression of IL-10 were still observed when CD4+CD25+ T cells from IL-10 gene-deficient mice were transferred. Intracellular cytokine staining confirmed that transfer of CD4+CD25+ T cells induced IL-10 expression in recipient CD4+ T cells, but no increase in IL-10 expression was detected in airway macrophages, dendritic cells, or B cells. These data suggest that CD4+CD25+ T cells can suppress the Th2 cell-driven response to allergen in vivo by an IL-10-dependent mechanism but that IL-10 production by the regulatory T cells themselves is not required for such suppression.
The role of Th17 responses in airway remodeling in asthma is currently unknown. We demonstrate that both parenteral and mucosal allergen sensitization followed by allergen inhalation leads to Th17-biased lung immune responses. Unlike Th17 cells generated in vitro, lung Th17 cells did not produce TNF-α or IL-22. Eosinophilia predominated in acute inflammation while neutrophilia and IL-17 increased in chronic disease. Allergen-induced tolerance involved Foxp3, Helios and GARP expressing regulatory T cells (Treg) and IL-10/IFN-γ priming. This Treg phenotype was altered in inflamed lungs and abrogated by inhalation of IL-17. Using Th17-deficient mice with genetic disruption of gp130 in T cells, we showed that Th17 cells induce airway remodeling independent of the Th2 response. All-trans retinoic acid administration ameliorated Th17-mediated disease and increased Treg activity, while dexamethasone inhibited eosinophilia but not neutrophilia and enhanced Th17 development in vitro. Targeting the Th17/Treg axis might therefore be therapeutic in neutrophilic and glucocorticoid-refractory asthma.
Th17; asthma; regulatory T cell; airway remodeling; neutrophilia
Interleukin (IL)-9 is a pleiotropic cytokine secreted by T helper (Th)2 cells and has been proposed as a candidate gene for asthma and allergy. We have used mice genetically deficient in IL-9 to determine the role of this cytokine in the pathophysiologic features of the allergic pulmonary response–airway hyperreactivity (AHR) and eosinophilia. We have demonstrated that IL-9 is not required for the development of a robust Th2 response to allergen in sensitized mice. IL-9 knockout mice developed a similar degree of eosinophilic inflammation and AHR to their wild-type littermates. Goblet cell hyperplasia and immunoglobulin (Ig) E production were also unaffected by the lack of IL-9. Moreover, levels of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were comparable between wild-type and knockout mice. These findings indicate that IL-9 is not obligatory for the development of eosinophilia and AHR, and imply that other Th2 cytokines can act in a compensatory fashion.
Th2 cytokines; asthma; airway hyperreactivity; eosinophilia; mucus
Overexpression of the transforming growth factor β family signalling molecule smad2 in the airway epithelium provokes enhanced allergen-induced airway remodelling in mice, concomitant with elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-25.
We investigated whether IL-25 plays an active role in driving this airway remodelling.
Anti-IL-25 antibody was given to mice exposed to either inhaled house dust mite (HDM) alone, or in conjunction with an adenoviral smad2 vector which promotes an enhanced remodelling phenotype.
Blocking IL-25 in allergen-exposed mice resulted in a moderate reduction in pulmonary eosinophilia and levels of T helper type 2 associated cytokines, IL-5 and IL-13. In addition, IL-25 neutralisation abrogated peribronchial collagen deposition, airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and airway hyperreactivity in control mice exposed to HDM and smad2-overexpressing mice. IL-25 was shown to act directly on human fibroblasts to induce collagen secretion. Recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells to the lung and subsequent neovascularisation was also IL-25 dependent, demonstrating a direct role for IL-25 during angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, the secretion of innate epithelial derived cytokines IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) was completely ablated.
In addition to modulating acute inflammation, we now demonstrate a role for IL-25 in orchestrating airway remodelling. IL-25 also drives IL-33 and TSLP production in the lung. These data delineate a wider role for IL-25 in mediating structural changes to the lung following allergen exposure and implicate IL-25 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of airway remodelling in asthma.
Airway Epithelium; Allergic lung disease; Asthma; Asthma Mechanisms
Asthma has been considered a T helper 2 (TH2) cell-associated inflammatory disease, and TH2-type cytokines, such as interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5 and IL-13, are thought to drive the disease pathology in patients. Although atopic asthma has a substantial TH2 cell component, the disease is notoriously heterogeneous, and recent evidence has suggested that other T cells also contribute to the development of asthma. Here, we discuss the roles of different T cell subsets in the allergic lung, consider how each subset can contribute to the development of allergic pathology and evaluate how we might manipulate these cells for new asthma therapies.
The transcription factors T-bet and GATA3 are important reciprocal determinants of Th1 and Th2 T helper cell differentiation. Recent evidence suggests that these factors may affect airway immunopathology in asthma.
HIF-1α is a transcription factor that is activated during hypoxia and inflammation and is a key regulator of angiogenesis in vivo. During the development of asthma, peribronchial angiogenesis is induced in response to aeroallergens and is thought to be an important feature of sustained chronic allergic inflammation. Recently, elevated HIF-1α levels have been demonstrated in both the lung tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage of allergic patients, respectively. Therefore, we investigated the role of HIF-1α on the development of angiogenesis and inflammation following acute and chronic allergen exposure. Our data shows that intranasal exposure to house dust mite (HDM) increases the expression of HIF-1α in the lung, whilst reducing the expression of the HIF-1α negative regulators, PHD1 and PHD3. Blockade of HIF-1α in vivo, significantly decreased allergic inflammation and eosinophilia induced by allergen, due to a reduction in the levels of IL-5 and Eotaxin-2. Importantly, HIF-1α blockade significantly decreased levels of VEGF-A and CXCL1 in the lungs, which in turn led to a profound decrease in the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells and a reduction of peribronchial angiogenesis. Furthermore, HDM or IL-4 treatment of primary lung macrophages resulted in significant production of both VEGF-A and CXCL1; inhibition of HIF-1α activity abrogated the production of these factors via an up-regulation of PHD1 and PHD3. These findings suggest that novel strategies to reduce the expression and activation of HIF-1α in lung macrophages may be used to attenuate allergen-induced airway inflammation and angiogenesis through the modulation of VEGF-A and CXCL1 expression.
This study provides new insights into the role of HIF-1α in the development of peribronchial angiogenesis and inflammation in a murine model of allergic airway disease. These findings indicate that strategies to reduce activation of macrophage derived HIF-1α may be used as a target to improve asthma pathology.
Background: Lipoxygenases (LOXs) generate eicosanoids in inflammation.
Results: Monocyte/macrophage LOXs generate novel phospholipid-esterified eicosanoids containing ketoeicosatetraenoic acid or hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid. They activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transcriptional activity and are found in cystic fibrosis bronchoalveolar fluid.
Significance: LOXs generate esterified eicosanoids in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusion: These new lipids represent new families of bioactive mediators.
12/15-Lipoxygenases (LOXs) in monocytes and macrophages generate novel phospholipid-esterified eicosanoids. Here, we report the generation of two additional families of related lipids comprising 15-ketoeicosatetraenoic acid (KETE) attached to four phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs). The lipids are generated basally by 15-LOX in IL-4-stimulated monocytes, are elevated on calcium mobilization, and are detected at increased levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from cystic fibrosis patients (3.6 ng/ml of lavage). Murine peritoneal macrophages generate 12-KETE-PEs, which are absent in 12/15-LOX-deficient mice. Inhibition of 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase prevents their formation from exogenous 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PE in human monocytes. Both human and murine cells also generated analogous hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PEs. The electrophilic reactivity of KETE-PEs is shown by their Michael addition to glutathione and cysteine. Lastly, both 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-PE and 15-KETE-PE activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ reporter activity in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, we demonstrate novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ-activating oxidized phospholipids generated enzymatically by LOX and 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase in primary monocytic cells and in a human Th2-related lung disease. The lipids are a new family of bioactive mediators from the 12/15-LOX pathway that may contribute to its known anti-inflammatory actions in vivo.
Eicosanoid; Innate Immunity; Lipoxygenase Pathway; Macrophages; Mass Spectrometry (MS); Monocytes; Phospholipid
The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) shows selectivity for the recruitment of memory T cell subsets, including those of the T helper cell type 2 (Th2) phenotype. In humans, CCR4+ T cells are recruited to the asthmatic lung in response to allergen challenge; however, the contribution of this pathway to allergic disease remains uncertain. We therefore investigated the role of CCR4 in allergic airways inflammation in the guinea pig. Blockade of CCR4 with a specific antibody resulted in only minor changes in numbers of CCR4+ Th cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of allergen-challenged guinea pigs and failed to inhibit the generation of eotaxin/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)11 or macrophage-derived chemokine/CCL22 or the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes to the lung. These data suggest that although CCR4 was originally proposed as a marker of Th2 status, antigen-specific Th2 cells are recruited to the lung predominantly by other pathways. This study casts doubts on the validity of CCR4 as a therapeutic target in the treatment of asthma.
T lymphocytes; chemokines; allergy
Expression of chemokine receptors on T helper 2 cells and eosinophils has been postulated to be the mechanism by which these cells are selectively recruited to the lung during allergic inflammatory reactions. Mouse models have provided evidence to show that blocking the ligands for these receptors is successful in abrogating the pathophysiological effects of allergen challenge. However, recent studies describing the effect of genetic deletions of these chemokine receptors have not confirmed the results obtained with ligand knockouts or neutralising antibodies. Coupled with the realisation that, because of a lack of species cross-reactivity, it is not possible to test small molecule antagonists against human receptors in the original in vivo animal models, the future of chemokine receptor therapeutics is in question. However, recent advances have been made regarding the therapeutic potential of blocking the chemokine receptors CCR3, CCR4 and CCR8 in allergic airway disease.
CCRL2 is a heptahelic transmembrane receptor that shows the highest degree of homology with CCR1, an inflammatory chemokine receptor. CCRL2 mRNA was rapidly (30 min) and transiently (2-4 hrs) regulated during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Protein expression paralleled RNA regulation. In vivo, CCRL2 was expressed by activated DC and macrophages, but not by eosinophils and T cells. CCRL2−/− mice showed normal recruitment of circulating DC into the lung but a defective trafficking of antigen-loaded lung DC to mediastinal lymph nodes. This defect was associated to a reduction in lymph node cellularity and reduced priming of Th2 response. CCRL2−/− mice were protected in a model of OVA-induced airway inflammation with reduced leukocyte recruitment in the BAL (eosinophils and mononuclear cells) and reduced production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and chemokines CCL11 and CCL17. The central role of CCRL2 deficiency in DC was supported by the fact that adoptive transfer of CCRL2−/− antigen-loaded DC in wild type animals recapitulated the phenotype observed in knock out mice. These data show a nonredundant role of CCRL2 in lung DC trafficking and propose a role for this receptor in the control of excessive airway inflammatory responses.
Infection or stimulation of the innate immune system by nonspecific microbial antigens is thought to educate the immune system to respond appropriately to allergens, preventing allergy.
To determine the immunologic pathways that might explain how infection/microbial exposure inhibits allergic sensitization.
Immunologic studies of non-antigen-specific functions of CD8 memory cells, their maturation in vivo, and their effects in a mouse asthma model, to test the hypothesis that CD8 memory is shaped by innate immunity in a way that can inhibit allergic disease.
We found that CD8 memory T-cell (CD8 Tm) populations bridge innate and adaptive immunity by responding to either antigen or cytokines alone. CD8 Tm populations partially subvert the clonal selection process by activating their neighbors through induction of dendritic cell IL-12. Stimulation of innate or acquired immunity in the lung or gut causes expansion/maturation of CD8 Tm populations, which provide an early source of cytokines, enhance TH1 immunity, and inhibit allergic sensitization and airway inflammation/hyperresponsiveness in a non-antigen-specific fashion.
CD8 T-cell–mediated immune memory is long-lived and can retain its capacity for rapid cytokine release in a nonantigen-specific fashion. This novel type of memory enhances TH1 over TH2 immunity and prevents allergic sensitization after exposure to environmental antigens or infection.
CD8 T cell; immunologic memory; innate immunity; allergy; TH1/TH2; dendritic cell; IL-12