Chemoattractant-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by adherent neutrophils occurs in two phases: the first is very rapid and transient, and the second one is delayed and lasts up to 30–40 min. We examined the role of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) and Src-family kinases (SFKs) in these responses using human neutrophils treated with inhibitory compounds or murine neutrophils deficient of PI3Kγ or Hck, Fgr, and Lyn. Our studies show that PI3Kγ is indispensable for the early, fMLF-induced ROS generation and AKT and ERK phosphorylation, but is dispensable for the late response to fMLF. Additionally, the response to TNF, an agonist triggering only the delayed phase of ROS generation, was also unaffected in PI3Kγ-deficient neutrophils. In contrast, inhibition of SFKs by a selective inhibitor in human, or SFK deficiency in murine, neutrophils resulted in the inhibition of both the early and late phase of ROS generation, without affecting the early phase of AKT phosphorylation, but inhibiting the late one. Selective inhibitors of PI3Kα and PI3Kδ markedly reduced both the early and late response to fMLF and TNF in human neutrophils. These findings suggest that class IA PI3Ks may be activated by PI3Kγ via Ras in the early phase of the response and by SFKs in the late phase. The evidence that inhibition of SFKs in human, or SFK deficiency in murine, neutrophils results in suppression of Vav phosphorylation at all time points of the response to fMLF or TNF suggests that SFKs are indispensable for Vav phosphorylation.
A large body of experimental and clinical data supports the notion that inflammation in acute pancreatitis has a crucial role in the pathogenesis of local and systemic damage and is a major determinant of clinical severity. Thus, research has recently focused on molecules that can regulate the inflammatory processes, such as phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks), a family of lipid and protein kinases involved in intracellular signal transduction. Studies using genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibitors of different PI3K isoforms, in particular the class I PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ, have contributed to a greater understanding of the roles of these kinases in the modulation of inflammatory and immune responses. Recent data suggest that PI3Ks are also involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Activation of the PI3K signaling pathway, and in particular of the class IB PI3Kγ isoform, has a significant role in those events which are necessary for the initiation of acute pancreatic injury, namely calcium signaling alteration, trypsinogen activation, and nuclear factor-κB transcription. Moreover, PI3Kγ is instrumental in modulating acinar cell apoptosis, and regulating local neutrophil infiltration and systemic inflammatory responses during the course of experimental acute pancreatitis. The availability of PI3K inhibitors selective for specific isoforms may provide new valuable therapeutic strategies to improve the clinical course of this disease. This article presents a brief summary of PI3K structure and function, and highlights recent advances that implicate PI3Ks in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase; Cell signaling; Inflammation; Pathogenesis; Acute pancreatitis
Multiple phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinases (PI3Ks) can produce PtdIns3P to control endocytic trafficking, but whether enzyme specialization occurs in defined subcellular locations is unclear. Here, we report that PI3K-C2α is enriched in the pericentriolar recycling endocytic compartment (PRE) at the base of the primary cilium, where it regulates production of a specific pool of PtdIns3P. Loss of PI3K-C2α-derived PtdIns3P leads to mislocalization of PRE markers such as TfR and Rab11, reduces Rab11 activation, and blocks accumulation of Rab8 at the primary cilium. These changes in turn cause defects in primary cilium elongation, Smo ciliary translocation, and Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling and ultimately impair embryonic development. Selective reconstitution of PtdIns3P levels in cells lacking PI3K-C2α rescues Rab11 activation, primary cilium length, and Shh pathway induction. Thus, PI3K-C2α regulates the formation of a PtdIns3P pool at the PRE required for Rab11 and Shh pathway activation.
•PI3K-C2α specifically produces PtdIns3P at the PRE•PI3K-C2α-dependent PtdIns3P modulates localization and activation of Rab11•PI3K-C2α controls the Rab11/Rab8 axis at the primary cilium base•PI3K-C2α is required for Smo ciliary targeting and Shh signaling
Multiple PI3Ks produce PtdIns3P, but whether enzyme specialization occurs in defined subcellular locations is unclear. Franco et al. report that PI3K-C2α is enriched in the pericentriolar recycling endocytic compartment (PRE) around the primary cilium base and regulates PtdIns3P-dependent membrane traffic required for Rab11 localization/activation, Smo ciliary targeting, and Shh signaling.
Significance: Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of heart failure but clinical antioxidant trials have been unsuccessful. This may be because effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) depend upon their source, location, and concentration. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (Nox) proteins generate ROS in a highly regulated fashion and modulate several components of the heart failure phenotype. Recent Advances: Two Nox isoforms, Nox2 and Nox4, are expressed in the heart. Studies using gene-modified mice deficient in Nox2 activity indicate that Nox2 activation contributes to angiotensin II–induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, atrial fibrillation, and the development of interstitial fibrosis but may also positively modulate physiological excitation-contraction coupling. Nox2 contributes to myocyte death under stress situations and plays important roles in postmyocardial infarction remodeling, in part by modulating matrix metalloprotease activity. In contrast to Nox2, Nox4 is constitutively active at a low level and induces protective effects in the heart under chronic stress, for example, by maintaining myocardial capillary density. However, high levels of Nox4 could have detrimental effects. Critical Issues: The effects of Nox proteins during the development of heart failure likely depend upon the isoform, activation level, and cellular distribution, and may include beneficial as well as detrimental effects. More needs to be learnt about the precise regulation of abundance and biochemical activity of these proteins in the heart as well as the downstream signaling pathways that they regulate. Future Directions: The development of specific approaches to target individual Nox isoforms and/or specific cell types may be important for the achievement of therapeutic efficacy in heart failure. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1024–1041.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) signaling engaged by β-adrenergic receptors is pivotal in the regulation of myocardial contractility and remodeling. However, the role of PI3Kγ in catecholamine-induced arrhythmia is currently unknown.
Methods and Results
Mice lacking PI3Kγ (PI3Kγ−/−) showed runs of premature ventricular contractions on adrenergic stimulation that could be rescued by a selective β2-adrenergic receptor blocker and developed sustained ventricular tachycardia after transverse aortic constriction. Consistently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer probes revealed abnormal cAMP accumulation after β2-adrenergic receptor activation in PI3Kγ−/− cardiomyocytes that depended on the loss of the scaffold but not of the catalytic activity of PI3Kγ. Downstream from β-adrenergic receptors, PI3Kγ was found to participate in multiprotein complexes linking protein kinase A to the activation of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A, PDE4A, and PDE4B but not of PDE4D. These PI3Kγ-regulated PDEs lowered cAMP and limited protein kinase A–mediated phosphorylation of L-type calcium channel (Cav1.2) and phospholamban. In PI3Kγ−/− cardiomyocytes, Cav1.2 and phospholamban were hyperphosphorylated, leading to increased Ca2+ spark occurrence and amplitude on adrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, PI3Kγ−/− cardiomyocytes showed spontaneous Ca2+ release events and developed arrhythmic calcium transients.
PI3Kγ coordinates the coincident signaling of the major cardiac PDE3 and PDE4 isoforms, thus orchestrating a feedback loop that prevents calcium-dependent ventricular arrhythmia.
arrhythmias, cardiac; class II phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases; 3′,5′-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases; cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases; receptors, adrenergic beta-2
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease regulated by infiltrating monocytes and T cells, among other cell types. Macrophage recruitment to atherosclerotic lesions is controlled by monocyte infiltration into plaques. Once in the lesion, macrophage proliferation in situ, apoptosis, and differentiation to an inflammatory (M1) or anti-inflammatory phenotype (M2) are involved in progression to advanced atherosclerotic lesions. We studied the role of phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) p110γ in the regulation of in situ apoptosis, macrophage proliferation and polarization towards M1 or M2 phenotypes in atherosclerotic lesions. We analyzed atherosclerosis development in LDLR−/−p110γ+/− and LDLR−/−p110γ−/− mice, and performed expression and functional assays in tissues and primary cells from these and from p110γ+/− and p110γ−/− mice. Lack of p110γ in LDLR−/− mice reduces the atherosclerosis burden. Atherosclerotic lesions in fat-fed LDLR−/−p110γ−/− mice were smaller than in LDLR−/−p110γ+/− controls, which coincided with decreased macrophage proliferation in LDLR−/−p110γ−/− mouse lesions. This proliferation defect was also observed in p110γ−/− bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) stimulated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and was associated with higher intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. In contrast, T cell proliferation was unaffected in LDLR−/−p110γ−/− mice. Moreover, p110γ deficiency did not affect macrophage polarization towards the M1 or M2 phenotypes or apoptosis in atherosclerotic plaques, or polarization in cultured BMM. Our results suggest that higher cAMP levels and the ensuing inhibition of macrophage proliferation contribute to atheroprotection in LDLR−/− mice lacking p110γ. Nonetheless, p110γ deletion does not appear to be involved in apoptosis, in macrophage polarization or in T cell proliferation.
The GPCR-activated PI3Kγ is also a key enzyme downstream of the IgE high affinity receptor FcεRI. PKCβ-dependent phosphorylation of PI3Kγ on Ser582 is the ‘missing link’ that functions as a molecular switch to divert PI3Kγ from GPCR inputs.
All class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) associate tightly with regulatory subunits through interactions that have been thought to be constitutive. PI3Kγ is key to the regulation of immune cell responses activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Remarkably we find that PKCβ phosphorylates Ser582 in the helical domain of the PI3Kγ catalytic subunit p110γ in response to clustering of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) and/or store-operated Ca2+- influx in mast cells. Phosphorylation of p110γ correlates with the release of the p84 PI3Kγ adapter subunit from the p84-p110γ complex. Ser582 phospho-mimicking mutants show increased p110γ activity and a reduced binding to the p84 adapter subunit. As functional p84-p110γ is key to GPCR-mediated p110γ signaling, this suggests that PKCβ-mediated p110γ phosphorylation disconnects PI3Kγ from its canonical inputs from trimeric G proteins, and enables p110γ to operate downstream of Ca2+ and PKCβ. Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry shows that the p84 adaptor subunit interacts with the p110γ helical domain, and reveals an unexpected mechanism of PI3Kγ regulation. Our data show that the interaction of p110γ with its adapter subunit is vulnerable to phosphorylation, and outline a novel level of PI3K control.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are involved in most essential cellular processes. Class I PI3Ks are heterodimers: class IA PI3Ks are made up of one of a group of regulatory p85-like subunits and one p110α, p110β, or p110δ catalytic p110 subunit, and are activated via binding of their p85 subunit to phosphorylated tyrosine receptors or their substrates. The only, class IB PI3K member, PI3Kγ, operates downstream of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Recent work suggested that PI3Kγ also operates downstream of IgE-antigen complexes in mast cell activation, but no mechanism was provided. We show that clustering of the high-affinity IgE receptor FcεRI triggers a massive calcium ion influx, which leads to PKCβ activation. In turn, PKCβ phosphorylates Ser582 of the PI3Kγ catalytic p110γ subunit's helical domain. Downstream of GPCRs, p110γ requires a p84 adapter to be functional. Phospho-mimicking mutations at Ser582 disrupt the p84-p110γ interaction, and cellular Ser582 phosphorylation correlates with the loss of p84 from p110γ. Thus our data suggest that PKCβ phosphorylates and activates p110γ downstream of calcium ion influx, while simultaneously disconnecting the phosphorylated p110γ from GPCR signaling. Exploration of the p84-p110γ interaction surface by hydrogen- deuterium exchange mass spectrometry confirmed that the p110γ helical domain forms the main p84-p110γ contact surface. Taken together, the results suggest an unprecedented mechanism of PI3Kγ regulation.
Tumor inflammation, the recruitment of myeloid lineage cells into the tumor microenvironment, promotes angiogenesis, immunosuppression and metastasis. CD11b+Gr1lo monocytic lineage cells and CD11b+Gr1hi granulocytic lineage cells are recruited from the circulation by tumor-derived chemoattractants, which stimulate PI3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ)-mediated integrin α4 activation and extravasation. We show here that PI3Kγ activates PLCγ, leading to RasGrp/CalDAG-GEF-I&II mediated, Rap1a-dependent activation of integrin α4β1, extravasation of monocytes and granulocytes, and inflammation-associated tumor progression. Genetic depletion of PLCγ, CalDAG-GEFI or II, Rap1a, or the Rap1 effector RIAM was sufficient to prevent integrin α4 activation by chemoattractants or activated PI3Kγ (p110γCAAX), while activated Rap (RapV12) promoted constitutive integrin activation and cell adhesion that could only be blocked by inhibition of RIAM or integrin α4β1. Similar to blockade of PI3Kγ or integrin α4β1, blockade of Rap1a suppressed both the recruitment of monocytes and granulocytes to tumors and tumor progression. These results demonstrate critical roles for a PI3Kγ-Rap1a-dependent pathway in integrin activation during tumor inflammation and suggest novel avenues for cancer therapy.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in aortic pathophysiology. Preliminary studies have detected increased plasma levels of MMP8 and MMP9 in patients with acute aortic dissection (AAD). However, the performance of plasma MMP8 and MMP9 for the diagnosis of AAD in the emergency department is at present unknown.
The levels of MMP8 and MMP9 were measured by ELISA on plasma samples obtained from 126 consecutive patients evaluated in the emergency department for suspected AAD. All patients were subjected to urgent computed tomography (CT) scan for final diagnosis.
In the study cohort (N = 126), AAD was diagnosed in 52 patients and ruled out in 74 patients. Median plasma MMP8 levels were 36.4 (interquartile range 24.8 to 69.3) ng/ml in patients with AAD and 13.2 (8.1 to 31.8) ng/ml in patients receiving an alternative final diagnosis (P <0.0001). Median plasma MMP9 levels were 169.2 (93.0 to 261.8) ng/ml in patients with AAD and 80.5 (41.8 to 140.6) ng/ml in patients receiving an alternative final diagnosis (P = 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of MMP8 and MMP9 for the diagnosis of AAD was respectively 0.75 and 0.70, as compared to 0.87 of D-dimer. At the cutoff of 3.6 ng/ml, plasma MMP8 had a sensitivity of 100.0% (95% CI, 93.2% to 100.0%) and a specificity of 9.5% (95% CI, 3.9% to 18.5%) and ruled out AAD in 5.6% of patients. Combination of plasma MMP8 with D-dimer increased the AUC on ROC analysis to 0.89. Presence of MMP8 <11.0 ng/ml and D-dimer <1.0 or <2.0 µg/ml provided a negative predictive value of 100% and ruled out AAD in 13.6% and 21.4% of patients respectively.
Low levels of plasma MMP8 can rule out AAD in a minority of patients. Combination of plasma MMP8 and D-dimer at individually suboptimal cutoffs could safely rule out AAD in a substantial proportion of patients evaluated in the emergency department.
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway regulates several cellular processes and it’s one of the most frequently deregulated pathway in human tumors. Given its prominent role in cancer, there is great interest in the development of inhibitors able to target several members of PI3K signaling pathway in clinical trials. These drug candidates include PI3K inhibitors, both pan- and isoform-specific inhibitors, AKT, mTOR, and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors. As novel compounds progress into clinical trials, it’s becoming urgent to identify and select patient population that most likely benefit from PI3K inhibition. In this review we will discuss individual PIK3CA mutations as predictors of sensitivity and resistance to targeted therapies, leading to use of novel PI3K/mTOR/AKT inhibitors to a more “personalized” treatment.
PI3K; cancer; therapeutics; genetic determinants; class II phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase
The ability to perceive noxious stimuli is critical for an animal's survival in the face of environmental danger, and thus pain perception is likely to be under stringent evolutionary pressure. Using a neuronal-specific RNAi knock-down strategy in adult Drosophila, we recently completed a genome-wide functional annotation of heat nociception that allowed us to identify α2δ3 as a novel pain gene. Here we report construction of an evolutionary-conserved, system-level, global molecular pain network map. Our systems map is markedly enriched for multiple genes associated with human pain and predicts a plethora of novel candidate pain pathways. One central node of this pain network is phospholipid signaling, which has been implicated before in pain processing. To further investigate the role of phospholipid signaling in mammalian heat pain perception, we analysed the phenotype of PIP5Kα and PI3Kγ mutant mice. Intriguingly, both of these mice exhibit pronounced hypersensitivity to noxious heat and capsaicin-induced pain, which directly mapped through PI3Kγ kinase-dead knock-in mice to PI3Kγ lipid kinase activity. Using single primary sensory neuron recording, PI3Kγ function was mechanistically linked to a negative regulation of TRPV1 channel transduction. Our data provide a systems map for heat nociception and reinforces the extraordinary conservation of molecular mechanisms of nociception across different species.
Nociception is the perception of noxious, potentially damaging stimuli; and this pain or its equivalent behavioral readout is evolutionarily conserved from fruit flies to humans. Using genetic techniques in the fruit fly, we have been able to evaluate the potential functional contribution of every gene in the fruit fly genome for a role in avoidance of high noxious temperatures (heat pain-like responses). Using this functional genomics data set, we have developed a conserved network map of heat pain/nociception that predicts numerous conserved genes and pathways as novel pain pathways, including phospholipid signaling. Studies in multiple mutant mice confirmed a role for lipid signaling in pain perception, and more specifically we identify the critical lipid kinase (PI3Kγ) as a negative regulator of TRPV1 (receptor for noxious heat and capsaicin, the active component in chili peppers) signaling. This finding shows that our fly-based genetic pain network map is a valuable tool for the discovery of novel “nociception genes” in mammals.
Spatial and temporal organization of signal transduction is coordinated through the segregation of signaling enzymes in selected cellular compartments. This highly evolved regulatory mechanism ensures the activation of selected enzymes only in the vicinity of their target proteins. In this context, cAMP-responsive triggering of protein kinase A is modulated by a family of scaffold proteins referred to as A-kinase anchoring proteins. A-kinase anchoring proteins form the core of multiprotein complexes and enable simultaneous but segregated cAMP signaling events to occur in defined cellular compartments. In this review we will focus on the description of A-kinase anchoring protein function in the regulation of cardiac physiopathology.
AKAP; PKA; cAMP; cardiac disease
The Raf-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 (ERK1/2—extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2) signalling cascade is crucial in triggering cardiac responses to different stress stimuli. Scaffold proteins are key elements in coordinating signalling molecules for their appropriate spatiotemporal activation. Here, we investigated the role of IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1), a scaffold for the ERK1/2 cascade, in heart function and remodelling in response to pressure overload.
Methods and results
IQGAP1-null mice have unaltered basal heart function. When subjected to pressure overload, IQGAP1-null mice initially develop a compensatory hypertrophy indistinguishable from that of wild-type (WT) mice. However, upon a prolonged stimulus, the hypertrophic response develops towards a thinning of left ventricular walls, chamber dilation, and a decrease in contractility, in an accelerated fashion compared with WT mice. This unfavourable cardiac remodelling is characterized by blunted reactivation of the foetal gene programme, impaired cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Analysis of signalling pathways revealed two temporally distinct waves of both ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation peaking, respectively, at 10 min and 4 days after aortic banding in WT hearts. IQGAP1-null mice show strongly impaired phosphorylation of MEK1/2-ERK1/2 and AKT following 4 days of pressure overload, but normal activation of these kinases after 10 min. Pull-down experiments indicated that IQGAP1 is able to bind the three components of the ERK cascade, namely c-Raf, MEK1/2, and ERK1/2, as well as AKT in the heart.
These data demonstrate, for the first time, a key role for the scaffold protein IQGAP1 in integrating hypertrophy and survival signals in the heart and regulating long-term left ventricle remodelling upon pressure overload.
IQGAP1; MAPKs; AKT; Heart hypertrophy; Pressure overload
CCRL2 is a heptahelic transmembrane receptor that shows the highest degree of homology with CCR1, an inflammatory chemokine receptor. CCRL2 mRNA was rapidly (30 min) and transiently (2-4 hrs) regulated during dendritic cell (DC) maturation. Protein expression paralleled RNA regulation. In vivo, CCRL2 was expressed by activated DC and macrophages, but not by eosinophils and T cells. CCRL2−/− mice showed normal recruitment of circulating DC into the lung but a defective trafficking of antigen-loaded lung DC to mediastinal lymph nodes. This defect was associated to a reduction in lymph node cellularity and reduced priming of Th2 response. CCRL2−/− mice were protected in a model of OVA-induced airway inflammation with reduced leukocyte recruitment in the BAL (eosinophils and mononuclear cells) and reduced production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 and chemokines CCL11 and CCL17. The central role of CCRL2 deficiency in DC was supported by the fact that adoptive transfer of CCRL2−/− antigen-loaded DC in wild type animals recapitulated the phenotype observed in knock out mice. These data show a nonredundant role of CCRL2 in lung DC trafficking and propose a role for this receptor in the control of excessive airway inflammatory responses.
Tumor inflammation promotes angiogenesis, immunosuppression and tumor growth, but the mechanisms controlling inflammatory cell recruitment to tumors are not well understood. We found that a range of chemoattractants activating G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and Toll-like/IL-1 receptors (TLR/IL1Rs) unexpectedly initiate tumor inflammation by activating the PI3-kinase isoform p110γ in Gr1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. Whereas GPCRs activate p110γ in a Ras/p101 dependent manner, RTKs and TLR/IL1Rs directly activate p110γ in a Ras/p87-dependent manner. Once activated, p110γ promotes inside-out activation of a single integrin, α4β1, causing myeloid cell invasion into tumors. Pharmacological or genetic blockade of p110γ suppressed inflammation, growth and metastasis of implanted and spontaneous tumors, revealing an important therapeutic target in oncology.
Angioproliferative tumors induced by the Kaposi’s Sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) have been successfully treated with rapamycin, which provided direct evidence of the clinical activity of mTOR inhibitors in human malignancies. However, prolonged mTOR inhibition may raise concerns in immunocompromised patients, including AIDS-KS. Here, we explored whether KSHV-oncogenes deploy cell-type specific signaling pathways activating mTOR, which could be exploited to halt KS development while minimizing immune suppressive effects. We found that PI3Kγ, a PI3K isoform exhibiting restricted tissue distribution, is strictly required for signaling from the KSHV-encoded vGPCR oncogene to Akt/mTOR. Indeed, by using an endothelial-specific gene delivery system modeling KS development, we provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that PI3Kγ may represent a suitable molecular target for therapeutic intervention in KS.
Adrenergic stimulation of the heart engages cAMP and phosphoinositide second messenger signaling cascades. Cardiac phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110γ participates in these processes by sustaining β-adrenergic receptor internalization through its catalytic function and by controlling phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) activity via an unknown kinase-independent mechanism. We have discovered that p110γ anchors protein kinase A (PKA) through a site in its N-terminal region. Anchored PKA activates PDE3B to enhance cAMP degradation and phosphorylates p110γ to inhibit PIP3 production. This provides local feedback control of PIP3 and cAMP signaling events. In congestive heart failure, p110γ is upregulated and escapes PKA-mediated inhibition, contributing to a reduction in β-adrenergic receptor density. Pharmacological inhibition of p110γ normalizes β-adrenergic receptor density and improves contractility in failing hearts.
In the absence of p110β function, spermatogenesis is dramatically disturbed because of a progressive reduction of differentiating spermatogones. Genetically modified mice and pharmacological inhibition of p110β confirmed this enzyme as the main PI3K isoform activated downstream of c-Kit.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are key molecular players in male fertility. However, the specific roles of different p110 PI3K catalytic subunits within the spermatogenic lineage have not been characterized so far. Herein, we report that male mice expressing a catalytically inactive p110β develop testicular hypotrophy and impaired spermatogenesis, leading to a phenotype of oligo-azoospermia and defective fertility. The examination of testes from p110β-defective tubules demonstrates a widespread loss in spermatogenic cells, due to defective proliferation and survival of pre- and postmeiotic cells. In particular, p110β is crucially needed in c-Kit–mediated spermatogonial expansion, as c-Kit–positive cells are lost in the adult testis and activation of Akt by SCF is blocked by a p110β inhibitor. These data establish that activation of the p110β PI3K isoform by c-Kit is required during spermatogenesis, thus opening the way to new treatments for c-Kit positive testicular cancers.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)γ is expressed in hematopoietic cells, endothelial cells (ECs), and cardiomyocytes and regulates different cellular functions relevant to inflammation, tissue remodeling and cicatrization. Recently, PI3Kγ inhibitors have been indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis.
We aimed to determine PI3Kγ contribution to the angiogenic capacity of ECs and the effect of PI3Kγ inhibition on healing of myocardial infarction (MI).
Methods and Results
Human umbilical ECs were treated with a selective PI3Kγ inhibitor, AS605240, or a pan-phosphoinositide 3-kinases inhibitor, LY294002. Both inhibitory treatments and small interfering RNA–mediated PI3Kγ knockdown strongly impaired ECs angiogenic capacity, because of suppression of the PI3K/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Constitutive activation of Akt rescued the angiogenic defect. Reparative angiogenesis was studied in vivo in a model of MI. AS605240 did not affect MI-induced PI3Kγ upregulation, whereas it suppressed Akt activation and downstream signaling. AS605240 strongly reduced inflammation, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and impaired survival and proliferation of ECs in peri-infarct zone, which resulted in defective reparative neovascularization. As a consequence, AS605240-treated MI hearts showed increased infarct size and impaired recovery of left ventricular function. Similarly, PI3Kγ-deficient mice showed impaired reparative neovascularization, enhanced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and marked deterioration of cardiac function following MI. Mice expressing catalytically inactive PI3Kγ also failed to mount a proper neovascularization, although cardiac dysfunction was similar to wild-type controls.
PI3Kγ expression and catalytic activity are involved at different levels in reparative neovascularization and healing of MI.
PI3Kγ; Akt; angiogenesis; myocardial infarction
We evaluated whether phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) plays a role in reparative neovascularization and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) function.
Methods and Results
Unilateral limb ischemia was induced in mice lacking the PI3Kγ gene (PI3Kγ−/−) or expressing a catalytically inactive mutant (PI3KγKD/KD) and wild-type controls (WT). Capillarization and arteriogenesis were reduced in PI3Kγ−/− ischemic muscles resulting in delayed reperfusion compared with WT, whereas reparative neovascularization was preserved in PI3KγKD/KD. In PI3Kγ−/− muscles, endothelial cell proliferation was reduced, apoptosis was increased, and interstitial space was infiltrated with leukocytes but lacked cKit+ progenitor cells that in WT muscles typically surrounded arterioles. PI3Kγ is constitutively expressed by WT EPCs, with expression levels being upregulated by hypoxia. PI3Kγ−/− EPCs showed a defect in proliferation, survival, integration into endothelial networks, and migration toward SDF-1. The dysfunctional phenotype was associated with nuclear constraining of FOXO1, reduced Akt and eNOS phosphorylation, and decreased nitric oxide (NO) production. Pretreatment with an NO donor corrected the migratory defect of PI3Kγ−/− EPCs. PI3KγKD/KD EPCs showed reduced Akt phosphorylation, but constitutive activation of eNOS and preserved proliferation, survival, and migration.
We newly demonstrated that PI3Kγ modulates angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, and vasculogenesis by mechanisms independent from its kinase activity.
limb ischemia; angiogenesis; vasculogenesis; endothelial progenitor cells; migration
PI3Kγ functions in the immune compartment to promote inflammation in response to G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists and PI3Kγ also acts within the heart itself both as a negative regulator of cardiac contractility and as a pro-survival factor. Thus, PI3Kγ has the potential to both promote and limit M I/R injury.
Complete PI3Kγ−/− mutant mice, catalytically inactive PI3KγKD/KD (KD) knock-in mice, and control wild type (WT) mice were subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (M I/R) injury. Additionally, bone-marrow chimeric mice were constructed to elucidate the contribution of the inflammatory response to cardiac damage. PI3Kγ−/− mice exhibited a significantly increased infarction size following reperfusion. Mechanistically, PI3Kγ is required for activation of the Reperfusion Injury Salvage Kinase (RISK) pathway (AKT/ERK1/2) and regulates phospholamban phosphorylation in the acute injury response. Using bone marrow chimeras, the cardioprotective role of PI3Kγ was mapped to non-haematopoietic cells. Importantly, this massive increase in M I/R injury in PI3Kγ−/− mice was rescued in PI3Kγ kinase-dead (PI3KγKD/KD) knock-in mice. However, PI3KγKD/KD mice exhibited a cardiac injury similar to wild type animals, suggesting that specific blockade of PI3Kγ catalytic activity has no beneficial effects.
Our data show that PI3Kγ is cardioprotective during M I/R injury independent of its catalytic kinase activity and that loss of PI3Kγ function in the hematopoietic compartment does not affect disease outcome. Thus, clinical development of specific PI3Kγ blockers should proceed with caution.
The increasing prevalence of heart failure poses enormous challenges for health care systems worldwide. Despite effective medical interventions that target neurohumoral activation, mortality and morbidity remain substantial. Evidence for inflammatory activation as an important pathway in disease progression in chronic heart failure has emerged in the last two decades. However, clinical trials of ‘anti-inflammatory’ therapies (such as anti-tumor necrosis factor-α approaches) have to date failed to show benefit in heart failure patients. The Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology recently organized an expert workshop to address the issue of inflammation in heart failure from a basic science, translational and clinical perspective, and to assess whether specific inflammatory pathways may yet serve as novel therapeutic targets for this condition. This consensus document represents the outcome of the workshop and defines key research questions that still need to be addressed as well as considering the requirements for future clinical trials in this area.
Inflammation; Heart failure; Treatment
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) is a Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) that originates from T cells and frequently expresses oncogenic fusion proteins derived from chromosomal translocations or inversions of the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) gene. Proliferation and survival of ALCL cells are determined by the ALK activity. Here we show that the kinase activity of the Nucleophosmin (NPM)-ALK fusion regulated the shape of ALCL cells and F-actin filaments assembly in a pattern similar to T-Cell Receptor (TCR) stimulated cells. NPM-ALK formed a complex with the Guanine Exchange Factor (GEF) VAV1, enhancing its activation through phosphorylation. VAV1 increased Cdc42 activity and, in turn, Cdc42 regulated the shape and the migration of ALCL cells. In vitro knock-down of VAV1 or Cdc42 by sh-RNA, as well as pharmacological inhibition of Cdc42 activity by secramine, resulted in a cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of ALCL cells. Importantly, the concomitant inhibition of Cdc42 and NPM-ALK kinase acted synergistically to induce apoptosis of ALCL cells. Finally, Cdc42 was necessary for the growth as well as for the maintenance of already established lymphomas in vivo. Thus, our data open perspectives for new therapeutic strategies by revealing a mechanism of regulation of ALCL cells growth through Cdc42.
Lymphoma; Anaplastic; ALK; Cdc42; VAV1
The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway crucially controls metabolism and cell growth. Although different PI3K catalytic subunits are known to play distinct roles, the specific in vivo function of p110β (the product of the PIK3CB gene) is not clear. Here, we show that mouse mutants expressing a catalytically inactive PIK3CBK805R mutant survived to adulthood but showed growth retardation and developed mild insulin resistance with age. Pharmacological and genetic analyses of p110β function revealed that p110β catalytic activity is required for PI3K signaling downstream of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding (G protein)-coupled receptors as well as to sustain long term insulin signaling. In addition, PIK3CBK805R mice were protected in a model of ERBB2-driven tumor development. These findings indicate an unexpected role for p110β catalytic activity in diabetes and cancer, opening potential new avenues for therapeutic intervention.