Emerging evidence suggests that autoimmune processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we assessed the expression of B‐cell activating factor (BAFF) in smokers, and investigated the functional importance of BAFF in the induction and maintenance of cigarette smoke‐induced pulmonary antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) using a preclinical mouse model. We observed that BAFF levels were elevated in smokers and mice exposed to cigarette smoke. In mice, BAFF expression was rapidly induced in the lungs following 4 days of cigarette smoke exposure and remained elevated following 8 and 24 weeks of exposure. Alveolar macrophages were the major source of BAFF. Blockade of BAFF using a BAFF receptor‐Fc (BAFFR‐Fc) construct prevented pulmonary ANA and TLT formation when delivered concurrent with cigarette smoke exposure. Under these conditions, no impact on lung inflammation was observed. However, administration of BAFFR‐Fc following smoking cessation markedly reduced the number of TLTs and ANA levels and, of note, reduced pulmonary neutrophilia. Altogether, this study shows for the first time a central role of BAFF in the induction and maintenance of cigarette smoke‐induced pulmonary ANA and suggests that BAFF blockade following smoking cessation could have beneficial effects on persistent inflammatory processes.
In this study, we assessed the expression of B‐cell activating factor (BAFF) in smokers, and investigated the functional importance of BAFF in the induction and maintenance of cigarette smoke‐induced pulmonary antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and tertiary lymphoid tissues (TLTs) using a preclinical mouse model. Data presented show that BAFF plays a central role in the induction and maintenance of cigarette smoke‐induced pulmonary ANA and suggest a therapeutic potential for BAFF blockade in limiting autoimmune processes associated with smoking.
Animal model; autoantibodies; BAFF; cigarette smoke; COPD
Exaggerated or inappropriate responses by B cells are an important feature in many types of autoimmune neurological diseases. The recent success of B-cell depletion in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) has stimulated the development of novel B-cell-targeting therapies with the potential for improved efficacy. CD19 has emerged as a promising target for the depletion of B cells as well as CD19-positive plasmablasts and plasma cells. Inebilizumab (MEDI-551), an anti-CD19 antibody with enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against B cells, is currently being evaluated in MS and neuromyelitis optica. This review discusses the role of B cells in autoimmune neurological disorders, summarizes the development of inebilizumab, and analyzes the recent results for inebilizumab treatment in an autoimmune encephalitis mouse model. The novel insights obtained from these preclinical studies can potentially guide future investigation of inebilizumab in patients.
CD19; B-cell depletion; autoimmunity; multiple sclerosis; neuromyelitis optica
MEDI9447 is a human monoclonal antibody that is specific for the ectoenzyme CD73 and currently undergoing Phase I clinical trials. Here we show that MEDI9447 is a potent inhibitor of CD73 ectonucleotidase activity, with wide ranging immune regulatory consequences. MEDI9447 results in relief from adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-mediated lymphocyte suppression in vitro and inhibition of mouse syngeneic tumor growth in vivo. In contrast with other cancer immunotherapy agents such as checkpoint inhibitors or T-cell agonists, MEDI9447 drives changes in both myeloid and lymphoid infiltrating leukocyte populations within the tumor microenvironment of mouse models. Changes include significant alterations in a number of tumor micro-environmental subpopulations including increases in CD8+ effector cells and activated macrophages. Furthermore, these changes correlate directly with responder and non-responder subpopulations within animal studies using syngeneic tumors. Combination data showing additive activity between MEDI9447 and anti-PD-1 antibodies using human cells in vitro and mouse tumor models further demonstrate the potential value of relieving adenosine-mediated immunosuppression. Based on these data, a Phase I study to test the safety, tolerability, and clinical activity of MEDI9447 in cancer patients was initiated (NCT02503774).
Adenosine; CD73; MEDI9447; monoclonal antibody; syngeneic tumor model; tumor microenvironment
Canonically, IgE mediates allergic immune responses by triggering mast cells and basophils to release histamine and Type 2 helper cytokines. Here, we report that in human systemic lupus erythematosus, IgE antibodies specific for double-stranded DNA activate plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), an immune cell type linked to viral defense, leading to the secretion of substantial amounts of interferon-α. The concentrations of dsDNA-specific IgE found in patient serum correlated with disease severity and greatly potentiated pDC functions by triggering phagocytosis via FcεRI followed by Toll-like receptor 9-mediated DNA sensing in phagosomes. These findings expand the known pathogenic mechanisms of IgE-mediated inflammation beyond those found in allergy and demonstrate that IgE can trigger interferon responses capable of exacerbating self-destructive autoimmune responses.
ICOS, a member of the CD28 family, represents a key molecule that regulates adaptive responses to foreign Ags. ICOS is prominently expressed on T follicular helper (TFH) cells, a specialized CD4+ T cell subset that orchestrates B cell differentiation within the germinal centers and humoral response. However, the contribution of ICOS and TFH cells to autoantibody profiles under pathological conditions has not been thoroughly investigated. We used the Sle1 lupus-prone mouse model to examine the role of ICOS in the expansion and function of pathogenic TFH cells. Genetic deletion of ICOS impacted the expansion of TFH cells in B6.Sle1 mice and inhibited the differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells. The phenotypic changes observed in B6.Sle1-ICOS–knockout mice were also associated with a significant reduction in class-switched IgG, and anti-nucleosomal IgG-secreting B cells compared with B6.Sle1 animals. The level of vascular cell adhesion protein 1, a molecule that was shown to be elevated in patients with SLE and in lupus models, was also increased in an ICOS-dependent manner in Sle1 mice and correlated with autoantibody levels. The elimination of ICOS-expressing CD4+ T cells in B6.Sle1 mice, using a glyco-engineered anti-ICOS–depleting Ab, resulted in a significant reduction in anti-nucleosomal autoantibodies. Our results indicate that ICOS regulates the ontogeny and homeostasis of B6.Sle1 TFH cells and influences the function of TFH cells during aberrant germinal center B cell responses. Therapies targeting the ICOS signaling pathway may offer new opportunities for the treatment of lupus and other autoimmune diseases.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a clinically heterogeneous, life-threatening disease characterized by fibrosis, microvasculopathy, and autoimmunity. Extensive nonclinical and clinical data implicate B cells in the pathogenesis of SSc. MEDI-551 is an investigational humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the B cell surface antigen CD19 and mediates antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity of B cells. This clinical study evaluated the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of MEDI-551 in subjects with SSc.
This phase I multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single escalating dose study enrolled adult subjects with either limited or diffuse cutaneous SSc. A single intravenous dose of MEDI-551 was administered, and safety and tolerability were evaluated. MEDI-551 pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics, and immunogenicity were also assessed. Safety assessments included the incidence of adverse events and changes in clinical and laboratory results. MEDI-551 serum concentrations, effects on circulating and tissue B cells and plasma cells (PCs), and antidrug antibodies were analyzed. Modified Rodnan skin score (MRSS) and pulmonary function tests were used to explore the clinical effect of MEDI-551.
The study enrolled 28 subjects with SSc (mean age, 47.3 years; 67.9 % female). Twenty-four received a single dose of MEDI-551 (0.1–10.0 mg/kg) and four received placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 95.8 % of subjects in the MEDI-551 group and in 75.0 % of subjects in the placebo group; the majority of TEAEs were mild or moderate in severity. Two serious adverse events were considered possibly related to the study drug. One death, deemed not related to the study drug, occurred in a MEDI-551-treated subject. MEDI-551 exhibited linear PK in the dose range of 1.0 to 10.0 mg/kg, and more rapid clearance at lower doses. Dose-dependent depletion of circulating B cells and plasma cells was observed. MRSS assessments suggest a possible clinical effect of MEDI-551 on affected skin.
A single escalating dose of MEDI-551 was tolerable and safe in this subject population. B cell depletion was achieved and was dose dependent. A signal of clinical effect was observed. Based on these results, further investigation of MEDI-551 as a disease-modifying treatment for SSc is warranted.
www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier, NCT00946699; registered 23 July 2009.
B cells; CD19; Pharmacokinetics; Pharmacodynamics; Scleroderma; Systemic sclerosis
Immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a key role in allergic asthma and is a clinically validated target for monoclonal antibodies. Therapeutic anti-IgE antibodies block the interaction between IgE and the Fc epsilon (Fcε) receptor, which eliminates or minimizes the allergic phenotype but does not typically curtail the ongoing production of IgE by B cells. We generated high-affinity anti-IgE antibodies (MEDI4212) that have the potential to both neutralize soluble IgE and eliminate IgE-expressing B-cells through antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. MEDI4212 variants were generated that contain mutations in the Fc region of the antibody or alterations in fucosylation in order to enhance the antibody's affinity for FcγRIIIa. All MEDI4212 variants bound to human IgE with affinities comparable to the wild-type (WT) antibody. Each variant was shown to inhibit the interaction between IgE and FcεRI, which translated into potent inhibition of FcγRI-mediated function responses. Importantly, all variants bound similarly to IgE at the surface of membrane IgE expressing cells. However, MEDI4212 variants demonstrated enhanced affinity for FcγRIIIa including the polymorphic variants at position 158. The improvement in FcγRIIIa binding led to increased effector function in cell based assays using both engineered cell lines and class switched human IgE B cells. Through its superior suppression of IgE, we anticipate that effector function enhanced MEDI4212 may be able to neutralize high levels of soluble IgE and provide increased long-term benefit by eliminating the IgE expressing B cells before they differentiate and become IgE secreting plasma cells.
antibody therapeutic; anti-IgE; asthma; IgE; monoclonal antibody
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive disease with poor survival. A few sequencing studies performed on limited number of samples have revealed potential disease-driving genes in SCLC, however, much still remains unknown, particularly in the Asian patient population. Here we conducted whole exome sequencing (WES) and transcriptomic sequencing of primary tumors from 99 Chinese SCLC patients. Dysregulation of tumor suppressor genes TP53 and RB1 was observed in 82% and 62% of SCLC patients, respectively, and more than half of the SCLC patients (62%) harbored TP53 and RB1 mutation and/or copy number loss. Additionally, Serine/Arginine Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1) DNA copy number gain and mRNA over-expression was strongly associated with poor survival using both discovery and validation patient cohorts. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that SRSF1 is important for tumorigenicity of SCLC and may play a key role in DNA repair and chemo-sensitivity. These results strongly support SRSF1 as a prognostic biomarker in SCLC and provide a rationale for personalized therapy in SCLC.
SCLC patients are initially highly chemo-sensitive with response rates of greater than 80% in both limited and extensive diseases, but suffer uniform disease recurrence or progression in a very short period of time. In the absence of well-defined genomic biomarkers and insights into the resistance mechanism, many targeted treatments have yielded negative results in the last decade Using integrated next generation sequencing (NGS) technology in combination with a high quality surgical sample set with comprehensive clinical annotation, our study not only identified novel recurrent genetic alterations in genes such as CDH10 and DNA repair pathways which may influence outcomes in SCLC patients, but also discovered the expression of SRSF1, an RNA-splicing factor which can both regulate key oncogenic and survival pathways such as BCL2, and play a critical role in patient survival.
Interactions between ICOS and ICOS ligand (ICOSL) are essential for the development of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells and thus the formation and maintenance of GC reactions. Given the conflicting reports on the requirement of other CD4+ T‐cell populations for ICOS signals, we have employed a range of in vivo approaches to dissect requirements for ICOS signals in mice during an endogenous CD4+ T‐cell response and contrasted this with CD28 signals. Genetic absence of ICOSL only modestly reduced the total number of antigen‐specific CD4+ T cells at the peak of the primary response, but resulted in a severely diminished number of both T central memory and T effector memory cells. Treatment with blocking anti‐ICOS mAb during the primary response recapitulated these effects and caused a more substantial reduction than blocking CD28 signals with CTLA4Ig. During the memory phase of the response further signals through ICOS or CD28 were not required for survival. However, upon secondary challenge only Tfh cell expansion remained heavily ICOS‐dependent, while CD28 signals were required for optimal expansion of all subsets. These data demonstrate the importance of ICOS signals specifically for memory CD4+ T‐cell formation, while highlighting the potential of therapeutically targeting this pathway.
ICOS; CD28; CD4+ Memory; T‐cell responses; Tfh
Plasma cells and the autoreactive Abs they produce are suspected to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, but recent attempts to target these components of humoral immunity have failed. MEDI551, an anti-CD19 Ab that depletes mature B cells including plasma cells may offer a compelling alternative that reduces pathogenic adaptive immune responses while sparing regulatory mechanisms. Indeed, our data demonstrate that a single dose of MEDI551, given before or during ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, disrupts development of the disease. Leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord is significantly reduced, as well as short-lived and long-lived autoreactive CD138+ plasma cells in the spleen and bone marrow, respectively. In addition, potentially protective CD1dhiCD5+ regulatory B cells show resistance to depletion, and myelin-specific Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are expanded. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MEDI551 disrupts experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inhibiting multiple proinflammatory components whereas preserving regulatory populations.
Airway remodeling, caused by inflammation and fibrosis, is a major component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and currently has no effective treatment. Transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) has been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of airway remodeling in COPD. TGF-β is expressed in a latent form that requires activation. The integrin αvβ8 (encoded by the itgb8 gene) is a receptor for latent TGF-β and is essential for its activation. Expression of integrin αvβ8 is increased in airway fibroblasts in COPD and thus is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of airway remodeling in COPD. We demonstrate that an engineered optimized antibody to human αvβ8 (B5) inhibited TGF-β activation in transgenic mice expressing only human and not mouse ITGB8. The B5 engineered antibody blocked fibroinflammatory responses induced by tobacco smoke, cytokines, and allergens by inhibiting TGF-β activation. To clarify the mechanism of action of B5, we used hydrodynamic, mutational, and electron microscopic methods to demonstrate that αvβ8 predominantly adopts a constitutively active, extended-closed headpiece conformation. Epitope mapping and functional characterization of B5 revealed an allosteric mechanism of action due to locking-in of a low-affinity αvβ8 conformation. Collectively, these data demonstrate a new model for integrin function and present a strategy to selectively target the TGF-β pathway to treat fibroinflammatory airway diseases.
Release of endogenous damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), including members of the S100 family, are associated with infection, cellular stress, tissue damage and cancer. The extracellular functions of this family of calcium binding proteins, particularly S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12, are being delineated. They appear to mediate their functions via receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) or TLR4, but there remains considerable uncertainty over the relative physiological roles of these DAMPs and their pattern recognition receptors. In this study, we surveyed the capacity of S100 proteins to induce proinflammatory cytokines and cell migration, and the contribution RAGE and TLR4 to mediate these responses in vitro. Using adenoviral delivery of murine S100A9, we also examined the potential for S100A9 homodimers to trigger lung inflammation in vivo. S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12, but not the S100A8/A9 heterodimer, induced modest levels of TLR4-mediated cytokine production from human PBMC. In contrast, for most S100s including S100A9, RAGE blockade inhibited S100-mediated cell migration of THP1 cells and major leukocyte populations, whereas TLR4-blockade had no effect. Intranasal administration of murine S100A9 adenovirus induced a specific, time-dependent predominately macrophage infiltration that coincided with elevated S100A9 levels and proinflammatory cytokines in the BAL fluid. Inflammatory cytokines were markedly ablated in the TLR4-defective mice, but unexpectedly the loss of TLR4 signaling or RAGE-deficiency did not appreciably impact the S100A9-mediated lung pathology or the inflammatory cell infiltrate in the alveolar space. These data demonstrate that physiological levels of S100A9 homodimers can trigger an inflammatory response in vivo, and despite the capacity of RAGE and TLR4 blockade to inhibit responses in vitro, the response is predominately independent of both these receptors.
This work reports the tumoricidal effects of a novel investigational humanized anti-CD19 monoclonal antibody (Medi-551). An a-fucosylated antibody with increased affinity for human FcγRIIIA, Medi-551 is shown to mediate both antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADCP). Medi-551/CD19 complexes internalize slowly (>5 hrs) and thus remain accessible to effector cells for prolonged periods. We evaluated in vitro ADCC and ADCP activities of primary human natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages against pre-B ALL cell lines and pediatric patient blasts. Fluorescent imaging studies document immunological synapses formed between anti-CD19-bound target leukemia cells and effector cells and capture the kinetics of both NK-mediated killing and macrophage phagocytosis. Genetic polymorphisms in FcγRIIIA-158F/V modulate in vitro activities of effector cells, with FcγRIIIA-158V homo- or heterozygotes showing the strongest activity. Medi-551 treatment of SCID mice engrafted with human pre-B cells led to prolonged animal survival and markedly reduced disease burden in blood, liver and bone marrow. These data show that anti-CD19 antibodies effectively recruit immune cells to pre-B ALL cells and support a move forward to early phase trials in this disease.
leukemia; pre-B ALL; ADCC; ADCP; targeted therapies; monoclonal antibodies
Production of pathogenic Abs contributes to disease progression in many autoimmune disorders. The immunosuppressant agent mycophenolic acid (MPA) has shown clinical efficacy for patients with autoimmunity. The goal of these studies was to elucidate the mechanisms of action of MPA on B cells isolated from healthy individuals and autoimmune patients. In this study, we show that MPA significantly inhibited both proliferation and differentiation of primary human B cells stimulated under various conditions. Importantly, MPA did not globally suppress B cell responsiveness or simply induce cell death, but rather selectively inhibited early activation events and arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, MPA blocked expansion of both naive and memory B cells and prevented plasma cell (PC) differentiation and Ab production from healthy controls and individuals with rheumatoid arthritis. Finally, whereas MPA potently suppressed Ig secretion from activated primary B cells, terminally differentiated PCs were not susceptible to inhibition by MPA. The target of MPA, IMPDH2, was found to be downregulated in PCs, likely explaining the resistance of these cells to MPA. These results suggest that MPA provides benefit in settings of autoimmunity by directly preventing activation and PC differentiation of B cells; however, MPA is unlikely to impact autoantibody production by preexisting, long-lived PCs.
T follicular helper (TFH) cells are critical for B cell activation in germinal centers and are often observed in human inflamed tissue. However, it is difficult to know if they contribute in situ to inflammation. Expressed markers define TFH subsets associated with distinct functions in vitro. However, such markers may not reflect in situ function. The delivery of T cell help to B cells requires direct cognate recognition. We hypothesized that by visualizing and quantifying such interactions we could directly assess TFH cell competency in situ. Therefore, we developed computational tools to quantify spatial relationships between different cell subtypes in tissue (Cell Distance Mapping, CDM). Analysis of inflamed human tissues indicated that measurement of internuclear distances between TFH and B cells could be used to discriminate between cognate and non-cognate interactions. Furthermore, only cognate-competent TFH cell populations expressed high levels of Bcl-6 and IL-21. These data suggest that CDM can be used to identify adaptive immune cell networks driving in situ inflammation. Such knowledge should help identify diseases, and disease subsets, that may benefit from therapeutics targeting of specific T cell:antigen presenting cell interactions.
Lupus; nephritis; renal transplant; cell distance mapping; adaptive autoimmunity; T follicular helper cell
Continuous support from follicular CD4+ T helper (Tfh) cells drives germinal center (GC) responses, which last for several weeks to produce high affinity memory B cells and plasma cells. In autoimmune Sle1 and NZB/W F1 mice, elevated numbers of Tfh cells persist, promoting the expansion of self-reactive B cells. Expansion of circulating Tfh like cells have also been described in several autoimmune diseases. Although, the signals required for Tfh differentiation have now been well described, the mechanisms that sustain the maintenance of fully differentiated Tfh are less understood. Recent data demonstrate a role for GC B cells for Tfh maintenance after protein immunization.
Methods and Finding
Given the pathogenic role Tfh play in autoimmune disease, we explored whether B cells are required for maintenance of autoreactive Tfh. Our data suggest that the number of mature autoreactive Tfh cells is controlled by GC B cells. Depletion of B cells in Sle1 autoimmune mice leads to a dramatic reduction in Tfh cells. In NZB/W F1 autoimmune mice, similar to the SRBC immunization model, GC B cells support the maintenance of mature Tfh, which is dependent mainly on ICOS. The CD28-associated pathway is dispensable for Tfh maintenance in SRBC immunized mice, but is required in the spontaneous NZB/W F1 model.
These data suggest that mature Tfh cells require signals from GC B cells to sustain their optimal numbers and function in both autoimmune and immunization models. Thus, immunotherapies targeting B cells in autoimmune disease may affect pathogenic Tfh cells.
B cell activation is regulated by a variety of signals. CD19 positively regulates B cell activation, augmenting signals delivered through the BCR complex. In contrast, CD32b contains an ITIM and negatively regulates BCR signaling. Importantly, there are drugs currently in clinical trials and preclinical development that cross-link CD32b to molecules within the BCR complex. We wanted to address how single engagement versus cotargeting these molecules affects human B cell function. When B cells from healthy individuals were activated by signals that mimic a T cell response (IL-21 costimulation), ligation of CD32b, but not CD19, inhibited B cell expansion and plasma cell (PC) differentiation. In contrast, when B cells were activated through TLR, anti-CD19, but not anti-CD32b, blunted the response. However, when both CD19 and CD32b were coengaged by a bispecific anti-CD19×CD32b Ab, both types of stimuli were potently inhibited. Cross-linking CD19 with CD32b also inhibited Ab-independent functions of B cells, such as HLA upregulation, cytokine production, and the ability of B cells to prime CD4+ T cells. Finally, although cross-linking CD19 and CD32b inhibited PC differentiation of primary B cells, it did not alter Ig production from pre-established PCs. These data elucidate the mechanism by which a complex set of signals determines the fate of B cell responsiveness. Although signals through CD19 influence TLR-driven activation, CD32b impacts the magnitude of the response following IL-21 costimulation. Therefore, simultaneous targeting of multiple surface molecules may be a necessary approach to comprehensively modulate B cell activation in vivo.
B lymphocytes are the source of humoral immunity and are thus a critical component of the adaptive immune system. However, B cells can also be pathogenic and the origin of disease. Deregulated B-cell function has been implicated in several autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. B cells contribute to pathological immune responses through the secretion of cytokines, costimulation of T cells, antigen presentation, and the production of autoantibodies. DNA-and RNA-containing immune complexes can also induce the production of type I interferons, which further promotes the inflammatory response. B-cell depletion with the CD20 antibody rituximab has provided clinical proof of concept that targeting B cells and the humoral response can result in significant benefit to patients. Consequently, the interest in B-cell targeted therapies has greatly increased in recent years and a number of new biologics exploiting various mechanisms are now in clinical development. This review provides an overview on current developments in the area of B-cell targeted therapies by describing molecules and subpopulations that currently offer themselves as therapeutic targets, the different strategies to target B cells currently under investigation as well as an update on the status of novel therapeutics in clinical development. Emerging data from clinical trials are providing critical insight regarding the role of B cells and autoantibodies in various autoimmune conditions and will guide the development of more efficacious therapeutics and better patient selection.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection. Infection is critically dependent on the RSV fusion (F) protein, which mediates fusion between the viral envelope and airway epithelial cells. The F protein is also expressed on infected cells and is responsible for fusion of infected cells with adjacent cells, resulting in the formation of multinucleate syncytia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern-recognition receptor that is constitutively highly expressed by type I alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we report that RAGE protected HEK cells from RSV-induced cell death and reduced viral titres in vitro. RAGE appeared to interact directly with the F protein, but, rather than inhibiting RSV entry into host cells, virus replication and budding, membrane-expressed RAGE or soluble RAGE blocked F-protein-mediated syncytium formation and sloughing. These data indicate that RAGE may contribute to protecting the lower airways from RSV by inhibiting the formation of syncytia, viral spread, epithelial damage and airway obstruction.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a common respiratory pathogen in infants and the older population, causes pulmonary inflammation and airway occlusion that leads to impairment of lung function. Here, we have established a role for receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in RSV infection. RAGE-deficient (ager−/−) mice were protected from RSV-induced weight loss and inflammation. This protection correlated with an early increase in type I interferons, later decreases in proinflammatory cytokines, and a reduction in viral load. To assess the contribution of soluble RAGE (sRAGE) to RSV-induced disease, wild-type and ager−/− mice were given doses of sRAGE following RSV infection. Of interest, sRAGE treatment prevented RSV-induced weight loss and neutrophilic inflammation to a degree similar to that observed in ager−/− mice. Our work further elucidates the roles of RAGE in the pathogenesis of respiratory infections and highlights the opposing roles of membrane and sRAGE in modulating the host response to RSV infection.
To compare the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of CAT-8015, a second-generation recombinant immunotoxin composed of disulfide linked affinity matured VH and VL chains of the mouse anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody RFB4 fused to PE38, to the parental compound CAT-3888.
The biological activity of CAT-8015 was examined in vitro using B cell tumor lines and in vivo in a JD38-based subcutaneous tumor model in NCr athymic mice. Pharmacokinetics and interspecies scaling of CAT-8015 were evaluated in mice, rats, and Cynomologus monkeys. The potential toxicity of CAT-8015 was assessed in monkeys in a toxicological study and compared to CAT-3888.
The IC50s of CAT-8015 in vitro using the EHEB, MEC1, Daudi, CA46, and JD38 cell lines ranged from 0.3 - 8.6 ng/mL. Pharmacokinetic studies with CAT-8015 were conducted in mouse, rat and Cynomolgus monkey. The T1/2 was calculated to be 0.42, 0.61, and 0.79 hr and the Vss was 1.37, 5.57, and 140.3 mL in mouse, rat, and monkey, respectively. In vivo, when JD38 tumor-bearing animals were treated with CAT-8015 at doses ≥ 75 μg/kg at 48 hr intervals for a total of 3 doses, a rapid reduction in tumor volume and in some cases complete remission in tumor growth was observed. The comparative toxicological study showed comparable clinical and anatomical pathology changes for CAT-8015 and CAT-3888.
CAT-8015 is a CD22-targeting immunotoxin that, in preclinical studies, has greatly improved efficacy as compared to CAT-3888.
immunotoxin; CLL; NHL; PE-38; apoptosis
Multiple lines of evidence suggest that inhibition of Type I Interferons, including IFN-α, may provide a therapeutic benefit for autoimmune diseases. Using a chemical genomics approach integrated with cellular and in vivo assays, we screened a small compound library to identify modulators of IFN-α biological effects. A genomic fingerprint was developed from both ex vivo patient genomic information and in vitro gene modulation from IFN-α cell-based stimulation. A high throughput genomic-based screen then was applied to prioritize 268 small molecule inhibitors targeting 41 different intracellular signaling pathways. Active compounds were profiled further for their ability to inhibit the activation and differentiation of human monocytes using disease-related stimuli. Inhibitors targeting NF-κB or Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling emerged as “dissociated inhibitors” because they did not modulate IFN-α anti-viral effects against HSV-1 but potently inhibited other immune-related functions. This work describes a novel strategy to identify small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune disorders.