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1.  Use of Sea Stars to Study Basic Reproductive Processes 
Echinoderms are closely related to chordates and comprise a major group of invertebrate deuterostomes. They are broadcast spawners and as such, each female accumulates millions of eggs and oocytes. These cells are readily isolated, and are often large, clear, and surrounded by accessory cells and extracellular coverings that do not prevent access to the oocyte. Sea stars are one type of echinoderm. Their oocytes are stored in prophase of meiosis, and since the natural meiotic stimulus has been identified as 1-methyladenine, these cells can be induced to complete meiotic maturation as individuals, or synchronously en masse. Microinjection and culture of these cells is feasible using quantitative or repetitive methods so that hundreds of oocytes and eggs can be modified each hour. Experimentation on this organism is extensive over a rich history of reproductive and developmental biology so that new investigators can easily incorporate this organism into their repertoire of research. This chapter will highlight the fundamental protocols to enable a new investigator to perform an array of approaches on this organism, including oocyte isolation, microinjection, and even single cell quantitative PCR.
doi:10.3109/19396361003674879
PMCID: PMC3983664  PMID: 20536323
sea star; fertilization; meiosis; microinjection; polar body; single cell PCR
2.  Detection of Oocyte mRNA in Starfish Polar Bodies 
doi:10.1002/mrd.21172
PMCID: PMC3190191  PMID: 20333754
Polar body biopsy; oocyte transcriptome; gene expression; oocyte maturation; single cell reverse transcription
3.  Epidemiologic Responses to Anthrax Outbreaks: A Review of Field Investigations, 1950–2001 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(10):1163-1174.
We used unpublished reports, published manuscripts, and communication with investigators to identify and summarize 49 anthrax-related epidemiologic field investigations conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1950 to August 2001. Of 41 investigations in which Bacillus anthracis caused human or animal disease, 24 were in agricultural settings, 11 in textile mills, and 6 in other settings. Among the other investigations, two focused on building decontamination, one was a response to bioterrorism threats, and five involved other causes. Knowledge gained in these investigations helped guide the public health response to the October 2001 intentional release of B. anthracis, especially by addressing the management of anthrax threats, prevention of occupational anthrax, use of antibiotic prophylaxis in exposed persons, use of vaccination, spread of B. anthracis spores in aerosols, clinical diagnostic and laboratory confirmation methods, techniques for environmental sampling of exposed surfaces, and methods for decontaminating buildings.
doi:10.3201/eid0810.020223
PMCID: PMC2730298  PMID: 12396934
anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; bacterial infections; disease outbreaks; public health; bioterrorism; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); historical article (publication type); zoonoses

Results 1-3 (3)