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Applied Microbiology (2)
Emerging Infectious Diseases (1)
Inouye, Sakae (3)
Kaufmann, Arnold F. (1)
Keim, Paul (1)
Keys, Christine (1)
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Bacillus anthracis Bioterrorism Incident, Kameido, Tokyo, 1993
Kaufmann, Arnold F.
Smith, Kimothy L.
Emerging Infectious Diseases
In July 1993, a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis was aerosolized from the roof of an eight-story building in Kameido, Tokyo, Japan, by the religious group Aum Shinrikyo. During 1999 to 2001, microbiologic tests were conducted on a liquid environmental sample originally collected during the 1993 incident. Nonencapsulated isolates of B. anthracis were cultured from the liquid. Multiple-locus, variable-number tandem repeat analysis found all isolates to be identical to a strain used in Japan to vaccinate animals against anthrax, which was consistent with the Aum Shinrikyo members’ testimony about the strain source. In 1999, a retrospective case-detection survey was conducted to identify potential human anthrax cases associated with the incident, but none were found. The use of an attenuated B. anthracis strain, low spore concentrations, ineffective dispersal, a clogged spray device, and inactivation of the spores by sunlight are all likely contributing factors to the lack of human cases.
Bacillus anthracis; bioterrorism; anthrax; epidemiology; Aum Shinrikyo; Japan
Nonspecific Adsorption of Proteins to Microplates
When a solution of purified adenovirus hexon proteins was diluted in polystyrene microplates without carrier proteins in the diluent, a higher rate of hexon adsorption to the microplates at higher dilutions took place. Addition of gelatin (0.01%), bovine serum albumin (0.01%), or calf serum (0.2%, vol/vol) to the diluent effectively prevented this adsorption. The adsorption to the microplates of adenovirions and measles virions was also prevented by the carrier proteins in the diluent. Certain additional features which distinguish the microtechnique of Takatsy from conventional macromethods are also discussed.
Effect of a Modified Kaolin Treatment on Serum Immunoglobulins
After kaolin treatment of fetal rabbit serum, 7S antibody titers were reduced more than 19S titers. This reduction was less when the kaolin treatment was performed at pH 9.0 than when it was performed at pH 7.3. A modification of the kaolin treatment of sera for use in the hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titration, in which the hemagglutination reaction is performed at a neutral pH, is recommended. The advantage of the modified method is that adsorption of immunoglobulins to kaolin is minimized when serum is treated at a lower dilution with pH 9.0 kaolin, followed by reduction of the pH of the supernatant fluid to neutrality with a „serum adjusting diluent.” When the serum was diluted with physiological saline before kaolin treatment, a great decrease in serum immunoglobulin concentrations occurred. This decrease was found to be less in the modified kaolin treatment than in the conventional pH 7.3 kaolin treatment.
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