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1.  Production and Evaluation of Reagents for Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum Antigenuria by Enzyme Immunoassay▿  
The detection of urinary Histoplasma capsulatum polysaccharide antigen (HPA) by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) has proven useful for the presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Assay limitations include (i) detection of a largely uncharacterized antigen and (ii) difficulty in reproducibly generating antibodies for use in the EIA. To improve antibody production for use in this test and to better understand the antigen being detected, we compared rabbit antibodies elicited using various immunization schedules, routes, and H. capsulatum-derived antigens. Antibodies were evaluated by EIA for their ability to detect purified H. capsulatum C antigen (C-Ag) and antigenuria. Reported as enzyme immunoassay (EI) units (the A450 with antigen divided by the A450 without antigen), results demonstrated that intravenous immunization of rabbits with whole, killed yeast-phase cells (yeast-i.v. regimen) produced antibodies giving the highest EI values in the C-Ag EIA (mean EI units ± standard deviation, 14.9 ± 0.6 versus 6.4 ± 0.4 for rabbits immunized with C-Ag versus 2.4 ± 0.3 for all other regimens combined). Yeast-i.v. antibodies were highly sensitive for the detection of antigenuria in patients with histoplasmosis, as shown by the following results: 12/12 patients compared to 10/12, 6/12, 3/12, and 3/12, respectively, for antibodies from rabbits immunized with (i) C-Ag; (ii) whole, killed yeast-phase cells administered subcutaneously and intramuscularly; (iii) yeast-phase culture filtrates; and (iv) HPA-positive urine. Rabbits immunized using the yeast-i.v. regimen also gave higher peak antibody titers than rabbits immunized by any other regimen (P < 0.03), and their antibodies were most comparable in reactivity to antibodies produced for use in the standard HPA-EIA test (P < 0.001). Therefore, rabbits immunized using the yeast-i.v. regimen produced the most sensitive antibodies with the highest titers for detection of C-Ag and antigenuria in histoplasmosis patients.
doi:10.1128/CVI.00083-07
PMCID: PMC1951087  PMID: 17428951
2.  Species-Specific Identification of Leptospiraceae by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2006;44(10):3510-3516.
The genus Leptospira is classified into 13 named species and 4 genomospecies based upon DNA-DNA reassociation studies. Phenotypic tests are unable to distinguish between species of Leptospira, and there is a need for a simplified molecular approach to the identification of leptospires. 16S rRNA gene sequences are potentially useful for species identification of Leptospira, but there are a large number of sequences of various lengths and quality in the public databases. 16S rRNA gene sequences of near full length and bidirectional high redundancy were determined for all type strains of the species of the Leptospiraceae. Three clades were identified within the genus Leptospira, composed of pathogenic species, nonpathogenic species, and another clade of undetermined pathogenicity with intermediate 16S rRNA gene sequence relatedness. All type strains could be identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences, but within both pathogenic and nonpathogenic clades as few as two or three base pairs separated some species. Sequences within the nonpathogenic clade were more similar, and in most cases ≤10 bp distinguished these species. These sequences provide a reference standard for identification of Leptospira species and confirm previously established relationships within the genus. 16S rRNA gene sequencing is a powerful method for identification in the clinical laboratory and offers a simplified approach to the identification of Leptospira species.
doi:10.1128/JCM.00670-06
PMCID: PMC1594759  PMID: 17021075
3.  Effects of Long-Term Storage on Plasmid Stability in Bacillus anthracis 
Applied and Environmental Microbiology  2005;71(12):7778-7780.
The plasmid profiles of 619 cultures of Bacillus anthracis which had been isolated and stored between 1954 and 1989 were analyzed using the Laboratory Response Network real-time PCR assay targeting a chromosomal marker and both virulence plasmids (pXO1 and pXO2). The cultures were stored at ambient temperature on tryptic soy agar slants overlaid with mineral oil. When data were stratified by decade, there was a decreasing linear trend in the proportion of strains containing both plasmids with increased storage time (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the proportion of strains containing only pXO1 or strains containing only pXO2 (P = 0.25), but there was a statistical interdependence between the two plasmids (P = 0.004). Loss of viability of B. anthracis cultures stored on agar slants is also discussed.
doi:10.1128/AEM.71.12.7778-7780.2005
PMCID: PMC1317469  PMID: 16332750
4.  Evaluation of Four Commercially Available Rapid Serologic Tests for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2003;41(2):803-809.
Four rapid tests for the serologic diagnosis of leptospirosis were evaluated, and the performance of each was compared with that of the current standard, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). The four rapid tests were a microplate immunoglobulin M (IgM)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), an IgM dipstick assay (LDS), and an IgM dot-ELISA dipstick test (DST). A panel of 276 sera from 133 cases of leptospirosis from four different geographic locations was tested as well as 642 sera from normal individuals or individuals with other infectious or autoimmune diseases. Acute-phase sera from cases (n = 148) were collected ≤14 days (median = 6.0) after the onset of symptoms, and convalescent-phase sera (n = 128) were collected ≥15 days after onset (median = 29.1). By a traditional method (two-by-two contingency table), the sensitivities for detection of leptospirosis cases were 93.2% by LDS, 92.5% by DST, 86.5% by ELISA, and 79.0% by IHA. Specificity was 98.8% by DST, 97% by ELISA and MAT, 95.8% by IHA, and 89.6% by LDS. With a latent class analysis (LCA) model that included all the rapid tests and the clinical case definition, sensitivity was 95.5% by DST, 94.5% by LDS, 89.9% by ELISA, and 81.1% by IHA. The sensitivity and specificity estimated by the traditional methods were quite close to the LCA estimates. However, LCA allowed estimation of the sensitivity of the MAT (98.2%), which traditional methods do not allow. For acute-phase sera, sensitivity was 52.7% by LDS, 50.0% by DST, 48.7% by MAT and ELISA, and 38.5% by IHA. The sensitivity for convalescent-phase sera was 93.8% by MAT, 84.4% by DST, 83.6% by LDS, 75.0% by ELISA, and 67.2% by IHA. A good overall correlation with the MAT was obtained for each of the assays, with the highest concordance being with the DST (kappa value, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.8 to 0.90). The best correlation was between ELISA and DST (kappa value, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.91). False-positive LDS results were frequent (≥20%) in sera from individuals with Epstein-Barr virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and periodontal disease and from healthy volunteers. The ease of use and significantly high sensitivity and specificity of DST and ELISA make these good choices for diagnostic testing.
doi:10.1128/JCM.41.2.803-809.2003
PMCID: PMC149700  PMID: 12574287
5.  Two-Component Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Assay for Rapid Identification of Bacillus anthracis 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2002;8(10):1060-1065.
A two-component direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) assay, using fluorescein-labeled monoclonal antibodies specific to the Bacillus anthracis cell wall (CW-DFA) and capsule (CAP-DFA) antigens, was evaluated and validated for rapid identification of B. anthracis. We analyzed 230 B. anthracis isolates; 228 and 229 were positive by CW-DFA and CAP-DFA assays, respectively. We also tested 56 non–B. anthracis strains; 10 B. cereus and 2 B. thuringiensis were positive by the CW-DFA assay, and 1 B. megaterium strain was positive by CAP-DFA. Analysis of the combined DFA results identified 227 of 230 B. anthracis isolates; all 56 strains of the other Bacillus spp. were negative. Both DFA assays tested positive on 14 of 26 clinical specimens from the 2001 anthrax outbreak investigation. The two-component DFA assay is a sensitive, specific, and rapid confirmatory test for B. anthracis in cultures and may be useful directly on clinical specimens.
doi:10.3201/eid0810.020392
PMCID: PMC2730293  PMID: 12396916
Bacillus anthracis; DFA
6.  Evaluation of the Indirect Hemagglutination Assay for Diagnosis of Acute Leptospirosis in Hawaii 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  2000;38(3):1081-1084.
Timely diagnosis of leptospirosis is important to ensure a favorable clinical outcome. The definitive serologic assay, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), requires paired sera and is not useful for guiding early clinical management. The only screening test approved for use in the United States, the indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), has not undergone extensive field evaluation. To assess the performance of the leptospirosis IHA in Hawaii, serum from patients evaluated for leptospirosis between 1992 and 1997 were tested with the IHA at the Hawaii State Laboratories Division and with the MAT at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Leptospirosis was considered confirmed by a fourfold rise in MAT titer and/or a positive culture. A total of 92 (41%) of 226 specimens from 114 persons with confirmed leptospirosis were found positive by IHA. Only 18 (15%) of 119 specimens obtained within 14 days of onset were IHA positive, compared to 74 (69%) of 107 specimens collected more than 14 days after onset (P <0.001). Repeat testing ultimately resulted in 78 (68%) of the confirmed cases having at least one specimen found positive by IHA. Thirteen different presumptive infecting serogroups were identified among 251 specimens with an MAT titer of ≥200 and obtained from persons with confirmed or probable leptospirosis. Fifty (68%) of 73 specimens with Icterohaemorrhagiae as the presumptive infecting serogroup were found positive by IHA, compared to 44 (47%) of 93 specimens with Australis as the presumptive infecting serogroup (P, 0.01). The IHA test was positive for 3 (1%) of 236 specimens from 154 persons without leptospirosis. The sensitivity of the leptospirosis IHA in Hawaii was substantially below figures reported previously, particularly early in the course of illness, limiting its usefulness for diagnosing acute infection. Since the presumptive infecting serogroup affected IHA results and the prevalence of serovars varies with geography, the performance of the IHA should be assessed locally. More sensitive leptospirosis screening tests are needed in Hawaii.
PMCID: PMC86345  PMID: 10699001
7.  International Multicenter Evaluation of the Clinical Utility of a Dipstick Assay for Detection of Leptospira-Specific Immunoglobulin M Antibodies in Human Serum Specimens 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1999;37(9):2904-2909.
We performed a multicenter evaluation of a robust and easily performed dipstick assay for the serodiagnosis of human leptospirosis. The assay is aimed at the detection of Leptospira-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies. The study involved 2,665 serum samples collected from 2,057 patients with suspected leptospirosis in 12 countries on five continents with different levels of endemicity and different surveillance systems. The patients were grouped as laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis case patients and noncase patients based on the results of culturing and the microscopic agglutination test. Paired samples from 27.7% of the subjects were tested. Of the 485 case patients, 87.4% had a positive dipstick result for one or more samples. Of the 1,513 noncase patients, only 7.2% had a positive result. Whereas most (88.4%) of the positive samples from the case patients showed moderate to strong (2+ to 4+) staining in the dipstick assay, most (68.1%) of the positive samples from the noncase patients showed weak (1+) staining. The sensitivity of the dipstick assay increased from 60.1% for acute-phase serum samples to 87.4% for convalescent-phase samples. The specificities for these two groups of samples were 94.1 and 92.7%, respectively. The dipstick assay detected a broad variety of serogroups. The results of the dipstick assay were concordant (observed agreement, 93.2%; kappa value, 0.76) with the results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of specific IgM antibodies, a test which is often used in the laboratory diagnosis of current or recent leptospirosis. This study demonstrated that this easily performed dipstick assay is a valuable and useful test for the quick screening for leptospirosis; has a wide applicability in different countries with different degrees of endemicity; can be used at all levels of the health care system, including the field; and will be useful for detecting and monitoring outbreaks of leptospirosis.
PMCID: PMC85409  PMID: 10449473

Results 1-7 (7)