Purpose of review
Recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) can decrease HIV incidence among several at-risk populations, including men who have sex with men, serodiscordant couples, and heterosexual men and women. As PrEP is a biomedical intervention that requires clinical monitoring and a high level of medication adherence, maximizing the public health effectiveness of PrEP in real-world settings will require the training of a cadre of healthcare providers to prescribe PrEP. Therefore it is critical to understand provider knowledge, practices and attitudes towards PrEP prescribing, and to develop strategies for engaging and training providers to provide PrEP.
A limited number of studies have focused on PrEP implementation by healthcare providers. These studies suggest that some providers are knowledgeable about PrEP, but many are not, or express misgivings. Although many clinicians report willingness to provide PrEP, few have prescribed PrEP in clinical practice. Provider comfort and skills in HIV risk assessment are suboptimal, which could limit identification of individuals who are most likely to benefit from PrEP use.
Further studies to understand facilitators and barriers to HIV risk assessment and PrEP prescribing by practicing clinicians are needed. Innovative training strategies and decision-support interventions for providers could optimize PrEP implementation and therefore merit additional research.
HIV; Prevention; Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis; Provider; Implementation
Tuberculosis peaks during a woman's reproductive years and is a leading cause of maternal mortality. We review the epidemiology, screening, treatment, and outcomes of tuberculosis in pregnancy and postpartum, and highlight research gaps.
Tuberculosis is most common during a woman's reproductive years and is a major cause of maternal–child mortality. National guidelines for screening and management vary widely owing to insufficient data. In this article, we review the available data on (1) the global burden of tuberculosis in women of reproductive age; (2) how pregnancy and the postpartum period affect the course of tuberculosis; (3) how to screen and diagnose pregnant and postpartum women for active and latent tuberculosis; (4) the management of active and latent tuberculosis in pregnancy and the postpartum period, including the safety of tuberculosis medications; and (5) infant outcomes. We also include data on HIV/tuberculosis coinfection and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Finally, we highlight research gaps in tuberculosis in pregnant and postpartum women.
Malnutrition is associated with morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Little research has been conducted to identify the roles that clinical, illicit drug use and socioeconomic characteristics play in the nutritional status of HIV-infected patients. This cross-sectional analysis included 562 HIV-infected participants enrolled in the Nutrition for Healthy Living study conducted in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. The relationship between body mass index (BMI) and several covariates (type of drug use, demographic, and clinical characteristics) were examined using linear regression.
Overall, drug users had a lower BMI than non-drug users. The BMI of cocaine users was 1.4 kg/m2 less than that of patients who did not use any drugs, after adjusting for other covariates (p= 0.02). The BMI of participants who were over the age of 55 years was 2.0 kg/m2 less than that of patients under the age of 35, and BMI increased by 0.3 kg/m2 with each 100 cells/mm3 increase in CD4 count. HAART use, adherence to HAART, energy intake, AIDS status, hepatitis B and hepatitis C co-infections, cigarette smoking and depression were not associated with BMI in the final model.
In conclusion, BMI was lower in drug users than non-drug users, and was lowest in cocaine users. BMI was also directly associated with CD4 count and inversely related to age more than 55 years old. HIV infected cocaine users may be at higher risk of developing malnutrition, suggesting the need for anticipatory nutritional support.
drug users; cocaine users; BMI; HIV; CD4 count
Immediate treatment initiation is optimal for patients aged <30 years regardless of CD4 count under a wide range of assumptions about treatment benefits and harms, whereas the timing of initiation at older ages depends on the assumed magnitude of the cardiovascular risk from treatment and patient preferences toward treatment.
We developed a mathematical model to identify the timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation that optimizes patient outcomes as a function of patient CD4 count, age, cardiac mortality risk, sex, and personal preferences. Our goal was to find the conditions that maximize patient quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) in the context of our model. Under the assumption that ART confers disease progression and mortality benefits at any CD4 count, immediate treatment initiation yields the greatest remaining QALE for young patients under most circumstances. The timing of ART initiation depends on the magnitude of benefit from ART at high CD4 counts, the magnitude of increases in cardiac risk, and patients' preferences. If ART reduces HIV progression at high CD4 counts, immediate ART is preferable for most newly infected individuals <35 years even if ART doubles age- and sex-specific cardiac risk.
HIV type-1 (HIV-1) monitoring in resource limited settings relies on clinical and immunological assessment. The objective of this study was to study the frequency and pattern of reverse transcriptase (RT) drug resistance among patients with immunological failure (IF) to first-line therapy.
A cross-sectional study of 228 patients with IF was done, of which 126 were drug-naive (group A) when starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 102 were exposed to mono/dual therapy prior to HAART initiation (group B). A validated in-house genotyping method and Stanford interpretaion was used. Means, sd, median and frequencies (as percentages) were used to indicate the patient characteristics in each group. The χ2 test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare categorical variables as appropriate. All analyses were performed using SPSS software, version 13.0. P-values <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant.
RT drug resistance mutations were found in 92% and 96% of patients in groups A and B, respectively. Median (interquartile range) CD4+ T–cell count at failure was 181cells/ml (18–999) and time to failure was 40 months (2–100). M184V (80% versus 75%), thymidine analogue mutations (63% versus 74%), Y181C (39% versus 39%) and K103N (29% versus 39%) were predominant RT mutations in both groups. Extensive nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor cross-resistance mutations were observed in 51% and 26%of patients in group B and A, respectively.
Alternative strategies for initial therapy and affordable viral load monitoring could reduce resistance accumulations and preserve available drugs for future options in resource-limited settings.
In the post–highly active combination antiretroviral therapy era, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are facing high rates of so–called non–AIDS–defining cancers. The challenge facing clinicians caring for HIV patients is how best to screen, treat, and prevent these cancers.
Since the advent of HAART, patients with HIV infection have seen a significant improvement in their morbidity, mortality, and life expectancy. The incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses, including AIDS-defining malignancies, has been on the decline. However, deaths due to non–AIDS-defining illnesses have been on the rise. These so-called non–AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) include cancers of the lung, liver, kidney, anus, head and neck, and skin, as well as Hodgkin's lymphoma. It is poorly understood why this higher rate of NADCs is occurring. The key challenge facing oncologists is how to administer chemotherapy effectively and safely to patients on antiretroviral therapy. The challenge to clinicians caring for HIV-infected patients is to develop and implement effective means to screen, treat, and prevent NADCs in the future. This review presents data on the epidemiology and etiology of NADCs, as well as ongoing research into this evolving aspect of the HIV epidemic.
To increase access to HIV-testing the WHO and CDC have recommended implementing provider-initiated HIV-testing (PITC). To address the resource limitations of the PITC setting WHO and CDC suggest that patient-provider interactions during PITC may need to focus on providing information and referrals instead of engaging patients in client-centered counseling as is recommended during client-initiated HIV-testing. Providing HIV-prevention information has been shown to be less effective than client-centered counseling at reducing HIV-risk behavior and STI incidence. Therefore, concerns exist about the efficacy of PITC as an HIV-prevention approach. However, reductions in HIV incidence may be larger if more people know their HIV-status through expanded availability of PITC, even if PITC is less effective than is client-initiated HIV-testing for individual patients. In the absence of an answer to this public health question, adaptation of effective brief client-centered counseling approaches to PITC should be explored along with research assessing the efficacy of PITC.
provider-initiated HIV-testing; client-centered counseling; HIV prevention; developing countries
As HIV prevalence climbs globally, including more than 50,000 new infections per year in the United States, we need effective HIV prevention strategies. The use of antiretrovirals for pre-exposure prophylaxis (known as “PrEP”) among high-risk HIV-uninfected persons is emerging as one such strategy. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that once daily oral PrEP decreased HIV incidence among at-risk MSM and African heterosexuals, including HIV serodiscordant couples. An additional randomized control trial of a pericoital topical application of antiretroviral microbicide gel reduced HIV incidence among at-risk heterosexual South African women. Two other studies in African women did not demonstrate the efficacy of oral or topical PrEP, raising concerns about adherence patterns and efficacy in this population. The FDA Antiretroviral Advisory Panel reviewed these studies and additional data in May 2012 and recommended the approval of oral tenofovir-emtricitabine for PrEP in high-risk populations. Patients may seek PrEP from their primary care providers and those on PrEP require monitoring. Thus, primary care providers should become familiar with PrEP. This review outlines the current state of knowledge about PrEP as it pertains to primary care including identification of individuals likely to benefit from PrEP, counseling to maximize adherence and minimize potential increases in risky behavior, and monitoring for potential drug toxicities, HIV acquisition, and antiretroviral drug resistance. Issues related to cost and insurance coverage are also discussed. Recent data suggest that PrEP, in conjunction with other prevention strategies, holds promise in helping to curtail the HIV epidemic.
To examine the association between early HIV viremia and mortality after HIV-associated lymphoma.
Multicenter observational cohort study.
Center for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems cohort.
HIV-infected patients with lymphoma diagnosed between 1996 and 2011, who were alive 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis and with ≥2 HIV RNA values during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis.
Cumulative HIV viremia during the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, expressed as viremia copy-6-months.
Main outcome measure
All-cause mortality between 6 months and 5 years after lymphoma diagnosis.
Of 224 included patients, 183 (82%) had non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and 41 (18%) had Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). At lymphoma diagnosis, 105 (47%) patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), median CD4 count was 148 cells/µlL (IQR 54– 322), and 33% had suppressed HIV RNA (<400 copies/mL). In adjusted analyses, mortality was associated with older age [adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.37 per decade increase, 95% CI 1.03–1.83], lymphoma occurrence on ART (AHR 1.63, 95% CI 1.02– 2.63), lower CD4 count (AHR 0.75 per 100 cell/µL increase, 95% CI 0.64–0.89), and higher early cumulative viremia (AHR 1.35 per log10copies × 6-months/mL, 95% CI 1.11–1.65). The detrimental effect of early cumulative viremia was consistent across patient groups defined by ART status, CD4 count, and histology.
Exposure to each additional 1-unit log10 in HIV RNA throughout the 6 months after lymphoma diagnosis, was associated with a 35% increase in subsequent mortality. These results suggest that early and effective ART during chemotherapy may improve survival.
AIDS; Burkitt lymphoma; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; HIV; Hodgkin lymphoma; lymphoma; non-Hodgkin lymphoma
Anal cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected male patients. Currently, there is no consensus on post-treatment surveillance of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) who have been treated for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the likely precursor to anal cancer.
To assess the cost-effectiveness of a range of strategies for anal cancer surveillance in HIV-infected MSM previously treated for HGAIN.
We developed a Markov model to project quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE), lifetime costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of five strategies using high resolution anoscopy (HRA) and/or anal cytology testing after treatment.
Performing HRA alone at 6- and 12-month visits was associated with a cost-effectiveness ratio of $4,446 per QALY gained. In comparison, combined HRA and anal cytology at both visits provided the greater health benefit at a cost of $ 17,373 per QALY gained. Our results were robust over a number of scenarios and assumptions, including patients’ level of immunosuppression. Results were most sensitive to test characteristics and cost, and progression rates of normal to HGAIN and HGAIN to cancer.
Our results suggest that combined HRA and anal cytology at 6 and 12 months may be a cost-effective surveillance strategy following treatment of HGAIN in HIV-infected MSM.
HIV/AIDS; HPV; men who have sex with men; treatment; cost-effectiveness; anal cancer
A study of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. found that 13% had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later.
To better understand the factors associated with HIV and STD transmitting behavior among HIV-infected persons, we estimated STD prevalence and incidence and associated risk factors among a diverse sample of HIV-infected patients in primary care.
We analyzed data from 557 participants in the SUN study, a prospective observational cohort of HIV-infected persons in primary care in four U.S. cities. At enrollment and six months thereafter, participants completed an audio computer-assisted self interview about their sexual behavior, and were screened for genitourinary, rectal and pharyngeal N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis infections by nucleic acid amplification testing, and for serologic evidence of syphilis. Women provided cervicovaginal samples and men provided urine to screen for T. vaginalis by polymerase chain reaction.
Thirteen percent of participants had a prevalent STD at enrollment and 7% an incident STD six months later. The most commonly diagnosed infections were rectal chlamydia, oropharyngeal gonorrhea, and chlamydial urethritis among the men, and trichomoniasis among the women. Other than trichomoniasis, 94% of incident STDs were identified in MSM. Polysubstance abuse other than marijuana, and having ≥ 4 sex partners in the six months prior to testing were associated with diagnosis of an incident STD.
STDs were commonly diagnosed among contemporary HIV-infected patients receiving routine outpatient care, particularly among sexually active MSM who used recreational drugs. These findings underscore the need for frequent STD screening, prevention counseling, and substance abuse treatment for HIV-infected persons in care.
HIV infection; sexual risk; sexually transmitted infections
The AIDS epidemic has been fueled by global inequities. Ranging from gender inequality and underdevelopment to homophobia impeding health care access for men who have sex with men (MSM), imbalanced resource allocations and social biases have potentiated the epidemic’s spread. However, recognition of culturally specific aspects of each microepidemic has yielded development of community-based organizations, which have resulted in locally effective responses to AIDS. This effective approach to HIV prevention, care and treatment is illustrated through examples of community-based responses in Haiti, the United States, Africa, and other impoverished settings.
Disparities; Inequity; Health Care Access; Homophobia; Gender Inequality
The Step Study found that men who had sex with men (MSM) who received an adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vector-based vaccine and were uncircumcised or had prior Ad5 immunity had a higher HIV incidence than MSM who received placebo. We investigated whether differences in HIV exposure, measured by reported sexual risk behaviors, may explain the increased risk.
Among 1,764 MSM in the trial, 724 were uncircumcised, 994 had prior Ad5 immunity and 560 were both uncircumcised and had prior Ad5 immunity. Analyses compared sexual risk behaviors and perceived treatment assignment among vaccine and placebo recipients, determined risk factors for HIV acquisition and examined the role of insertive anal intercourse in HIV risk among uncircumcised men.
Few sexual risk behaviors were significantly higher in vaccine vs. placebo recipients at baseline or during follow-up. Among uncircumcised men, vaccine recipients at baseline were more likely to report unprotected insertive anal intercourse with HIV negative partners (25.0% vs. 18.1%; p=0.03). Among uncircumcised men who had prior Ad5 immunity, vaccine recipients were more likely to report unprotected insertive anal intercourse with partners of unknown HIV status (46.0% vs. 37.5%; p=0.05). Vaccine recipients remained at higher risk of HIV infection compared to placebo recipients (HR =2.8; 95% CI:1.7, 6.8) controlling for potential confounders.
These analyses do not support a behavioral explanation for the increased HIV infection rates observed among uncircumcised men in the Step Study. Identifying biologic mechanisms to explain the increased risk is a priority.
This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00095576.
HIV vaccines; gay men; sexual behaviors
An emerging HIV epidemic can be seen among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam, with prevalence as high as 18%. Transactional sex represents a risk factor for HIV transmission/acquisition among MSM globally, particularly in urban contexts, but remains largely underinvestigated in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. In 2010, 23 MSM who reported exchanging sex for money in the last month completed a brief survey and semistructured qualitative interview at The Life Centre, a non-governmental organization in HCMC, to assess sociodemographics, individual- and structural-level HIV risk factors and explore acceptable future prevention interventions. Participants’ mean age was 24 years. Equal proportions of respondents self-identified as heterosexual/straight, homosexual/gay, and bisexual. Participants had a mean of 158 male clients in the past year, with a median of 60 male clients in the past year (interquartile range [IQR]=70) and reported inconsistent condom use and inaccurate perceptions of HIV risk. Nearly half of the sample reported engaging in unprotected anal sex with a male partner in the past 12 months and one-third with a male client. Major themes that emerged for HIV prevention interventions with male sex workers were those that: (1) focused on individual factors (drug and alcohol use, barriers to condom use, knowledge of asymptomatic STIs, enhancement of behavioral risk-reduction skills, and addressing concomitant mental health issues); (2) incorporated interpersonal and relational contexts (led by peer educators, built interpersonal skills, attended to partner type and intimacy dynamics); and (3) considered the exogenous environments in which individual choices/relationships operate (stigma of being MSM in Vietnam, availability of alternative economic opportunities, and varied sexual venues). HIV prevention efforts are needed that address the specific needs of MSM who engage in transactional sex in HCMC. Universally, MSM endorsed HIV prevention interventions, suggesting a need and desire for efforts in this context.
HIV; Vietnam; prevention; male sex workers; transactional sex
Black men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States (US) are affected by HIV at disproportionate rates compared to MSM of other race/ethnicities. Current HIV incidence estimates in this group are needed to appropriately target prevention efforts.
From July 2009 to October 2010, Black MSM reporting unprotected anal intercourse with a man in the past six months were enrolled and followed for one year in six US cities for a feasibility study of a multi-component intervention to reduce HIV infection. HIV incidence based on HIV seroconversion was calculated as number of events/100 person-years. Multivariate proportional hazards modeling with time-dependent covariates was used to identify correlates of HIV acquisition.
Of 1,553 Black MSM enrolled, 1,164 were HIV-uninfected at baseline and included in follow-up. Overall annual HIV incidence was 3.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0, 4.4%) and 5.9% among men ≤30 years old (95% CI: 3.6, 9.1%). Men ≤30 years old reported significantly higher levels of sexual risk and were more likely to have a sexually transmitted infection diagnosed during follow-up. Younger men also were more likely to not have a usual place for health care, not have visited a health care provider recently, and to have unmet health care needs. In multivariate analysis, age ≤30 years (hazard ratio (HR): 3.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 8.3) and unprotected receptive anal intercourse with HIV-positive or unknown status partners (HR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.9, 9.1) were significantly associated with HIV acquisition.
In the largest cohort of prospectively-followed Black MSM in the US, HIV incidence was high, particularly among young men. Targeted, tailored and culturally appropriate HIV prevention strategies incorporating behavioral, social and biomedical based interventions are urgently needed to lower these rates.
Drug concentrations associated with protection from HIV-1 acquisition have not been determined. This study evaluated drug concentrations among men who have sex with men in a substudy of the iPrEx trial,(1) a randomized placebo controlled trial of daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Any detectable drug in blood plasma and viably cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (vPBMCs) was less frequent in HIV-infected cases at the visit when HIV was first discovered compared with controls at the matched time point of the study (8% vs 44%, P<0.001) and in the 90 days prior to that visit (11% vs 51%, P<0.001). An intracellular tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP) concentration of 16 fmol per million vPBMCs was associated with a 90% reduction in HIV acquisition relative to the placebo arm. Directly observed dosing in a separate study, STRAND, yielded TFV-DP concentrations that, when analyzed with this iPrEx model, corresponded with HIV-1 risk reduction of 76% for 2 doses per week, 96% for 4 doses per week, 99% for 7 doses per week. Prophylactic benefits were observed over a range of doses and drug concentrations, suggesting ways to optimize PrEP regimens for this population.
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has become a major threat to the survival of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons in areas where antiretroviral therapy is available. In coinfection, viral eradication has been difficult to attain, and HCV therapy is underused. Novel therapies may be particularly beneficial for this population, yet studies lag behind those for HCV monoinfection. Increasingly, incident HCV among HIV-infected men who have sex with men is associated with sexual risk behavior further research should be performed to refine understanding of the causal mechanism of this association. The phenomenon of aggressive hepatic fibrogenesis when HIV infection precedes HCV acquisition requires longer-term observation to ensure optimal timing of HCV therapy. Medical management in coinfection will be improved by enhancing HCV detection, with annual serologic testing, screening with HCV RNA to detect acute infection, and HIV testing of HCV-infected individuals; by addressing HCV earlier in coinfected persons; and by universal consideration for HCV therapy. HCV drug trials in individuals coinfected with HIV should be expedited. HIV/HCV coinfection remains a growing and evolving epidemic; new developments in therapeutics and improved care models offer promise.
Despite several decades of clinical trials assessing the impact of etiological treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) to decrease HIV acquisition and transmission, almost all of these trials have not proven to be efficacious. Increasing evidence suggests that specific STD treatment alone may not be sufficient to alter the genital tract inflammatory milieu that is created by STDs. This paper examines the associations between STDs and HIV susceptibility and infectiousness, and considers the role of chronic and refractory inflammation to create an environment that potentiates HIV and STD transmission and acquisition by reviewing biological, observational, and clinical trial data.
Potential items to be included in an HIV Treatment Optimism scale were reviewed by 17 HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (GBM), resulting in a 21-item test instrument. After pilot testing, data were collected from a multi-city sample of high-risk HIV-positive GBM (n = 346), who were currently on treatment and were recruited to attend a two-day sexual health seminar. The scale items were analyzed utilizing Principal Components Analysis and reliability testing. The factor analysis resulted in the development of three separate scales. The Susceptibility scale contained 10 items associated with a belief that HIV is less transmissible while on HIV treatment. The Condom Motivation scale contained five items addressing a decreased motivation to use condoms while on treatment and the Severity scale contained four items associated with a decreased sense of the severity of an HIV diagnosis. Reliability coefficients (α ) and mean inter-item correlations (M) for the three scales were acceptable (Susceptibility, α = 0.86, M = 0.39; Condom Motivation, α = 0.84, M = 0.50; Severity, α = 0.71, M = 0.37). Combined as one scale, the reliability coefficient was respectable (α = 0.76), but the mean inter-item correlation was 0.14. Based on this analysis, use of a single measure was not supported and three separate scales were developed. The scales were equivalent across racial groups except White men were more like to report a decreased motivation to use condoms compared to Black or Latino men. Three separate scales addressing beliefs about the transmissibility of HIV while on treatment (Susceptibility), the quality of life while on HIV treatment (Severity) and the motivation to use condoms consistently while on treatment (Condom Motivation) may be better markers for assessing optimistic beliefs about HIV treatment among HIV-positive GBM.
HIV optimism; gay men; HIV; scale development
The Center for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 and Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Initiative (iPrEx) studies demonstrated that topical or oral chemoprophylaxis could decrease HIV transmission. Yet to have an appreciable public health impact, physicians will need to be educated about these new HIV prevention modalities. Massachusetts physicians were recruited via e-mail to complete an online survey of their knowledge and use of HIV prevention interventions. Data were collected before (July–December, 2010) (n=178) and after (December, 2010–April, 2011) (n=115) the release of iPrEx data. Over the two time intervals, knowledge of oral PrEP significantly increased (79% to 92%, p<0.01), whereas knowledge about topical microbicides was already high (89% pre-iPrEx). Post-iPrEx, specialists were more knowledgeable about oral PrEP (p<0.01) and topical microbicides (p<0.001) than generalists. The majority of the respondents would prefer to prescribe topical microbicides (75%) than oral PrEP (25%; p<0.001), primarily because they perceived fewer side effects (95%). Respondents indicated that PrEP should be available if it were a highly effective, daily pill; however, ongoing concerns included: potential drug resistance (93%), decreased funds for other forms of HIV prevention (88%), medication side effects (83%), and limited data regarding PrEP's clinical efficacy (75%). Participants indicated that formal CDC guidelines would have the greatest impact on their willingness to prescribe PrEP (96%). Among Massachusetts physicians sampled, chemoprophylaxis knowledge was high, but current experience was limited. Although topical gel was preferred, responses suggest a willingness to adapt practices pending additional efficacy data and further guidance from normative bodies. Educational programs aimed at incorporating antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis into physicians' HIV prevention practices are warranted.
Growing data suggest that antiretrovirals can be used as an effective means of HIV prevention. This paper reviews the current status and future clinical prospects of utilizing antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis before and after high-risk HIV exposure to prevent HIV transmission. The discussion about using antiretrovirals as a means of primary HIV prevention has moved to the forefront of public health discourse because of a growing evidence base, the increased tolerability of the medications, the decreased cost, the ever expanding formulary, and the limitations of other approaches.
HIV; AIDS; primary prevention; ART; preexposure prophylaxis; postexposure prophylaxis; topical microbicides
HIV; AIDS; HAART; treatment; prevention
The present study sought to identify characteristics of HIV-infected MSM that are associated with the use of specific substances and substance abuse in general. Participants were 503 HIV-infected MSM who were receiving primary care. A self-assessment and medical records were used to obtain information about past 3-month alcohol and drug use and abuse, and demographics, HIV-disease stage and treatment, sexual risk, and mental health. Associations of these four domains with substance use and abuse outcomes were examined using hierarchical block-stepwise multivariable logistic regression. Substance use and abuse in the sample was high. Transmission risk behavior was significantly associated with over half of the outcomes. The associations of demographic and HIV-disease stage and treatment variables varied by substance, and mental health problems contributed differentially to almost every outcome. These findings should be considered for designing, implementing, and evaluating substance use programming for HIV-infected MSM.
HIV/AIDS; Men who have sex with men; Alcohol; Drugs; HIV clinic