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1.  Non-lobar atelectasis generates inflammation and structural alveolar injury in the surrounding healthy tissue during mechanical ventilation 
Critical Care  2014;18(5):505.
Introduction
When alveoli collapse the traction forces exerted on their walls by adjacent expanded units may increase and concentrate. These forces may promote its re-expansion at the expense of potentially injurious stresses at the interface between the collapsed and the expanded units. We developed an experimental model to test the hypothesis that a local non-lobar atelectasis can act as a stress concentrator, contributing to inflammation and structural alveolar injury in the surrounding healthy lung tissue during mechanical ventilation.
Methods
A total of 35 rats were anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated. Atelectasis was induced by bronchial blocking: after five minutes of stabilization and pre-oxygenation with FIO2 = 1.0, a silicon cylinder blocker was wedged in the terminal bronchial tree. Afterwards, the animals were randomized between two groups: 1) Tidal volume (VT) = 10 ml/kg and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) = 3 cmH2O (VT10/PEEP3); and 2) VT = 20 ml/kg and PEEP = 0 cmH2O (VT20/zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP)). The animals were then ventilated during 180 minutes. Three series of experiments were performed: histological (n = 12); tissue cytokines (n = 12); and micro-computed tomography (microCT; n = 2). An additional six, non-ventilated, healthy animals were used as controls.
Results
Atelectasis was successfully induced in the basal region of the lung of 26 out of 29 animals. The microCT of two animals revealed that the volume of the atelectasis was 0.12 and 0.21 cm3. There were more alveolar disruption and neutrophilic infiltration in the peri-atelectasis region than the corresponding contralateral lung (control) in both groups. Edema was higher in the peri-atelectasis region than the corresponding contralateral lung (control) in the VT20/ZEEP than VT10/PEEP3 group. The volume-to-surface ratio was higher in the peri-atelectasis region than the corresponding contralateral lung (control) in both groups. We did not find statistical difference in tissue interleukin-1β and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 between regions.
Conclusions
The present findings suggest that a local non-lobar atelectasis acts as a stress concentrator, generating structural alveolar injury and inflammation in the surrounding lung tissue.
doi:10.1186/s13054-014-0505-1
PMCID: PMC4172813  PMID: 25200702
2.  A ventilation strategy during general anaesthesia to reduce postoperative atelectasis 
Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences  2014;119(3):242-250.
Background
Atelectasis is common during and after general anaesthesia. We hypothesized that a ventilation strategy, without recruitment manoeuvres, using a combination of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) or positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and a reduced end-expiratory oxygen fraction (FETO2) before ending mask ventilation with CPAP after extubation would reduce the area of postoperative atelectasis.
Methods
Thirty patients were randomized into three groups. During induction and emergence, inspiratory oxygen fractions (FIO2) were 1.0 in the control group and 1.0 or 0.8 in the intervention groups. No CPAP/PEEP was used in the control group, whereas CPAP/PEEP of 6 cmH2O was used in the intervention groups. After extubation, FIO2 was set to 0.30 in the intervention groups and CPAP was applied, aiming at FETO2 < 0.30. Atelectasis was studied by computed tomography 25 min postoperatively.
Results
The median area of atelectasis was 5.2 cm2 (range 1.6–12.2 cm2) and 8.5 cm2 (3–23.1 cm2) in the groups given FIO2 1.0 with or without CPAP/PEEP, respectively. After correction for body mass index the difference between medians (2.9 cm2) was statistically significant (confidence interval 0.2–7.6 cm2, p = 0.04). In the group given FIO2 0.8, in which seven patients were ex- or current smokers, the median area of atelectasis was 8.2 cm2 (1.8–14.7 cm2).
Conclusion
Compared with conventional ventilation, after correction for obesity, this ventilation strategy reduced the area of postoperative atelectasis in one of the intervention groups but not in the other group, which included a higher proportion of smokers.
doi:10.3109/03009734.2014.909546
PMCID: PMC4116764  PMID: 24758245
Atelectasis; CPAP; general anaesthesia; oxygen fraction; PEEP; ventilation strategy
3.  Comprehensive multiplexed protein quantitation delineates eosinophilic and neutrophilic experimental asthma 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2014;14:110.
Background
Improvements in asthma diagnosis and management require deeper understanding of the heterogeneity of the complex airway inflammation. We hypothesise that differences in the two major inflammatory phenotypes of asthma; eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma, will be reflected in the lung protein expression profile of murine asthma models and can be delineated using proteomics of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).
Methods
BAL from mice challenged with ovalbumin (OVA/OVA) alone (standard model of asthma, here considered eosinophilic) or OVA in combination with endotoxin (OVA/LPS, model of neutrophilic asthma) was analysed using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry, and compared with steroid-treated animals and healthy controls. In addition, conventional inflammatory markers were analysed using multiplexed ELISA (Bio-Plex™ assay). Multivariate statistics was performed on integrative proteomic fingerprints using principal component analysis. Proteomic data were complemented with lung mechanics and BAL cell counts.
Results
Several of the analysed proteins displayed significant differences between the controls and either or both of the two models reflecting eosinophilic and neutrophilic asthma. Most of the proteins found with mass spectrometry analysis displayed a considerable increase in neutrophilic asthma compared with the other groups. Conversely, the larger number of the inflammatory markers analysed with Bio-Plex™ analysis were found to be increased in the eosinophilic model. In addition, major inflammation markers were correlated to peripheral airway closure, while commonly used asthma biomarkers only reflect central inflammation.
Conclusion
Our data suggest that the commercial markers we are currently relying on to diagnose asthma subtypes are not giving us comprehensive or specific enough information. The analysed protein profiles allowed to discriminate the two models and may add useful information for characterization of different asthma phenotypes.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-14-110
PMCID: PMC4137270  PMID: 24993465
Asthma; Bronchoalveolar lavage; Endotoxin; Inflammation; Ovalbumin; Proteomics; Mass spectrometry
4.  Organ Dysfunction among Piglets Treated with Inhaled Nitric Oxide and Intravenous Hydrocortisone during Prolonged Endotoxin Infusion 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(5):e96594.
Objective
It has previously been shown that a combination of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and intravenous (IV) steroid attenuates endotoxin-induced organ damage in a 6-hour porcine endotoxemia model. We aimed to further explore these effects in a 30-hour model with attention to clinically important variables.
Design
Randomized controlled trial.
Setting
University animal laboratory.
Subjects
Domestic piglets (n = 30).
Interventions
Animals were randomized into 5 groups (n = 6 each): 1) Controls, 2) LPS-only (endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion), 3) LPS + iNO, 4) LPS + IV steroid, 5) LPS + iNO + IV steroid.
Measurements and Main Results
Exposure to LPS temporarily increased pulmonary artery mean pressure and impeded renal function with elevated serum creatinine and acidosis compared to a control group over the 30-hour study period. Double treatment with both iNO and IV steroid tended to blunt the deterioration in renal function, although the only significant effect was on Base Excess (p = 0.045). None of the LPS + iNO + IV steroid treated animals died during the study period, whereas one animal died in each of the other LPS-infused groups.
Conclusions
This study suggests that combined early therapy with iNO and IV steroid is associated with partial protection of kidney function after 30 hours of experimental LPS infusion.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0096594
PMCID: PMC4020811  PMID: 24827456
5.  Right main bronchus perforation detected by 3D-image 
BMJ Case Reports  2011;2011:bcr1220103639.
A male metal worker, who has never smoked, contracted debilitating dyspnoea in 2003 which then deteriorated until 2007. Spirometry and chest x-rays provided no diagnosis. A 3D-image of the airways was reconstructed from a high-resolution CT (HRCT) in 2007, showing peribronchial air on the right side, mostly along the presegmental airways. After digital subtraction of the image of the peribronchial air, a hole on the cranial side of the right main bronchus was detected. The perforation could be identified at the re-examination of HRCTs in 2007 and 2009, but not in 2010 when it had possibly healed. The occupational exposure of the patient to evaporating chemicals might have contributed to the perforation and hampered its healing. A 3D HRCT reconstruction should be considered to detect bronchial anomalies, including wall-perforation, when unexplained dyspnoea or other chest symptoms call for extended investigation.
doi:10.1136/bcr.12.2010.3639
PMCID: PMC3176394  PMID: 22679238
6.  Mechanical ventilation worsens abdominal edema and inflammation in porcine endotoxemia 
Critical Care  2013;17(3):R126.
Introduction
We hypothesized that mechanical ventilation per se increases abdominal edema and inflammation in sepsis and tested this in experimental endotoxemia.
Methods
Thirty anesthetized piglets were allocated to one of five groups: healthy control pigs breathing spontaneously with continuous positive pressure of 5 cm H2O or mechanically ventilated with positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O, and endotoxemic piglets during mechanical ventilation for 2.5 hours and then continued on mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure of either 5 or 15 cm H2O or switched to spontaneous breathing with continuous positive pressure of 5 cm H2O for another 2.5 hours. Abdominal edema formation was estimated by isotope technique, and inflammatory markers were measured in liver, intestine, lung, and plasma.
Results
Healthy controls: 5 hours of spontaneous breathing did not increase abdominal fluid, whereas mechanical ventilation did (Normalized Index increased from 1.0 to 1.6; 1 to 3.3 (median and range, P < 0.05)). Endotoxemic animals: Normalized Index increased almost sixfold after 5 hours of mechanical ventilation (5.9; 4.9 to 6.9; P < 0.05) with twofold increase from 2.5 to 5 hours whether positive end-expiratory pressure was 5 or 15, but only by 40% with spontaneous breathing (P < 0.05 versus positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 or 15 cm H2O). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in intestine and liver were 2 to 3 times higher with mechanical ventilation than during spontaneous breathing (P < 0.05) but similar in plasma and lung. Abdominal edema formation and TNF-α in intestine correlated inversely with abdominal perfusion pressure.
Conclusions
Mechanical ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure increases abdominal edema and inflammation in intestine and liver in experimental endotoxemia by increasing systemic capillary leakage and impeding abdominal lymph drainage.
doi:10.1186/cc12801
PMCID: PMC4056092  PMID: 23799965
7.  Rationale and study design of PROVHILO - a worldwide multicenter randomized controlled trial on protective ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery 
Trials  2011;12:111.
Background
Post-operative pulmonary complications add to the morbidity and mortality of surgical patients, in particular after general anesthesia >2 hours for abdominal surgery. Whether a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with higher levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and repeated recruitment maneuvers; the "open lung strategy", protects against post-operative pulmonary complications is uncertain. The present study aims at comparing a protective mechanical ventilation strategy with a conventional mechanical ventilation strategy during general anesthesia for abdominal non-laparoscopic surgery.
Methods
The PROtective Ventilation using HIgh versus LOw positive end-expiratory pressure ("PROVHILO") trial is a worldwide investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled two-arm study. Nine hundred patients scheduled for non-laparoscopic abdominal surgery at high or intermediate risk for post-operative pulmonary complications are randomized to mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at 12 cmH2O with recruitment maneuvers (the lung-protective strategy) or mechanical ventilation with the level of PEEP at maximum 2 cmH2O without recruitment maneuvers (the conventional strategy). The primary endpoint is any post-operative pulmonary complication.
Discussion
The PROVHILO trial is the first randomized controlled trial powered to investigate whether an open lung mechanical ventilation strategy in short-term mechanical ventilation prevents against postoperative pulmonary complications.
Trial registration
ISRCTN: ISRCTN70332574
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-12-111
PMCID: PMC3104489  PMID: 21548927
8.  Positive end-expiratory pressure optimization with forced oscillation technique reduces ventilator induced lung injury: a controlled experimental study in pigs with saline lavage lung injury 
Critical Care  2011;15(3):R126.
Introduction
Protocols using high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in combination with low tidal volumes have been shown to reduce mortality in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the optimal method for setting PEEP is yet to be defined. It has been shown that respiratory system reactance (Xrs), measured by the forced oscillation technique (FOT) at 5 Hz, may be used to identify the minimal PEEP level required to maintain lung recruitment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate if using Xrs for setting PEEP would improve lung mechanics and reduce lung injury compared to an oxygenation-based approach.
Methods
17 pigs, in which acute lung injury (ALI) was induced by saline lavage, were studied. Animals were randomized into two groups: in the first PEEP was titrated according to Xrs (FOT group), in the control group PEEP was set according to the ARDSNet protocol (ARDSNet group). The duration of the trial was 12 hours. In both groups recruitment maneuvers (RM) were performed every 2 hours, increasing PEEP to 20 cmH2O. In the FOT group PEEP was titrated by monitoring Xrs while PEEP was reduced from 20 cmH2O in steps of 2 cmH2O. PEEP was considered optimal at the step before which Xrs started to decrease. Ventilatory parameters, lung mechanics, blood gases and hemodynamic parameters were recorded hourly. Lung injury was evaluated by histopathological analysis.
Results
The PEEP levels set in the FOT group were significantly higher compared to those set in the ARDSNet group during the whole trial. These higher values of PEEP resulted in improved lung mechanics, reduced driving pressure, improved oxygenation, with a trend for higher PaCO2 and lower systemic and pulmonary pressure. After 12 hours of ventilation, histopathological analysis showed a significantly lower score of lung injury in the FOT group compared to the ARDSNet group.
Conclusions
In a lavage model of lung injury a PEEP optimization strategy based on maximizing Xrs attenuated the signs of ventilator induced lung injury. The respiratory system reactance measured by FOT could thus be an important component in a strategy for delivering protective ventilation to patients with ARDS/acute lung injury.
doi:10.1186/cc10236
PMCID: PMC3218989  PMID: 21575220
9.  Effects of inhaled carbon monoxide and glucocorticoids in porcine endotoxin sepsis 
Background: Recent animal studies have demonstrated that pre-treatment with inhaled carbon monoxide (iCO) exert anti-inflammatory effects in various septic models. In all these models, there is no information whether iCO might act therapeutically after the onset of septic damage. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory effects of iCO to treat established injury in a model of porcine endotoxin sepsis. Methods: Five groups of pigs (n=6 in each group), were studied under anesthesia and mechanical ventilation: healthy control group (HC); lipopolysaccharide (LPS) groups, animals received continuous IV infusion of LPS for 6 hours; 2.5 hours after of LPS infusion treated groups received either: 250 ppm of iCO for 3.5 h, (LPS+CO group); 3 mg/Kg hydrocorti-sone bolus [Steroid (ST)], (LPS+ST group); or both steroid and iCO, (LPS+CO+ST group). Measurements of haemodynamics, blood gases, respiratory mechanics and biochemistry of organ function, were made. At the end of the experiment lung tissue was taken for analysis of histology and inflammatory markers: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Results: LPS administration induced a dramatic inflammatory injury in lungs, increased expression of TNF-α, NF-κB, AP-1, down regulation of GR, pulmonary hypertension and severe deterioration of respiratory mechanics, oxygenation and organ function. Treatment with steroids and to greater extent with iCO significantly improved the microscopic appearance of the lung but had no effect on inflammatory markers. iCO significantly decreased pulmonary hypertension induced by LPS, without an obvious protective effect on organ function. Conclusion: Using this porcine sepsis model we find that treatment with iCO after the septic damage decreases pulmonary hypertension and partially protects the lung tissue from the inflammatory destruction induced by LPS but has no beneficial effects on organ function.
PMCID: PMC3048984  PMID: 21394286
Carbon monoxide; steroids; porcine sepsis model; acute lung injury; organ function
10.  Pharyngeal oxygen administration increases the time to serious desaturation at intubation in acute lung injury: an experimental study 
Critical Care  2010;14(3):R93.
Introduction
Endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients is associated with severe life-threatening complications in about 20%, mainly due to hypoxemia. We hypothesized that apneic oxygenation via a pharyngeal catheter during the endotracheal intubation procedure would prevent or increase the time to life-threatening hypoxemia and tested this hypothesis in an acute lung injury animal model.
Methods
Eight anesthetized piglets with collapse-prone lungs induced by lung lavage were ventilated with a fraction of inspired oxygen of 1.0 and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. The shunt fraction was calculated after obtaining arterial and mixed venous blood gases. The trachea was extubated, and in randomized order each animal received either 10 L oxygen per minute or no oxygen via a pharyngeal catheter, and the time to desaturation to pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2) 60% was measured. If SpO2 was maintained at over 60%, the experiment ended when 10 minutes had elapsed.
Results
Without pharyngeal oxygen, the animals desaturated after 103 (88-111) seconds (median and interquartile range), whereas with pharyngeal oxygen five animals had a SpO2 > 60% for the 10-minute experimental period, one animal desaturated after 7 minutes, and two animals desaturated within 90 seconds (P < 0.016, Wilcoxon signed rank test). The time to desaturation was related to shunt fraction (R2 = 0.81, P = 0.002, linear regression); the animals that desaturated within 90 seconds had shunt fractions >40%, whereas the others had shunt fractions <25%.
Conclusions
In this experimental acute lung injury model, pharyngeal oxygen administration markedly prolonged the time to severe desaturation during apnea, suggesting that this technique might be useful when intubating critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure.
doi:10.1186/cc9027
PMCID: PMC2911730  PMID: 20497538
12.  Effect of sedation with detomidine and butorphanol on pulmonary gas exchange in the horse 
Background
Sedation with α2-agonists in the horse is reported to be accompanied by impairment of arterial oxygenation. The present study was undertaken to investigate pulmonary gas exchange using the Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET), during sedation with the α2-agonist detomidine alone and in combination with the opioid butorphanol.
Methods
Seven Standardbred trotter horses aged 3–7 years and weighing 380–520 kg, were studied. The protocol consisted of three consecutive measurements; in the unsedated horse, after intravenous administration of detomidine (0.02 mg/kg) and after subsequent butorphanol administration (0.025 mg/kg). Pulmonary function and haemodynamic effects were investigated. The distribution of ventilation-perfusion ratios (VA/Q) was estimated with MIGET.
Results
During detomidine sedation, arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) decreased (12.8 ± 0.7 to 10.8 ± 1.2 kPa) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) increased (5.9 ± 0.3 to 6.1 ± 0.2 kPa) compared to measurements in the unsedated horse. Mismatch between ventilation and perfusion in the lungs was evident, but no increase in intrapulmonary shunt could be detected. Respiratory rate and minute ventilation did not change. Heart rate and cardiac output decreased, while pulmonary and systemic blood pressure and vascular resistance increased. Addition of butorphanol resulted in a significant decrease in ventilation and increase in PaCO2. Alveolar-arterial oxygen content difference P(A-a)O2 remained impaired after butorphanol administration, the VA/Q distribution improved as the decreased ventilation and persistent low blood flow was well matched. Also after subsequent butorphanol no increase in intrapulmonary shunt was evident.
Conclusion
The results of the present study suggest that both pulmonary and cardiovascular factors contribute to the impaired pulmonary gas exchange during detomidine and butorphanol sedation in the horse.
doi:10.1186/1751-0147-51-22
PMCID: PMC2694811  PMID: 19422714
13.  Cardiorespiratory effects of spontaneous breathing in two different models of experimental lung injury: a randomized controlled trial 
Critical Care  2008;12(6):R135.
Introduction
Acute lung injury (ALI) can result from various insults to the pulmonary tissue. Experimental and clinical data suggest that spontaneous breathing (SB) during pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) in ALI results in better lung aeration and improved oxygenation. Our objective was to evaluate whether the addition of SB has different effects in two different models of ALI.
Methods
Forty-four pigs were randomly assigned to ALI resulting either from hydrochloric acid aspiration (HCl-ALI) or from increased intra-abdominal pressure plus intravenous oleic acid injections (OA-ALI) and were ventilated in PCV mode either with SB (PCV + SB) or without SB (PCV – SB). Cardiorespiratory variables were measured at baseline after induction of ALI and after 4 hours of treatment (PCV + SB or PCV – SB). Finally, density distributions and end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) were assessed by thoracic spiral computed tomography.
Results
PCV + SB improved arterial partial pressure of oxygen/inspiratory fraction of oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) by a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt fraction in HCl-ALI from 27% ± 6% to 23% ± 13% and in OA-ALI from 33% ± 19% to 26% ± 18%, whereas during PCV – SB PaO2/FiO2 deteriorated and shunt fraction increased in the HCl group from 28% ± 8% to 37% ± 17% and in the OA group from 32% ± 12% to 47% ± 17% (P < 0.05 for interaction time and treatment, but not ALI type). PCV + SB also resulted in higher EELV (HCl-ALI: 606 ± 171 mL, OA-ALI: 439 ± 90 mL) as compared with PCV – SB (HCl-ALI: 372 ± 130 mL, OA-ALI: 192 ± 51 mL, with P < 0.05 for interaction of time, treatment, and ALI type).
Conclusions
SB improves oxygenation, reduces shunt fraction, and increases EELV in both models of ALI.
doi:10.1186/cc7108
PMCID: PMC2646345  PMID: 18980696
14.  Association between inflammatory mediators and response to inhaled nitric oxide in a model of endotoxin-induced lung injury 
Critical Care  2008;12(5):R131.
Introduction
Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) allows selective pulmonary vasodilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome and improves PaO2 by redistribution of pulmonary blood flow towards better ventilated parenchyma. One-third of patients are nonresponders to INO, however, and it is difficult to predict who will respond. The aim of the present study was to identify, within a panel of inflammatory mediators released during endotoxin-induced lung injury, specific mediators that are associated with a PaO2 response to INO.
Methods
After animal ethics committee approval, pigs were anesthetized and exposed to 2 hours of endotoxin infusion. Levels of cytokines, prostanoid, leucotriene and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were sampled prior to endotoxin exposure and hourly thereafter. All animals were exposed to 40 ppm INO: 28 animals were exposed at either 4 hours or 6 hours and a subgroup of nine animals was exposed both at 4 hours and 6 hours after onset of endotoxin infusion.
Results
Based on the response to INO, the animals were retrospectively placed into a responder group (increase in PaO2 ≥ 20%) or a nonresponder group. All mediators increased with endotoxin infusion although no significant differences were seen between responders and nonresponders. There was a mean difference in ET-1, however, with lower levels in the nonresponder group than in the responder group, 0.1 pg/ml versus 3.0 pg/ml. Moreover, five animals in the group exposed twice to INO switched from responder to nonresponder and had decreased ET-1 levels (3.0 (2.5 to 7.5) pg/ml versus 0.1 (0.1 to 2.1) pg/ml, P < 0.05). The pulmonary artery pressure and ET-1 level were higher in future responders to INO.
Conclusions
ET-1 may therefore be involved in mediating the response to INO.
doi:10.1186/cc7099
PMCID: PMC2592770  PMID: 18954441
15.  Different effects of deep inspirations on central and peripheral airways in healthy and allergen-challenged mice 
Respiratory Research  2008;9(1):23.
Background
Deep inspirations (DI) have bronchodilatory and bronchoprotective effects in healthy human subjects, but these effects appear to be absent in asthmatic lungs. We have characterized the effects of DI on lung mechanics during mechanical ventilation in healthy mice and in a murine model of acute and chronic airway inflammation.
Methods
Balb/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and exposed to nebulized OVA for 1 week or 12 weeks. Control mice were challenged with PBS. Mice were randomly selected to receive DI, which were given twice during the minute before assessment of lung mechanics.
Results
DI protected against bronchoconstriction of central airways in healthy mice and in mice with acute airway inflammation, but not when OVA-induced chronic inflammation was present. DI reduced lung resistance induced by methacholine from 3.8 ± 0.3 to 2.8 ± 0.1 cmH2O·s·mL-1 in healthy mice and 5.1 ± 0.3 to 3.5 ± 0.3 cmH2O·s·mL-1 in acute airway inflammation (both P < 0.001). In healthy mice, DI reduced the maximum decrease in lung compliance from 15.9 ± 1.5% to 5.6 ± 0.6% (P < 0.0001). This protective effect was even more pronounced in mice with chronic inflammation where DI attenuated maximum decrease in compliance from 44.1 ± 6.6% to 14.3 ± 1.3% (P < 0.001). DI largely prevented increased peripheral tissue damping (G) and tissue elastance (H) in both healthy (G and H both P < 0.0001) and chronic allergen-treated animals (G and H both P < 0.0001).
Conclusion
We have tested a mouse model of potential value for defining mechanisms and sites of action of DI in healthy and asthmatic human subjects. Our current results point to potent protective effects of DI on peripheral parts of chronically inflamed murine lungs and that the presence of DI may blunt airway hyperreactivity.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-9-23
PMCID: PMC2291047  PMID: 18307760
16.  Spontaneous breathing with airway pressure release ventilation favors ventilation in dependent lung regions and counters cyclic alveolar collapse in oleic-acid-induced lung injury: a randomized controlled computed tomography trial 
Critical Care  2005;9(6):R780-R789.
Introduction
Experimental and clinical studies have shown a reduction in intrapulmonary shunt with spontaneous breathing during airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) in acute lung injury. This reduction was related to reduced atelectasis and increased aeration. We hypothesized that spontaneous breathing will result in better ventilation and aeration of dependent lung areas and in less cyclic collapse during the tidal breath.
Methods
In this randomized controlled experimental trial, 22 pigs with oleic-acid-induced lung injury were randomly assigned to receive APRV with or without spontaneous breathing at comparable airway pressures. Four hours after randomization, dynamic computed tomography scans of the lung were obtained in an apical slice and in a juxtadiaphragmatic transverse slice. Analyses of regional attenuation were performed separately in nondependent and dependent halves of the lungs on end-expiratory scans and end-inspiratory scans. Tidal changes were assessed as differences between inspiration and expiration of the mechanical breaths.
Results
Whereas no differences were observed in the apical slices, spontaneous breathing resulted in improved tidal ventilation of dependent lung regions (P < 0.05) and less cyclic collapse (P < 0.05) in the juxtadiaphragmatic slices. In addition, with spontaneous breathing, the end-expiratory aeration increased and nonaerated tissue decreased in dependent lung regions close to the diaphragm (P < 0.05 for the interaction ventilator mode and lung region).
Conclusion
Spontaneous breathing during APRV redistributes ventilation and aeration to dependent, usually well-perfused, lung regions close to the diaphragm, and may thereby contribute to improved arterial oxygenation. Spontaneous breathing also counters cyclic collapse, which is a risk factor for ventilation-associated lung injury.
doi:10.1186/cc3908
PMCID: PMC1414014  PMID: 16356227

Results 1-16 (16)