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1.  High probability of disease in angina pectoris patients: Is clinical estimation reliable? 
BACKGROUND:
According to most current guidelines, stable angina pectoris patients with a high probability of having coronary artery disease can be reliably identified clinically.
OBJECTIVES:
To examine the reliability of clinical evaluation with or without an at-rest electrocardiogram (ECG) in patients with a high probability of coronary artery disease.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A prospective series of 357 patients referred for coronary angiography (CA) for suspected stable angina pectoris were examined by a trained physician who judged their type of pain and Canadian Cardiovascular Society grade of pain. Pretest likelihood of disease was estimated, and all patients underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) followed by CA an average of 78 days later. For analysis, the investigators focused on the approximate groups of patients with more severe disease, ie, typical angina (n=187), Canadian Cardiovascular Society grade 2 pain or higher (n=176) or high (higher than 85%) estimated pretest likelihood of disease (n=142).
RESULTS:
In the three groups, 34% to 39% of male patients and 65% to 69% of female patients had normal MPS, while 37% to 38% and 60% to 71%, respectively, had insignificant findings on CA. Of the patients who had also an abnormal at-rest ECG, 14% to 21% of men and 42% to 57% of women had normal MPS. Sex-related differences were statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS:
Clinical prediction appears to be unreliable. Addition of at-rest ECG data results in some improvement, particularly in male patients, but it makes the high probability groups so small that the addition appears to be of limited clinical relevance.
PMCID: PMC2651943  PMID: 17593989
Angina; Angiography; Coronary artery disease; Diagnosis; Ischemia; Perfusion; Scintigraphy
2.  Clinical impact of FDG-PET/CT on colorectal cancer staging and treatment strategy 
FDG-PET/CT is rarely used for initial staging of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Surgical resection of primary tumor and isolated metastases may result in long-term survival or presumed cure, whereas disseminated disease contraindicates operation. We analyzed a retrospective material to elucidate the potential value of FDG-PET/CT for staging of CRC. Data were retrieved from 67 consecutive patients (24-84 years) with histopathologically proven CRC who had undergone FDG-PET/CT in addition to conventional imaging for initial staging. Treatment plans before and after FDG-PET/CT were compared and patients divided as follows: (A) Patients with a change in therapy following FDG-PET/CT and (B) Patients without a change following FDG-PET/CT. Sixty-two patients had colon and five had rectal cancer. Of these, 20 (30%; CI 20.2-41.7) belonged to group A, whereas 47 (70%; CI 58.3-79.8) fell in group B. In conclusion, FDG-PET/CT changed treatment plan in 30% of cases. In ⅓ of these there was either a change from intended curative to palliative therapy or vice versa, while in the remaining ⅔ the pattern was more mixed. Thus, even in a retrospective routine material there were substantial changes in management strategy following FDG-PET/CT for staging in CRC.
PMCID: PMC4138141  PMID: 25143865
FDG-PET/CT; colorectal cancer; clinical impact; treatment strategy
3.  Amyloid-β Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Probes: A Critical Review 
The rapidly rising prevalence and cost of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in recent decades has made the imaging of amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits the focus of intense research. Several amyloid imaging probes with purported specificity for Aβ plaques are currently at various stages of FDA approval. However, a number of factors appear to preclude these probes from clinical utilization. As the available “amyloid specific” PET imaging probes have failed to demonstrate diagnostic value and have shown limited utility for monitoring therapeutic interventions in humans, a debate on their significance has emerged. The aim of this review is to identify and discuss critically the scientific issues contributing to the extensive inconsistencies reported in the literature on their purported in vivo amyloid specificity and potential utilization in patients.
doi:10.3233/JAD-130485
PMCID: PMC3740015  PMID: 23648516
amyloid imaging; amyloid ‘specific’ imaging probes; Amyvid; PIB; critical review; neuropathologic criteria; silent medial temporal lobe
4.  Plasma osteoprotegerin is related to carotid and peripheral arterial disease, but not to myocardial ischemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus 
Background
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is frequent in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Plasma osteoprotegerin (OPG) has evolved as a biomarker for CVD. We examined the relationship between plasma OPG levels and different CVD manifestations in type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Type 2 diabetes patients without known CVD referred consecutively to a diabetes clinic for the first time (n = 305, aged: 58.6 ± 11.3 years, diabetes duration: 4.5 ± 5.3 years) were screened for carotid arterial disease, peripheral arterial disease, and myocardial ischemia by means of carotid artery ultrasonography, peripheral ankle and toe systolic blood pressure measurements, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). In addition, plasma OPG concentrations and other CVD-related markers were measured.
Results
The prevalence of carotid arterial disease, peripheral arterial disease, and myocardial ischemia was 42%, 15%, and 30%, respectively. Plasma OPG was significantly increased in patients with carotid and peripheral arterial disease compared to patients without (p < 0.001, respectively), however, this was not the case for patients with myocardial ischemia versus those without (p = 0.71). When adjusted for age, HbA1c and U-albumin creatinine ratio in a multivariate logistic regression analysis, plasma OPG remained strongly associated with carotid arterial disease (adjusted OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.22-3.67; p = 0.008), but not with peripheral arterial disease or myocardial ischemia.
Conclusions
Increased plasma OPG concentration is associated with carotid and peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, whereas no relation is observed with respect to myocardial ischemia on MPS. The reason for this discrepancy is unknown.
Trial registration number
at http://www.clinicaltrial.gov: NCT00298844
doi:10.1186/1475-2840-10-76
PMCID: PMC3163516  PMID: 21838881

Results 1-5 (5)