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1.  A novel non-Hodgkin lymphoma murine model closer to the standard clinical scenario 
Background
Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are the most frequent hemato-oncological malignancies. Despite recent major advances in treatment, a substantial proportion of patients relapses highlighting the need for new therapeutic modalities. Promissory results obtained in pre-clinical studies are usually not translated when moving into clinical trials. Pre-clinical studies are mainly conducted in animals with high tumor burden; instead patients undergo chemotherapy as first line of treatment and most likely are under remission when immunotherapies are applied. Thus, an animal model that more closely resembles patients’ conditions would be a valuable tool.
Methods
BALB/c mice were injected subcutaneously with A20 lymphoma cells and after tumor development different doses of chemotherapy were assessed to find optimal conditions for minimal residual disease (MRD) establishment. Tumor growth and survival, as well as drugs side effects, were all evaluated. Complete lymphoma remission was monitored in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET), and the results were correlated with histology. Immunological status was assessed by splenocytes proliferation assays in NHL-complete remission mice and by analyzing tumor cell infiltrates and chemokines/cytokines gene expression in the tumor microenvironment of animals with residual lymphoma.
Results
Two cycles of CHOP chemotherapy at days 25 and 35 post-tumor implantation induced complete remission for around 20 days. PET showed to be a suitable follow-up technique for MRD condition with 85.7 and 75% of sensibility and specificity respectively. Proliferative responses upon mitogen stimulation were similar in animals that received chemotherapy and wild type mice. Tumors from animals with residual lymphoma showed higher numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ and similar numbers of NK, neutrophils and Tregs infiltrating cells as compared with non-treated animals. Gene expression of several cytokines as well as an array of chemokines associated with migration of activated T cells to tumor sites was upregulated in the tumor microenvironment of animals that received chemotherapy treatment.
Conclusions
We established a NHL-B pre-clinical model using standard chemotherapy to achieve MRD in immunocompetent animals. The MRD condition is maintained for approximately 20 days providing a therapeutic window of time where new immunotherapies can be tested in conditions closer to the clinics.
doi:10.1186/s12967-016-1073-8
PMCID: PMC5118904  PMID: 27876058
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); Immunotherapy; Chemotherapy; CHOP; Clinical; Positron emission tomography (PET); Minimal residual disease (MRD)
2.  Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow 
PLoS ONE  2016;11(9):e0161563.
Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0161563
PMCID: PMC5033598  PMID: 27658244
3.  PET-Scan Shows Peripherally Increased Neurokinin 1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow: Visualizing Neurogenic Inflammation? 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(10):e75859.
In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1 specific radioligand [11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0075859
PMCID: PMC3796513  PMID: 24155873
4.  18F-FDG PET-CT for Staging of Conjunctival Melanoma 
The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT) for the evaluation of cutaneous melanoma has been demonstrated previously. However, there are few reports regarding the use PET-CT for the staging of conjunctival melanoma (CM). We report here a case, a 34-year-old male with a six-month history of a pigmented nodule at the palpebral conjunctiva of the left eye, and a firm left preauricular lymph node detected on physical examination. Biopsy of the ocular lesion confirmed CM, and fine needle aspiration cytology of the preauricular node was positive for malignancy. CT showed three pulmonary nodules. An 18F-FDG PET-CT was performed to restage the patient. The study showed hypermetabolic lesions in the left eye, and in the left preauricular node. The scan was negative for metastasis. These findings were important in guiding management of the disease in this patient. Future prospective studies should further evaluate the role of 18F-FDG PET-CT for the staging of CM.
doi:10.4103/1450-1147.113965
PMCID: PMC3745635  PMID: 23961257
Conjunctival melanoma; F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography; positron emission tomography
5.  Imaging astrocytosis with PET in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: case report with histopathological findings 
In a previous study, patients with suspect Creutzfeldt-Jakob’s disease (CJD) have been examined with Positron Emission Tomography (PET) combining N-[11C-methyl]-L-deuterodeprenyl (DED) and [18F] 2- fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in an attempt to detect astrocytosis and neuronal dysfunction, two of the hallmarks in CJD. Increased DED uptake with pronounced hypometabolism matching the areas with high DED retention was found in the fronto-parieto-occipital areas and cerebellum of patients with confirmed CJD. However, the temporal lobes did not present such a pattern. In 6 of the 15 examined patients the autopsy was performed, but a strict comparison between the PET results and the histopathology could not be done. Recently, one patient with suspect CJD was examined with PET using DED and FDG. The results of the examinations in this patient showed a pattern similar to that found in the brain of the CJD patients from the first study. The patient died shortly after the examination and an autopsy could be performed. The autopsy showed neuronal death, astrocytosis and spongiform changes in the brain. The diagnosis of definite sporadic CJD was established by the Western blot analysis, confirming the presence of the prion resistant protein (PrPres). The PET data demonstrated high DED uptake and extreme low glucose uptake in the left brain hemisphere whereas the right side was less affected. The autopsy was performed allowing the comparison between high DED uptake and the histopathological findings of reactive astrocytosis revealed by immunostaining with antibodies against glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). The results confirmed the presence of a pattern with high ratio DED/FDG, similar to that found in the previous study and revealing for the first time, a good correlation between high DED uptake and high density of reactive astrocytes as demonstrated by immunostaining.
PMCID: PMC3342710  PMID: 22567182
Astrocytosis; PET; CJD; histopathology
6.  Elevated [11C]-D-Deprenyl Uptake in Chronic Whiplash Associated Disorder Suggests Persistent Musculoskeletal Inflammation 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(4):e19182.
There are few diagnostic tools for chronic musculoskeletal pain as structural imaging methods seldom reveal pathological alterations. This is especially true for Whiplash Associated Disorder, for which physical signs of persistent injuries to the neck have yet to be established. Here, we sought to visualize inflammatory processes in the neck region by means Positron Emission Tomography using the tracer 11C-D-deprenyl, a potential marker for inflammation. Twenty-two patients with enduring pain after a rear impact car accident (Whiplash Associated Disorder grade II) and 14 healthy controls were investigated. Patients displayed significantly elevated tracer uptake in the neck, particularly in regions around the spineous process of the second cervical vertebra. This suggests that whiplash patients have signs of local persistent peripheral tissue inflammation, which may potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker. The present investigation demonstrates that painful processes in the periphery can be objectively visualized and quantified with PET and that 11C-D-deprenyl is a promising tracer for these purposes.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019182
PMCID: PMC3079741  PMID: 21541010
8.  Masked-Volume-Wise PCA and "reference Logan" illustrate similar regional differences in kinetic behavior in human brain PET study using [11C]-PIB 
BMC Neurology  2009;9:2.
Background
Kinetic modeling using reference Logan is commonly used to analyze data obtained from dynamic Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and healthy volunteers (HVs) using amyloid imaging agent N-methyl [11C]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxy-benzothiazole, [11C]-PIB. The aim of the present study was to explore whether results obtained using the newly introduced method, Masked Volume Wise Principal Component Analysis, MVW-PCA, were similar to the results obtained using reference Logan.
Methods
MVW-PCA and reference Logan were performed on dynamic PET images obtained from four Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on two occasions (baseline and follow-up) and on four healthy volunteers (HVs). Regions of interest (ROIs) of similar sizes were positioned in different parts of the brain in both AD patients and HVs where the difference between AD patients and HVs is largest. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and discrimination power (DP) were calculated for images generated by the different methods and the results were compared both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Results
MVW-PCA generated images that illustrated similar regional binding patterns compared to reference Logan images and with slightly higher quality, enhanced contrast, improved SNR and DP, without being based on modeling assumptions. MVW-PCA also generated additional MVW-PC images by using the whole dataset, which illustrated regions with different and uncorrelated kinetic behaviors of the administered tracer. This additional information might improve the understanding of kinetic behavior of the administered tracer.
Conclusion
MVW-PCA is a potential multivariate method that without modeling assumptions generates high quality images, which illustrated similar regional changes compared to modeling methods such as reference Logan. In addition, MVW-PCA could be used as a new technique, applicable not only on dynamic human brain studies but also on dynamic cardiac studies when using PET.
doi:10.1186/1471-2377-9-2
PMCID: PMC2647899  PMID: 19126243
9.  Unidirectional Influx and Net Accumulation of PIB 
The compound {N-methyl-[11C]}2-(4’-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, “PIB”, measured by positron emission tomography, has been demonstrated to image brain β-amyloid deposition in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study the benefit of measuring the PIB accumulation rate together with the unidirectional influx of PIB into the brain was investigated in healthy control subjects and patients with AD. In a monkey changes in the influx rate constant K1 of PIB closely followed changes in CBF, caused by alteration of PaCO2. In addition, K1 was high both in the monkey and in humans, suggesting that this parameter reflects CBF. Most AD patients studied showed clearly higher accumulation rate for PIB than the controls in cortical brain areas, while a few patients showed as low accumulation as the controls. K1 did not correlate with the accumulation rate, indicating that K1 for PIB provides extra information besides the accumulation rate.
doi:10.2174/1874440000802010114
PMCID: PMC2695622  PMID: 19526073
Alzheimer´s disease; beta amyloid; cerebral blood flow; kinetic modeling; PET.

Results 1-9 (9)