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1.  Prenatal glucocorticoids and maternal smoking during pregnancy independently program adult nicotine dependence in daughters: A 40-year prospective study 
Biological psychiatry  2013;75(1):10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.07.024.
Background
Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is an independent risk factor for offspring nicotine dependence (ND), but mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated prenatal glucocorticoid (cortisol) and androgen (testosterone) associations with offspring ND over 40 years, and the possibility that prenatal glucocorticoids and androgens would mediate links between MSDP and offspring ND.
Methods
Participants were 1,086 mother-adult offspring pairs (59% female) from the New England Family Study, a 40-year longitudinal follow up of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. MSDP was assessed prospectively at each prenatal visit. Maternal cortisol, testosterone, and cotinine (nicotine metabolite), were assayed from third trimester maternal sera. Offspring lifetime ND was assessed via structured interview.
Results
Significant bivariate associations emerged for: a) MSDP/cotinine and lifetime ND, and b) maternal cortisol and lifetime ND, for daughters only. In multivariate models, maternal cortisol and MSDP/cotinine remained significantly and independently associated with increased odds of daughters’ lifetime ND. However, cortisol did not mediate the MSDP-lifetime ND relation. No associations emerged between maternal testosterone and offspring ND.
Conclusions
Results provide the first evidence in support of prenatal glucocorticoid programming of adult ND over 40 years in daughters only. Our study highlights two independent prenatal pathways leading to increased risk for ND in daughters: elevated prenatal glucocorticoids and MSDP/nicotine exposure. Daughter-specific effects of glucocorticoid and MSDP programming over 40 years highlight the breadth and persistence of sexually dimorphic programming effects in humans. Results do not support androgen programming of offspring ND.
doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.07.024
PMCID: PMC3858529  PMID: 24034414
Maternal smoking during pregnancy; nicotine dependence; cotinine; cortisol; testosterone; programming; glucocorticoid; androgen
2.  Authoritative Parenting and Cigarette Smoking Among Multiethnic Preadolescents: The Mediating Role of Anti-Tobacco Parenting Strategies 
Journal of Pediatric Psychology  2013;39(1):109-119.
Introduction Parenting has been shown to affect smoking among children in U.S. majority groups, but less is known about this association among multiethnic urban populations. Our study examines the role of parenting on smoking among a highly diverse sample. Methods Health surveys were collected from eighth graders (N =459) in 2 low-income urban schools. Structural equation models examined the direct and indirect effects of authoritative parenting on lifetime smoking. A moderated mediation analysis examined whether indirect effects of authoritative parenting vary among racial/ethnic groups. Results Authoritative controlling parenting, characterized by limit setting, was positively associated with anti-tobacco parenting. Anti-tobacco parenting was inversely associated with smoking, mediating the relationship between controlling parenting and smoking. There was no evidence that mediation was moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions Parent training, which focuses on setting rules and expectations, can be an important and universal element of smoking prevention programs targeted to youth in diverse communities.
doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jst087
PMCID: PMC3894423  PMID: 24306966
adolescents; anti-tobacco parenting; parenting; parenting style; race/ethnicity
3.  Influence of a Dopamine Pathway Additive Genetic Efficacy Score on Smoking Cessation: Results from Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Bupropion 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2013;108(12):10.1111/add.12325.
Aims
To evaluate associations of treatment and an ‘additive genetic efficacy score’ (AGES) based on dopamine functional polymorphisms with time to first smoking lapse and point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment among participants enrolled in two randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies.
Design
Double-blind pharmacogenetic efficacy trials randomizing participants to active or placebo bupropion. Study 1 also randomized participants to cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment (CBT) or this treatment with CBT for depression. Study 2 provided standardized behavioural support.
Setting
Two Hospital-affiliated clinics (Study 1), and two University-affiliated clinics (Study 2).
Participants
N=792 self-identified white treatment-seeking smokers aged ≥18 years smoking ≥10 cigarettes per day over the last year.
Measurements
Age, gender, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, dopamine pathway genotypes (rs1800497 [ANKK1 E713K], rs4680 [COMT V158M], DRD4 exon 3 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats polymorphism [DRD4 VNTR], SLC6A3 3' VNTR) analyzed both separately and as part of an AGES, time to first lapse, and point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment.
Findings
Significant associations of the AGES (hazard ratio = 1.10, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.06–1.14], p=0.0099) and of the DRD4 VNTR (HR = 1.29, 95%CI 1.17–1.41, p=0.0073) were observed with time to first lapse. A significant AGES by pharmacotherapy interaction was observed (β [SE]=−0.18 [0.07], p=0.016), such that AGES predicted risk for time to first lapse only for individuals randomized to placebo.
Conclusions
A score based on functional polymorphisms relating to dopamine pathways appears to predict lapse to smoking following a quit attempt, and the association is mitigated in smokers using bupropion.
doi:10.1111/add.12325
PMCID: PMC3834197  PMID: 23941313
Bupropion; genetic; pharmacogenetic analysis; randomized clinical trial; first lapse
4.  Compensation predicts smoking cessation failure 
Psychopharmacology  2013;230(2):10.1007/s00213-013-3150-5.
Rationale
Compensation is a potential result of decreasing the available nicotine and tar dose in cigarettes. There is little published data linking compensation with cessation.
Objectives
We sought to examine whether compensation in response to restricted cigarette yield is associated with difficulty quitting smoking.
Methods
Questionnaires and blood samples were collected from 174 smokers interested in quitting smoking as part of a larger smoking cessation study. Participants were instructed to use a filter designed to remove 50% of tar and nicotine from the cigarette but otherwise smoke normally. Participants returned after three days of using the filter for follow up data collection.
Results
Nicotine levels and cigarettes per day decreased after use of the filter. Baseline nicotine and change in nicotine pre/post filter use, but not cigarettes per day or change in cigarettes per day, were associated with smoking abstinence at 30 days.
Conclusions
Smokers who demonstrate sensitivity to the biological or behavioral consequences of decreased nicotine content in tobacco smoke have greater difficulty quitting. These findings suggest the need for personalized cessation treatment linked to behavioral compensation.
doi:10.1007/s00213-013-3150-5
PMCID: PMC3809341  PMID: 23748381
smoking cessation; nicotine; compensation; light cigarettes; FDA
5.  Cost-effectiveness of internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation: an economic evaluation of The iQUITT Study 
Tobacco control  2012;22(6):e11.
Background
Internet and telephone treatments for smoking cessation can reach large numbers of smokers. There is little research on their costs and the impact of adherence on costs and effects.
Objective
To conduct an economic evaluation of The iQUITT Study, a randomised trial comparing Basic Internet, Enhanced Internet and Enhanced Internet plus telephone counselling (‘Phone’) at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months.
Methods
We used a payer perspective to evaluate the average and incremental cost per quitter of the three interventions using intention-to-treat analysis of 30-day single-point prevalence and multiple-point prevalence (MPP) abstinence rates. We also examined results based on adherence. Costs included commercial charges for each intervention. Discounting was not included given the short time horizon.
Results
Basic Internet had the lowest cost per quitter at all time points. In the analysis of incremental costs per additional quitter, Enhanced Internet+Phone was the most cost-effective using both single and MPP abstinence metrics. As adherence increased, the cost per quitter dropped across all arms. Costs per quitter were lowest among participants who used the ‘optimal’ level of each intervention, with an average cost per quitter at 3 months of US$7 for Basic Internet, US$164 for Enhanced Internet and US$346 for Enhanced Internet +Phone.
Conclusions
‘Optimal’ adherence to internet and combined internet and telephone interventions yields the highest number of quitters at the lowest cost. Cost-effective means of ensuring adherence to such evidence-based programmes could maximise their population-level impact on smoking prevalence.
doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2012-050465
PMCID: PMC3626730  PMID: 23010696
6.  Positive Reactions to Tobacco Predict Relapse After Cessation 
Journal of abnormal psychology  2011;120(4):999-1005.
Among chronic smokers, individual differences in subjective reactions to smoking may characterize important facets of nicotine dependence that relate to abstinence-induced craving, withdrawal symptom profiles, and risk for relapse. Although the negative reinforcing properties of smoking have achieved prominent positions in models of relapse (Baker, Brandon, & Chassin, 2004), vulnerability to relapse risk may also arise from seeking positive reinforcement from smoking (Shiffman & Kirchner, 2009). In this study, 183 cessation-motivated smokers provided subjective craving, positive and negative reactions to standardized cigarettes following overnight abstinence. Level of craving, negative mood, and positive mood after overnight abstinence were significantly predictive of withdrawal on quit-day. Increased positive reactions to smoking were uniquely predictive of relapse after quitting (Hazard Ratio = 1.22, p < .001). Individual differences in positive reactions to smoking may be important markers of neurobiological systems that promote dependence and interfere with cessation efforts.
doi:10.1037/a0023666
PMCID: PMC4195596  PMID: 21574668
positive affect; smoking relapse; smoking reinforcement
7.  Early Life Stress is Associated with Greater Default Network Deactivation During Working Memory in Healthy Controls: A Preliminary Report 
Brain imaging and behavior  2013;7(2):204-212.
Early life stress (ELS) is a common risk factor for psychopathology, but there are few functional neuroimaging studies investigating its effects. In this preliminary study, we investigated the correlates of ELS exposure on the default network (DN) through measurements of task-associated DN deactivation. Data were analyzed from 19 subjects without psychiatric illness (10 with ELS). Subjects performed the working memory (WM) N-back task (including a 2-back WM and 0-back control condition) while undergoing functional MRI. We compared brain responses in the two groups across 5 bilateral DN regions using an a priori region of interest (ROI) analysis. The ELS group demonstrated significantly greater DN deactivation, observed in the right posterior cingulate cortex PCC, bilateral medial prefrontal cortex, left middle/superior frontal gyrus and right middle temporal region. These preliminary results indicate subjects with ELS demonstrate greater DN deactivations to WM challenges compared to non-ELS controls, potentially reflecting a biomarker of long-term effects of ELS exposure.
doi:10.1007/s11682-012-9216-x
PMCID: PMC3632656  PMID: 23269472
Early Life Stress; Default Network; Working Memory; Medial Prefrontal Cortex; FMRI
8.  Prenatal Tobacco Exposure, Biomarkers for Tobacco in Meconium, and Neonatal Growth Outcomes 
The Journal of pediatrics  2012;162(5):970-975.
Objective
To assess relationships between marker concentrations of tobacco in meconium and weekly self-reported maternal cigarette consumption, and prediction of neonatal growth outcomes.
Study design
Pregnant mothers (N=119) from a longitudinal maternal smoking and infant neurobehavioral study (BAM BAM) provided daily tobacco smoking histories. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3’-hydroxycotinine (OHCOT) concentrations were quantified in 111 neonatal meconium specimens by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Results
Median self-reported 3rd trimester smoking was 5.9 cigarettes per day among smokers. Meconium samples from infants born to non-smokers (N=42) were negative for tobacco markers, even though specimens from self-reported smokers (N=41) were positive for (median, range) nicotine (50.1ng/g, 3.9–294), cotinine (73.9ng/g, 6.4–329), and OHCOT (124.5ng/g, 10.2–478). Quitters (N=28) self-reported stopping smoking in gestational weeks 2–39. Four meconium specimens from quitters were positive for tobacco biomarkers. Reduced birth weight, length and head circumference significantly correlated with presence of meconium markers, but not with individual or total marker concentrations. Among quitters and smokers, reduced infant birth weight, head circumference and gestational age correlated with total and average daily cigarette consumption in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters.
Conclusion
Smoking cessation or reduction during pregnancy improved neonatal outcomes. The window of detection for tobacco in meconium appears to be the 3rd trimester; however, low exposure in this trimester failed to be detected. These results will aid physicians in educating women who are pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant on the negative consequences of smoking during pregnancy. In addition, infants at risk can be identified at birth to assist early intervention efforts.
doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.10.045
PMCID: PMC3745638  PMID: 23211926
Nicotine; Smoking; Meconium; Pregnancy; In Utero Drug Exposure
9.  The social support and social network characteristics of smokers in methadone-maintenance treatment 
Previous studies have shown social support and social network variables to be important factors in smoking cessation treatment. Tobacco use is highly prevalent among individuals in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). However, smoking cessation treatment outcomes in this vulnerable subpopulation have been poor and social support and social network variables may contribute. The current study examined the social support and social network characteristics of 151 MMT smokers involved in a randomized clinical trial of smoking cessation treatments. Participants were 50% women and 78% Caucasian. A high proportion (57%) of MMT smokers had spouses or partners who smoke and over two-thirds of households (68.5%) included at least one smoker. Our sample was characterized by relatively small social networks, but high levels of general social support and quitting support. The number of cigarettes per day was found to be positively associated with the number of smokers in the social network (r = .239, p < .05) and quitting self-efficacy was negatively associated with partner smoking (r = −.217, p < .001). Findings are discussed in the context of developing smoking cessation interventions that address the influential role of social support and social networks of smokers in MMT.
doi:10.3109/00952990.2011.653424
PMCID: PMC3971529  PMID: 22571553
Social Support; Social Network; Smoking; Methadone-Maintenance
10.  Quit Now? Quit Soon? Quit When You’re Ready? Insights About Target Quit Dates for Smoking Cessation From an Online Quit Date Tool 
Background
Setting a target quit date (TQD) is often an important component in smoking cessation treatment, but ambiguity remains concerning the optimal timing (ie, quitting spontaneously versus delaying to prepare).
Objective
We examined four questions about the timing of TQDs and smoking outcomes in secondary analyses of The iQUITT Study, a randomized trial of Internet and telephone treatment for cessation: (1) What are the characteristics of TQDs set using an online interactive quit date tool?, (2) What are the characteristics of individuals who use a quit date tool and do they differ from those who do not?, (3) Are there differences in smoker characteristics, treatment utilization, and cessation outcomes based TQD timing?, and (4) Is maintenance of an initial TQD predictive of abstinence or do changes to TQDs lead to cessation?
Methods
A total of 825 adult current cigarette smokers were randomized to enhanced Internet or enhanced Internet plus telephone counseling. Latency to TQD in days was calculated as the date difference between the initial TQD and enhanced Internet registration; prospective TQD setters were stratified into four latency groups (0, 1-14, 15-28, 29+ days). Baseline variables, website utilization, and 3-month cessation outcomes were examined between prospective TQD groups. Desire and confidence to quit, number of TQDs, and website logins were tested as predictors of 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) at 3 months (responder-only analyses). Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis explored interactions among baseline variables, website utilization, and latency to TQD as predictors of 30-day ppa.
Results
There were few baseline differences between individuals who used the quit date tool and those who did not. Prospective TQDs were set as follows: registration day was 17.1% (73/427), 1-14 days was 37.7% (161/427), 15-28 days was 18.5% (79/427), and 29+ days was 26.7% (114/427). Participants with a TQD within 2 weeks had higher baseline self-efficacy scores but did not differ on smoking variables. Individuals whose TQD was the same day as registration had the highest logins, page views, number of TQDs set using the tool, and messages sent to other members. Logistic regression revealed a significant interaction between number of TQDs and website logins for 30-day ppa (P=.005). Among those with high logins, 41.8% (33/79) with 1 TQD were abstinent versus 25.9% (35/135) with 2+TQDs. Logins and self-efficacy predicted 30-day ppa in the CART model.
Conclusions
TQD timing did not predict cessation outcomes in standard or exploratory analyses. Self-efficacy and an apparent commitment to an initial TQD were the components most highly related to abstinence but only via interactions with website utilization. Findings highlight the importance of feeling efficacious about handling specific smoking situations and engaging with treatment. Additional research focused on increasing engagement in Web-based cessation studies is needed.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00282009; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00282009 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Kt7NrXDl).
doi:10.2196/jmir.3086
PMCID: PMC3958692  PMID: 24534139
smoking cessation; Internet; quit date; tobacco dependence
11.  Past major depression and smoking cessation outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis update 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2013;108(2):294-306.
Aims
To update our prior meta-analysis that showed past major depression (MD+) to be unrelated to smoking cessation outcome [Hitsman et al. J Consult Clin Psychol 2003; 71:657–63].
Methods
Eligible trials included 14 from our original review and 28 identified through an updated systematic review (2000–2009). We coded for assessment of past MD, exclusion for recent MD episode (MDE; ≤6 months versus no exclusion), duration/modality of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; face-to-face versus self-help), and other factors. To minimize influence of experimental treatments that may selectively benefit MD+ smokers, we analyzed placebo/lowest intensity control arms only. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) for the effect of past MD on short-term (≤3 months) and long-term (≥6 months) abstinence were estimated and combined using random effects. Two-way interaction models of past MD with study methodology and treatment factors were used to evaluate hypothesized moderators of the past MD-abstinence association.
Results
MD+ smokers had 17% lower odds of short-term abstinence (n=35, OR=0.83, 95% CI=0.72–0.95, p=0.009) and 19% lower odds of long-term abstinence (n=38, OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.67–0.97, p=0.023) than MD− smokers after excluding the sole study of varenicline because of its antidepressant properties. The association between past MD and abstinence was affected by methodological (recent MDE exclusion, type of MD assessment) and treatment (CBT modality) factors.
Conclusions
Past major depression has a modest adverse effect on abstinence during and after smoking cessation treatment. An increased focus on the identification of effective treatments or treatment adaptations that eliminate this disparity in smoking cessation for MD+ smokers is needed.
doi:10.1111/add.12009
PMCID: PMC3593055  PMID: 23072580
Systematic review; meta-analysis; major depression; smoking cessation
12.  Effects of Abstinence in Adolescent Tobacco Smokers: Withdrawal Symptoms, Urge, Affect, and Cue Reactivity 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2012;15(2):457-464.
Introduction:
The aim of this study was to evaluate abstinence effects in adolescent daily smokers by examining the effects of experimentally manipulated acute smoking abstinence on measures including: (a) withdrawal symptoms, (b) reactive irritability, (c) smoking urges, (d) affect, and (e) responses to smoking cues.
Methods:
Participants (ages 13–19, 74 daily smokers, and 22 nonsmokers) completed baseline questionnaires and laboratory assessments (Session 1) and returned 1–4 days later to repeat the laboratory assessments (Session 2); half of the smokers were randomly assigned to overnight tobacco abstinence preceding Session 2.
Results:
During Session 2, abstinent smokers reported significantly greater increases in withdrawal symptoms, smoking urges, and negative affect compared with smokers who did not abstain and compared with nonsmokers. Although there was not a significant effect of abstinence on differential reactivity to smoking versus neutral cues, abstinence did result in significantly increased peak provoked urges and negative effect. There was not a significant effect of abstinence on positive affect or reactive irritability,
Conclusions:
Our results suggest that adolescents experience increases in withdrawal symptoms, smoking urges (un-cued and peak provoked), and negative affect (un-cued and peak provoked) after acute smoking abstinence, but do not experience the increases in reactive irritability or decreases in positive affect that have been shown in adult smokers. Overall findings support the withdrawal relief and negative reinforcement models of smoking maintenance in adolescents and point to withdrawal, urge, and negative affect as important targets for treatment.
doi:10.1093/ntr/nts155
PMCID: PMC3611993  PMID: 22949582
13.  Pharmacogenetic Smoking Cessation Intervention in a Health Care Setting: A Pilot Feasibility Study 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2012;15(2):518-526.
Introduction:
There is increasing evidence that response to pharmacological treatment for nicotine dependence may be moderated by genetic polymorphisms. However, the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of genetically tailoring treatment in real-world clinical settings are unknown.
Methods:
We conducted a multiphased, mixed-methods feasibility study with current smokers to develop and evaluate a patient-centered, theoretically grounded personalized medicine treatment protocol. The initial research phase included formative work to develop intervention materials. The second phase included a randomized pilot trial to evaluate the intervention. Trial participants (n = 36) were genotyped for ANKK1 rs1800497 and were randomized to receive genetic feedback (GF) plus standard behavioral counseling (BC) for smoking cessation or BC without GF. All participants received genetically tailored pharmacotherapy (nicotine patch or bupropion).
Results:
The intervention was feasible to implement and was acceptable to participants based on satisfaction ratings and objective measures of participation. There was no evidence that the GF resulted in adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, fatalism, reduced perceived control over quitting, differential motivation for quitting) based on quantitative or qualitative outcomes.
Conclusions:
Study results suggest that it is feasible to offer treatment within a health care setting that includes genetically tailored pharmacotherapy and doing so had no apparent adverse psychological impacts. Further evaluation of pharmacogenetically tailored smoking cessation interventions appears warranted.
doi:10.1093/ntr/nts173
PMCID: PMC3611995  PMID: 22949583
14.  Interventions to Address Chronic Disease and HIV: Strategies to Promote Smoking Cessation Among HIV-infected Individuals 
Current HIV/AIDS reports  2012;9(4):375-384.
Tobacco use, especially cigarette smoking, is higher than average in persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence states that, during every medical encounter, all smokers should be offered smoking cessation counseling, along with approved medications. The Guideline also recognizes PLWHA as a priority population, given the scarcity of research on effective cessation treatments in this group. The scant evidence suggests that conventional treatments, though worthwhile, are not as successful as might be hoped for. The reasons for this are not entirely clear, but may have to do with the complex array of medical and psychosocial factors that complicate their lives. Clinicians should consider re-treatment strategies for those patients who encounter difficulty when quitting smoking with conventional approaches, switching or augmenting treatments as needed to minimize adverse experiences, and to maximize tolerability, adherence, and cessation outcomes.
doi:10.1007/s11904-012-0138-4
PMCID: PMC3566982  PMID: 22972495
Tobacco; Cigarette smoking; Smoking cessation; HIV/AIDS; Treatment; Adaptive treatment strategy; Bupropion; Varenicline; People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA); Behavioral aspects of HIV/AIDS
15.  Impact of Seasonality on Recruitment, Retention, Adherence, and Outcomes in a Web-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial 
Background
Seasonal variations in smoking and quitting behaviors have been documented, with many smokers seeking cessation assistance around the start of the New Year. What remains unknown is whether smokers who are recruited to cessation treatment trials during the New Year are as motivated to quit, or as likely to enroll in a research trial, adhere to a research protocol, and benefit from a cessation intervention compared to those who are recruited during other times of the year.
Objective
The objective of this study was to determine whether smokers recruited during the New Year period differ on measures of motivation and desire to quit, recruitment and retention rates, website utilization rates, and short-term cessation outcomes compared to smokers recruited at other times.
Methods
Participants were current smokers who had registered on a free Web-based cessation program (BecomeAnEX.org) and were invited to participate in a clinical trial. The New Year period was defined according to a clear peak and drop in the proportion of visitors who registered on the site, spanning a 15-day period from December 26, 2012 to January 9, 2013. Two other 15-day recruitment periods during summer (July 18, 2012 to August 1, 2012) and fall (November 7, 2012 to November 21, 2012) were selected for comparison. Data were examined from 3 sources: (1) a Web-based clinical trials management system that automated the recruitment and enrollment process, (2) self-report assessments at baseline and 3 months postrandomization, and (3) online tracking software that recorded website utilization during the first 3 months of the trial.
Results
Visitors to BecomeAnEX during the New Year period were more likely to register on the site than smokers who visited during summer or fall (conversion rates: 7.4%, 4.6%, 4.9%, respectively; P<.001), but there were no differences in rates of study acceptance, consent, randomization, 3-month follow-up survey completion, or cessation between the 3 periods. New Year participants were older, more educated, more likely to be employed full time, and more likely to have a relationship partner compared with participants recruited at other times during the year, but did not differ on measures of motivation and desire to quit.
Conclusions
Smokers visiting a Web-based cessation program during the New Year period were more likely to register for treatment and differ on several demographic variables, but showed similar patterns of treatment engagement, retention, follow-up, and short-term cessation outcomes compared with participants who visited the site during other periods of the year. These results allay scientific concerns about recruiting participants during this time frame and are reassuring for researchers conducting Web-based cessation trials.
Trial Registration
ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01544153; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01544153 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6KjhmAS9u).
doi:10.2196/jmir.2880
PMCID: PMC3841362  PMID: 24201304
seasonal variation; smoking cessation; Internet; research subject recruitment
16.  A Ban on Menthol Cigarettes: Impact on Public Opinion and Smokers’ Intention to Quit 
American journal of public health  2012;102(11):e107-e114.
Objectives
We assessed support for a ban by the Food and Drug Administration on menthol in cigarettes and behavioral intentions among menthol smokers in the event of such a ban.
Methods
We surveyed 2649 never, former, and current smokers and used ordinal logistic regression to calculate weighted point estimates and predictors of support for a menthol ban among the adult population and menthol smokers only. For menthol smokers, we also calculated weighted point estimates and predictors of behavioral intentions.
Results
Overall, 28.2% of adults opposed, 20.0% supported, and 51.9% lacked a strong opinion about a menthol ban. Support was highest among Hispanics (36.4%), African Americans (29.0%), never smokers (26.8%), and respondents with less than a high school education (28.8%). Nearly 40% of menthol smokers said they would quit if menthol cigarettes were no longer available, 12.5% would switch to a nonmenthol brand, and 25.2% would both switch and try to quit.
Conclusions
Support for a menthol ban is strongest among populations with the highest prevalence of menthol cigarette use. A menthol ban might motivate many menthol smokers to quit.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2012.300804
PMCID: PMC3474368  PMID: 22994173
17.  e-Cigarette Awareness, Use, and Harm Perceptions in US Adults 
American journal of public health  2012;102(9):1758-1766.
Objectives
We estimated e-cigarette (electronic nicotine delivery system) awareness, use, and harm perceptions among US adults.
Methods
We drew data from 2 surveys conducted in 2010: a national online study (n = 2649) and the Legacy Longitudinal Smoker Cohort (n = 3658). We used multivariable models to examine e-cigarette awareness, use, and harm perceptions.
Results
In the online survey, 40.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 37.3, 43.1) had heard of e-cigarettes, with awareness highest among current smokers. Utilization was higher among current smokers (11.4%; 95% CI = 9.3, 14.0) than in the total population (3.4%; 95% CI = 2.6, 4.2), with 2.0% (95% CI = 1.0, 3.8) of former smokers and 0.8% (95% CI = 0.35, 1.7) of never-smokers ever using e-cigarettes. In both surveys, non-Hispanic Whites, current smokers, young adults, and those with at least a high-school diploma were most likely to perceive e-cigarettes as less harmful than regular cigarettes.
Conclusions
Awareness of e-cigarettes is high, and use among current and former smokers is evident. We recommend product regulation and careful surveillance to monitor public health impact and emerging utilization patterns, and to ascertain why, how, and under what conditions e-cigarettes are being used.
doi:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300526
PMCID: PMC3474361  PMID: 22813087
18.  Development and Reliability of the Lifetime Interview on Smoking Trajectories 
Nicotine & Tobacco Research  2011;14(3):290-298.
Introduction:
Assessments of lifetime smoking history are useful in many types of research including surveillance, epidemiology, prevention, intervention, and studies of genetic phenotypes and heritability. Because prospective assessment is impractical for most research, our objective was to develop a reliable retrospective measure of lifetime smoking history. This paper presents descriptive and test–retest reliability data on smoking history variables assessed using the Lifetime Interview on Smoking Trajectories (LIST).
Methods:
Data were collected on a birth cohort sample of 1,625 men and women (ages 34–44) from the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A subsample of 344 was invited to participate in a retest interview 4–8 weeks later and 220 participated. Indices of test–retest reliability were evaluated for smoking history variables, including: (a) early smoking experiences; (b) age at various smoking milestones, such as first puff, and progression to weekly and daily smoking; (c) smoking rate and time to first cigarette within initial, current, most recent, and heaviest phases; and (d) prolonged nonsmoking phases.
Results:
Responses to whether each of 5 major smoking milestones occurred were all highly reliable (κ = .78–.92), and of the 20 phase-specific variables assessed, more than half were reported at the highest level of reliability. None of the variables demonstrated low reliability.
Conclusions:
Although retrospective reports have unavoidable limitations, our findings indicate that the LIST is a reliable instrument for assessing detailed retrospective smoking history data and can be used to add to the knowledge base of how patterns of use relate to a variety of outcomes of interest.
doi:10.1093/ntr/ntr212
PMCID: PMC3281239  PMID: 21994340
19.  Improving adherence to web-based cessation programs: a randomized controlled trial study protocol 
Trials  2013;14:48.
Background
Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient ‘dose’. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone.
Methods/Design
This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome.
Discussion
Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage their potential public health impact. This study is innovative in its use of a social network approach to improve behavioral and pharmacological treatment utilization to improve cessation. This approach is significant for reducing tobacco’s devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical.
Trial registration
ISRCTN:ISRCTN45127327
doi:10.1186/1745-6215-14-48
PMCID: PMC3599396  PMID: 23414086
Smoking cessation; Internet; Adherence; Social networks; Nicotine replacement therapy
20.  MEDIATORS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NICOTINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AND SMOKING ABSTINENCE AMONG PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS 
Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS and poses unique health risks. Smoking cessation programs tailored to this population have documented improved smoking outcomes with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The current study examined 6-month abstinence rates from a randomized clinical trial targeting 412 HIV-positive adult current smokers (51% European American, 19% African American, and 17% Hispanic American) and tested whether psychosocial variables, such as self-efficacy and decisional balance, mediated the relationship between NRT and long-term abstinence. Meeting criteria for complete mediation, 6-month smoking abstinence rates improved significantly with increases in these mediators, and the association of NRT and smoking abstinence was no longer significant once changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance were taken into account. Failure to translate gains in self-efficacy among African Americans into improved abstinence rates accounted for racial/ ethnic differences among participants. Specific psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, may be particularly amenable to change in cessation interventions and should be addressed with greater awareness of how cultural and social contextual factors impact treatment response among people living with HIV/AIDS.
doi:10.1521/aeap.2009.21.3_supp.65
PMCID: PMC3566232  PMID: 19537955
21.  How do Mothers, Fathers, and Friends Influence Stages of Adolescent Smoking? 
Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers’ smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers’ smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.
PMCID: PMC3514408  PMID: 23226718
adolescent health; parent-child relationships; social environment; adolescence risk-taking avoidance education
22.  A transdisciplinary approach to protocol development for tobacco control research: a case study 
ABSTRACT
The increasing complexity of scientific problems related to lifestyle risk factors has prompted substantial investments in transdisciplinary or team science initiatives at the biological, psychosocial, and population levels of analysis. To date, the actual process of conducting team science from the perspectives of investigators engaged in it has not been well documented. We describe the experience of developing and implementing data collection protocols using the principles of transdisciplinary science. The New England Family Study Transdisciplinary Tobacco Use Research Center was a 10-year collaboration involving more than 85 investigators and consultants from more than 20 disciplines as well as more than 50 research staff. We used a two-phase process in which all the study personnel participated in the developing and testing of 160 instruments. These instruments were used in 4,378 assessments with 3,501 participants. With substantial effort, it is possible to build a team of scientists from diverse backgrounds that can develop a set of instruments using a shared conceptual approach, despite limited or no experience working together previously.
doi:10.1007/s13142-012-0164-1
PMCID: PMC3717926  PMID: 24073144
Team science; Transdisciplinary; Tobacco; Cooperative behavior; Interdisciplinary communication
23.  Consistency of self-reported smoking over a 6-year interval from adolescence to young adulthood 
Addiction (Abingdon, England)  2007;102(11):1831-1839.
Aims
To examine the reliability of self-report cigarette smoking questions by describing recanting (denial of previous smoking reports) in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents followed throughout young adulthood. Predictors of recanting across stages of smoking uptake/progression are examined.
Design
A total of 12 985 respondents to cigarette smoking questions during in-home interviews at waves I and III (6 years apart) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample survey procedures of Stata 9.0 were used to produce nationally representative estimates, with standard errors adjusted for both clustering at the school level and stratification by geographical region.
Measurements
Recanting probabilities determined by reports of stages of smoking uptake/progression at each time-point were predicted by race/ethnicity, parental education, household income, poverty level, depression and peer daily smoking.
Findings
Stage-specific results indicated that recanting is higher when the earlier smoking was less frequent/intense. Recanters were older, from lower-income households and had higher baseline depression levels. Non-Hispanic black youth were significantly more likely to recant previous smoking compared to non-Hispanic white youth, even in multivariate models controlling for socio-demographic variables. Predictors of recanting differed by level of tobacco involvement. The greater likelihood of non-Hispanic black respondents to deny previous smoking may be a reflection of less intense or more intermittent use of tobacco that leads to recall differences over time.
Conclusions
Racial/ethnic subgroups and/or respondents endorsing depressive symptoms may be more vulnerable to misclassification during interpretation of national survey data and subsequently not identified properly for prevention/intervention programs.
doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01974.x
PMCID: PMC3500030  PMID: 17784897
Adolescents; African Americans; depression; ethnic groups; longitudinal studies; recanting; reproducibility of results; socioeconomic factors; smoking; young adults
24.  Accuracy of a Brief Screening Scale for Lifetime Major Depression in Cigarette Smokers Revised Manuscript December 8, 2010 
History of major depression is increasingly being measured in smoking cessation trials using brief screening scales, typically only 1–2 items, despite that their validity has not been fully established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a 4-item screening scale of lifetime major depressive episode (MDE). Current (n=475), former (n=401), and never (n=646) smokers were asked about a history of depressed mood and anhedonia lasting several days or longer. Endorsers of either depressed mood or anhedonia were then asked about whether the symptom(s) lasted most of the day nearly every day for two weeks or longer. Symptom endorsers, regardless of symptom duration, were administered the depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Eight hundred and thirty-five (54.9%) participants had no history of either screening symptom, 296 (20.9%) had a history of depressed mood and (or) anhedonia <2 weeks, and 369 (24.2%) had a history of depressed mood and (or) anhedonia ≥2 weeks. PPV of depressed mood and (or) anhedonia ≥2 weeks was high (84.8%) for detecting lifetime MDE, as compared to only 23.9% for symptom(s) <2 weeks. PPV did not vary by either smoking status or gender. This 4-item screening scale has high predictive value in detecting lifetime MDE. Smoking cessation trials that do not require a history of depressed mood and (or) anhedonia for two weeks or longer may overestimate rates of lifetime MDE and confound tests of the association between depression and treatment outcome.
doi:10.1037/a0022772
PMCID: PMC3170488  PMID: 21443295
Depression screening; Positive predictive value; Major depressive episode; Depression prevention; Tobacco use treatment
25.  Dopamine D4 Receptor Gene Variation Moderates the Efficacy of Bupropion for Smoking Cessation 
The Pharmacogenomics Journal  2010;12(1):86-92.
Smokers (≥10 cig/day; N =331) of European ancestry taking part in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of 12 weeks of treatment with bupropion plus counseling for smoking cessation were genotyped for a VNTR polymorphism in Exon-III of the Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene. Generalized estimating equations predicting point-prevalence abstinence at end of treatment and 2, 6, and 12-months post-end of treatment indicated that bupropion (vs. placebo) predicted increased odds of abstinence. The main effect of Genotype was not significant. A Genotype × Treatment interaction (p=.005) showed that bupropion predicted increased odds of abstinence in long-allele carriers (OR=1.31, p<.0001), whereas bupropion was not associated with abstinence among short-allele homozygotes (OR=1.06, p=.23). The Genotype × Treatment interaction remained when controlling for demographic and clinical covariates (p=.01) and in analyses predicting continuous abstinence (ps≤.054). Bupropion may be more efficacious for smokers who carry the long-allele, which is relevant to personalized pharmacogenetic treatment approaches.
doi:10.1038/tpj.2010.64
PMCID: PMC2981689  PMID: 20661272
DRD4; VNTR; smoking cessation; bupropion; pharmacogenetic

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