Assessments of lifetime smoking history are useful in many types of research including surveillance, epidemiology, prevention, intervention, and studies of genetic phenotypes and heritability. Because prospective assessment is impractical for most research, our objective was to develop a reliable retrospective measure of lifetime smoking history. This paper presents descriptive and test–retest reliability data on smoking history variables assessed using the Lifetime Interview on Smoking Trajectories (LIST).
Data were collected on a birth cohort sample of 1,625 men and women (ages 34–44) from the Collaborative Perinatal Project. A subsample of 344 was invited to participate in a retest interview 4–8 weeks later and 220 participated. Indices of test–retest reliability were evaluated for smoking history variables, including: (a) early smoking experiences; (b) age at various smoking milestones, such as first puff, and progression to weekly and daily smoking; (c) smoking rate and time to first cigarette within initial, current, most recent, and heaviest phases; and (d) prolonged nonsmoking phases.
Responses to whether each of 5 major smoking milestones occurred were all highly reliable (κ = .78–.92), and of the 20 phase-specific variables assessed, more than half were reported at the highest level of reliability. None of the variables demonstrated low reliability.
Although retrospective reports have unavoidable limitations, our findings indicate that the LIST is a reliable instrument for assessing detailed retrospective smoking history data and can be used to add to the knowledge base of how patterns of use relate to a variety of outcomes of interest.
Reducing smoking prevalence is a public health priority that can save more lives and money than almost any other known preventive intervention. Internet interventions have the potential for enormous public health impact given their broad reach and effectiveness. However, most users engage only minimally with even the best designed websites, diminishing their impact due to an insufficient ‘dose’. Two approaches to improve adherence to Internet cessation programs are integrating smokers into an online social network and providing free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Active participation in online communities is associated with higher rates of cessation. Integrating smokers into an online social network can increase support and may also increase utilization of cessation tools and NRT. Removing barriers to NRT may increase uptake and adherence, and may also increase use of online cessation tools as smokers look for information and support while quitting. The combination of both strategies may exert the most powerful effects on adherence compared to either strategy alone.
This study compares the efficacy of a smoking cessation website (WEB) alone and in conjunction with free NRT and a social network (SN) protocol designed to integrate participants into the online community. Using a 2 (SN, no SN) x 2 (NRT, no NRT) randomized, controlled factorial design with repeated measures at baseline, 3 months, and 9 months, this study will recruit N = 4,000 new members of an internet cessation program and randomize them to: 1) WEB, 2) WEB + SN, 3) WEB + NRT, or 4) WEB + SN + NRT. Hypotheses are that all interventions will outperform WEB and that WEB + SN + NRT will outperform WEB + NRT and WEB + SN on 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 9 months. Exploratory analyses will examine theory-driven hypotheses about the mediators and moderators of outcome.
Addressing adherence in internet cessation programs is critical and timely to leverage their potential public health impact. This study is innovative in its use of a social network approach to improve behavioral and pharmacological treatment utilization to improve cessation. This approach is significant for reducing tobacco’s devastating disease burden and for optimizing behavior change in other arenas where adherence is just as critical.
Smoking cessation; Internet; Adherence; Social networks; Nicotine replacement therapy
Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS and poses unique health risks. Smoking cessation programs tailored to this population have documented improved smoking outcomes with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). The current study examined 6-month abstinence rates from a randomized clinical trial targeting 412 HIV-positive adult current smokers (51% European American, 19% African American, and 17% Hispanic American) and tested whether psychosocial variables, such as self-efficacy and decisional balance, mediated the relationship between NRT and long-term abstinence. Meeting criteria for complete mediation, 6-month smoking abstinence rates improved significantly with increases in these mediators, and the association of NRT and smoking abstinence was no longer significant once changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance were taken into account. Failure to translate gains in self-efficacy among African Americans into improved abstinence rates accounted for racial/ ethnic differences among participants. Specific psychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy, may be particularly amenable to change in cessation interventions and should be addressed with greater awareness of how cultural and social contextual factors impact treatment response among people living with HIV/AIDS.
Parent and friend influences may differentially promote or deter adolescent smoking at discrete stages. Drawing from national (Add Health) data, a partial proportional odds ordinal regression model was utilized to examine the multivariate influence of parent and friend variables and their interactions on transitions across smoking stages (Never Smokers, Experimenters, Intermittent, Regular/Established) separately for mother-child pairs (N = 15,983) and father-child pairs (N = 1,142). Friend smoking status was by far the strongest predictor across smoking stages. Gender differences indicated males with one or more daily smoking friends are at higher risk for regular smoking relative to females. Fathers’ smoking status had a direct effect on teen smoking across all stages, whereas mothers’ smoking was significant in influencing which stage of smoking teens exhibited. Moreover, maternal smoking status had an indirect effect by moderating the association between teen smoking and the closeness of the mother-teen relationship. Mothers who smoke were found to have a stronger impact on the transition to regular smoking compared to mothers who do not smoke regardless of the number of smoking friends the teen reports. Results have implications for stage-matched and family-based prevention and intervention programs.
adolescent health; parent-child relationships; social environment; adolescence risk-taking avoidance education
To examine the reliability of self-report cigarette smoking questions by describing recanting (denial of previous smoking reports) in a nationally representative sample of US adolescents followed throughout young adulthood. Predictors of recanting across stages of smoking uptake/progression are examined.
A total of 12 985 respondents to cigarette smoking questions during in-home interviews at waves I and III (6 years apart) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The sample survey procedures of Stata 9.0 were used to produce nationally representative estimates, with standard errors adjusted for both clustering at the school level and stratification by geographical region.
Recanting probabilities determined by reports of stages of smoking uptake/progression at each time-point were predicted by race/ethnicity, parental education, household income, poverty level, depression and peer daily smoking.
Stage-specific results indicated that recanting is higher when the earlier smoking was less frequent/intense. Recanters were older, from lower-income households and had higher baseline depression levels. Non-Hispanic black youth were significantly more likely to recant previous smoking compared to non-Hispanic white youth, even in multivariate models controlling for socio-demographic variables. Predictors of recanting differed by level of tobacco involvement. The greater likelihood of non-Hispanic black respondents to deny previous smoking may be a reflection of less intense or more intermittent use of tobacco that leads to recall differences over time.
Racial/ethnic subgroups and/or respondents endorsing depressive symptoms may be more vulnerable to misclassification during interpretation of national survey data and subsequently not identified properly for prevention/intervention programs.
Adolescents; African Americans; depression; ethnic groups; longitudinal studies; recanting; reproducibility of results; socioeconomic factors; smoking; young adults
History of major depression is increasingly being measured in smoking cessation trials using brief screening scales, typically only 1–2 items, despite that their validity has not been fully established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a 4-item screening scale of lifetime major depressive episode (MDE). Current (n=475), former (n=401), and never (n=646) smokers were asked about a history of depressed mood and anhedonia lasting several days or longer. Endorsers of either depressed mood or anhedonia were then asked about whether the symptom(s) lasted most of the day nearly every day for two weeks or longer. Symptom endorsers, regardless of symptom duration, were administered the depression module of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Eight hundred and thirty-five (54.9%) participants had no history of either screening symptom, 296 (20.9%) had a history of depressed mood and (or) anhedonia <2 weeks, and 369 (24.2%) had a history of depressed mood and (or) anhedonia ≥2 weeks. PPV of depressed mood and (or) anhedonia ≥2 weeks was high (84.8%) for detecting lifetime MDE, as compared to only 23.9% for symptom(s) <2 weeks. PPV did not vary by either smoking status or gender. This 4-item screening scale has high predictive value in detecting lifetime MDE. Smoking cessation trials that do not require a history of depressed mood and (or) anhedonia for two weeks or longer may overestimate rates of lifetime MDE and confound tests of the association between depression and treatment outcome.
Depression screening; Positive predictive value; Major depressive episode; Depression prevention; Tobacco use treatment
Smokers (≥10 cig/day; N =331) of European ancestry taking part in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial of 12 weeks of treatment with bupropion plus counseling for smoking cessation were genotyped for a VNTR polymorphism in Exon-III of the Dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene. Generalized estimating equations predicting point-prevalence abstinence at end of treatment and 2, 6, and 12-months post-end of treatment indicated that bupropion (vs. placebo) predicted increased odds of abstinence. The main effect of Genotype was not significant. A Genotype × Treatment interaction (p=.005) showed that bupropion predicted increased odds of abstinence in long-allele carriers (OR=1.31, p<.0001), whereas bupropion was not associated with abstinence among short-allele homozygotes (OR=1.06, p=.23). The Genotype × Treatment interaction remained when controlling for demographic and clinical covariates (p=.01) and in analyses predicting continuous abstinence (ps≤.054). Bupropion may be more efficacious for smokers who carry the long-allele, which is relevant to personalized pharmacogenetic treatment approaches.
DRD4; VNTR; smoking cessation; bupropion; pharmacogenetic
This study aimed to determine the relative effect of Internet and Internet plus telephone treatment for smoking cessation on smoking abstinence among US adults. A priori hypotheses were that Internet enhanced with tailored content and social support would outperform basic Internet (BI) and that enhanced Internet (EI) plus proactive telephone counseling would outperform the other conditions.
The Quit Using Internet and Telephone Treatment (iQUITT) study used a 3-group randomized controlled design comparing BI, EI, and EI and telephone combined (EI+P). The trial was conducted from March 8, 2005, through November 30, 2008. Current adult smokers in the United States who smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day were recruited via search engines. Characteristics of the 2005 participants include mean (SD) age of 35.9 (10.8) years, 51.1% women, and 86.5% white. The follow-up assessment rate at 18 months was 68.2%. The main outcome measure was 30-day point prevalence abstinence measured at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after randomization using intent-to-treat analysis.
At 18 months, the 30-day multiple point prevalence abstinence rate across all follow-up intervals was 3.5% (BI), 4.5% (EI), and 7.7% (EI+P), with EI+P significantly outperforming BI and EI. At 18 months, 30-day single point prevalence abstinence rates were 19.0% (BI), 17.4% (EI), and 19.6% (EI+P) and did not differ among the groups.
Combined internet and telephone treatment outperforms static and dynamic Internet interventions.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00282009
Smoking is highly prevalent among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and associated with adverse outcomes including malignancy and cardiovascular disease. Information and communication technology (ICT) may be effective in disseminating cessation interventions among PLWHA. This study examines the prevalence of ICT use among 492 PLWHA attending an urban clinic and characteristics associated with ICT use. Participants completed a survey of demographics, smoking status, and ICT use. Factors associated with ICT use were examined with logistic regression. Overall, 63% of participants smoked with 73% of smokers owning their own cell phone. Use of other modalities was lower, with 48% of smokers reporting any internet use, 39% text messaging, and 31% using email. Higher education was associated with the use of all modalities. Cell phone interventions may have the broadest reach among PLWHA, though with almost half using the internet, this may also be a low-cost means of delivering cessation interventions.
HIV; Technology; Smoking; Interventions
Smoking remains one of the most pressing public health problems in the United States and internationally. The concurrent evolution of the Internet, social network science, and online communities offers a potential target for high-yield interventions capable of shifting population-level smoking rates and substantially improving public health.
Our objective was to convene leading practitioners in relevant disciplines to develop the core of a strategic research agenda on online social networks and their use for smoking cessation, with implications for other health behaviors.
We conducted a 100-person, 2-day, multidisciplinary workshop in Washington, DC, USA. Participants worked in small groups to formulate research questions that could move the field forward. Discussions and resulting questions were synthesized by the workshop planning committee.
We considered 34 questions in four categories (advancing theory, understanding fundamental mechanisms, intervention approaches, and evaluation) to be the most pressing.
Online social networks might facilitate smoking cessation in several ways. Identifying new theories, translating these into functional interventions, and evaluating the results will require a concerted transdisciplinary effort. This report presents a series of research questions to assist researchers, developers, and funders in the process of efficiently moving this field forward.
Smoking cessation; social support; social networks; addiction; treatment; tobacco
To examine behavioral factors that lead patients to consider quitting smoking and features associated with readiness to quit among adults who are seeking treatment in the emergency department (ED) for respiratory symptoms.
A toal of 665 adult smokers seeking treatment in an ED for respiratory symptoms and respiratory illness answered survey questions during the ED visit.
Patients self-reported "readiness to quit" was broadly distributed among this patient population. Patients with COPD, pneumonia or asthma perceived higher risks from smoking than other patients with respiratory complaints. Over half of all participants had scores indicative of depression. Regression analysis showed that prior efforts to quit, confidence, perceived importance of quitting and decisional balance were each significantly predictive of readiness to quit, accounting for 40% of the variance.
While many of these patients appear unaware of the connection between their symptoms and their smoking, patients with diagnosed chronic respiratory illness perceived higher risks from their smoking. In patients who do not perceive these risks, physician intervention may increase perceived risk from smoking and perceived importance of quitting. Interventions designed for the ED setting targeting this patient population should consider screening for depressive symptoms and, when appropriate, making referrals for further evaluation and/or treatment. Medications that can help alleviate depression and withdrawal symptoms while quitting smoking, such as bupropion, may be particularly useful for this subset of patients, as depression is a substantial barrier to quitting.
Individual differences in psychopathology and personality may associate with dependence on smoking for specific motivational reasons. However, the associations among psychopathology, personality, and smoking dependence and motives have not been examined simultaneously in studies to date, leaving it unclear whether specific patterns of affective and behavioral functioning are associated with specific aspects of smoking dependence.
The present study examined these associations in 296 current smokers aged 35–43 years. Smoking dependence and motives were assessed with structured interview, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives.
Regardless of the measure of smoking dependence tested, a lifetime history of major depression and high levels of trait stress reaction were consistently related to greater current smoking dependence severity. Substance dependence showed significant associations with some measures of smoking dependence but had relatively few effects when entered in models along with depression history and trait stress reaction. In multivariate models, alcohol dependence and conduct disorder history did not show unique significant associations with smoking dependence nor did trait aggression, alienation, control, or harm avoidance.
Results indicate little specificity in the associations of particular psychiatric diagnoses or personality traits with specific self-reported facets of smoking dependence. It appears that a general vulnerability to depression and negative emotions is the most robust indicator of vulnerability to high levels of self-reported smoking dependence, regardless of which dimensions of smoking dependence are analyzed.
The 11q23.1 genomic region has been associated with nicotine dependence in Black and White Americans.
By conducting linkage disequilibrium analyses of 7 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the tetratricopeptide repeat domain 12 (TTC12)/ankyrin repeat and kinase containing 1 (ANKK1)/dopamine (D2) receptor gene cluster, we identified haplotype block structures in 270 Black and 368 White (n = 638) participants, from the Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area cohort study, spanning the TTC12 and ANKK1 genes consisting of three SNPs (rs2303380–rs4938015–rs11604671). Informative haplotypes were examined for sex-specific associations with daily tobacco smoking initiation and cessation using longitudinal data from 1993–1994 and 2004–2005 interviews.
There was a Haplotype × Sex interaction such that Black men possessing the GTG haplotype who were smokers in 1993–2004 were more likely to have stopped smoking by 2004–2005 (55.6% GTG vs. 22.0% other haplotypes), while Black women were less likely to have quit smoking if they possessed the GTG (20.8%) versus other haplotypes (24.0%; p = .028). In Whites, the GTG haplotype (vs. other haplotypes) was associated with lifetime history of daily smoking (smoking initiation; odds ratio = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1–2.4; p = .013). Moreover, there was a Haplotype × Sex interaction such that there was higher prevalence of smoking initiation with GTG (77.6%) versus other haplotypes (57.0%; p = .043).
In 2 different ethnic American populations, we observed man–woman variation in the influence of the rs2303380–rs4938015–rs11604671 GTG haplotype on smoking initiation and cessation. These results should be replicated in larger cohorts to establish the relationship among the rs2303380–rs4938015–rs11604671 haplotype block, sex, and smoking behavior.
To examine effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on newborn neurobehavior at 10–27 days.
Participants were 56 healthy infants (28 smoking-exposed, 28 unexposed) matched on maternal social class, age, and alcohol use. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was determined by maternal interview and maternal saliva cotinine. Postnatal smoke exposure was quantified by infant saliva cotinine. Infant neurobehavior was assessed through the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale.
Smoking-exposed infants showed greater need for handling and worse self-regulation (p <.05) and trended toward greater excitability and arousal (p <.10) relative to matched, unexposed infants (all moderate effect sizes). In contrast to prior studies of days 0–5, no effects of smoking-exposure on signs of stress/abstinence or muscle tone emerged. In stratified, adjusted analyses, only effects on need for handling remained significant (p<.05, large effect size).
Effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy at 10–27 days are subtle and consistent with increased need for external intervention and poorer self-regulation. Along with parenting deficits, these effects may represent early precursors for long-term adverse outcomes from maternal smoking during pregnancy. That signs of abstinence shown in prior studies of 0–5 day-old newborns did not emerge in older newborns provides further evidence for the possibility of a withdrawal process in exposed infants.
maternal smoking; newborn; infant; behavior; NNNS; cotinine; pregnancy
The study objectives were to examine smoking abstinence and reinstatement effects on subjective experience and cognitive performance among adolescent smokers.
Adolescents (aged 14–17 years, 60 daily smokers and 32 nonsmokers) participated. Participants completed baseline assessments (Session 1) and returned to the laboratory 1–3 days later to repeat assessments (Session 2); half of the smokers were randomly assigned to 15–17 hr tobacco abstinence preceding Session 2.
During Session 2, abstaining smokers reported significantly greater increases in withdrawal symptoms, smoking urges, and negative affect compared with smokers who did not abstain and compared with nonsmokers. Smoking reinstatement reversed abstinence effects, returning to baseline levels for smoking urges and negative affect. Abstaining smokers showed significantly enhanced cognitive performance on two of six tasks (two-letter search compared with nonabstaining smokers; serial reaction time compared with nonsmokers); smoking reinstatement resulted in significant decrements on these two tasks relative to nonabstaining smokers.
Effects of smoking abstinence and reinstatement on self-report measures are consistent with earlier research with adolescent as well as adult smokers and may help to elucidate the motivational underpinnings of smoking maintenance among adolescent smokers. Effects found on cognitive performance were contrary to hypotheses; further research is needed to understand better the role of cognitive performance effects in smoking maintenance among adolescents.
To examine whether reimbursement for Provider Counseling, Pharmacotherapies, and a telephone Quitline increase smoking cessation relative to Usual Care.
Randomized comparison trial testing the effectiveness of four smoking cessation benefits.
Seven states that best represented the national population in terms of the proportion of those ≥65 years of age and smoking rate.
There were 7,354 seniors voluntarily enrolled in the Medicare Stop Smoking Program and they were followed-up for 12 months.
(1) Usual Care, (2) reimbursement for Provider Counseling, (3) reimbursement for Provider Counseling with Pharmacotherapy, and (4) telephone counseling Quitline with nicotine patch.
Main Outcome Measure
Seven-day self-reported cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups.
Unadjusted quit rates assuming missing data=smoking were 10.2 percent (9.0–11.5), 14.1 percent (11.7–16.5), 15.8 percent (14.4–17.2), and 19.3 percent (17.4–21.2) at 12 months for the Usual Care, Provider Counseling, Provider Counseling + Pharmacotherapy, and Quitline arms, respectively. Results were robust to sociodemographics, smoking history, motivation, health status, and survey nonresponse. The additional cost per quitter (relative to Usual Care) ranged from several hundred dollars to $6,450.
A telephone Quitline in conjunction with low-cost Pharmacotherapy was the most effective means of reducing smoking in the elderly.
Smoking cessation; elderly; Medicare
To test the efficacy of two smoking cessation interventions in an HIV+ sample: standard care (SC) treatment plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) versus more intensive motivationally-enhanced (ME) treatment plus NRT.
randomized controlled trial.
HIV+ smoker referrals from eight Immunology clinics in the Northeastern US.
444 participants enrolled in the study (mean age=42 years; 63% male; 52% European-American; mean cigarettes/day=22.8).
SC received two brief sessions with a Health Educator. Those setting a quit date received self-help quitting materials and NRT. ME received four sessions of motivational counseling and a quit-day counseling call. All ME intervention materials were tailored to the needs of HIV+ individuals.
Biochemically-verified 7-day abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month, and 6-month follow-ups.
Intent-to-Treat (ITT) abstinence rates at 2-month, 4-month, and 6-month follow-ups were 12%, 9%, and 9% respectively in the ME condition, and 13%, 10%, and 10% respectively in the SC condition, indicating no between-group differences. Among 412 participants with treatment utilization data, 6-month ITT abstinence rates were positively associated with low nicotine dependence (p=0.02), high motivation to quit (p=0.04), and Hispanic-American race/ethnicity (p=0.02). Adjusting for these variables, each additional NRT contact improved the odds of smoking abstinence by a third (OR=1.32, 95% CI= 0.99–1.75).
Motivationally-enhanced treatment plus NRT did not improve cessation rates over and above standard care treatment plus NRT in this HIV+ sample of smokers. Providers offering brief support and encouraging use of nicotine replacement may be able to help HIV+ patients quit smoking.
HIV; tobacco cessation; nicotine replacement; Transtheoretical Model
Bupropion and cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) for depression have been used as components of treatments designed to alleviate affective disturbance during smoking cessation. Studies of treatment-related changes in precessation affect or urges to smoke are needed to evaluate the proposed mechanisms of these treatments.
The present report examines affective trajectories and urges to smoke prior to, on quit day, and after quitting in a sample of 524 smokers randomized to receive bupropion versus placebo and CBT versus standard smoking cessation CBT.
Bupropion and/or CBT did not affect the observed decreases in positive affect and increases in negative affect prior to cessation. However, on quit day, observed levels of negative affect and urges to smoke were diminished significantly among individuals receiving bupropion. Decreases in positive affect prior to quitting, lower levels of positive affect, and increased levels of negative affect and urges to smoke on quit day were each related to higher risk of smoking lapse. Depression proneness was an independent predictor of lower positive affect and higher negative affect but did not moderate the effects of bupropion on outcomes. In mediational analyses, the effect of bupropion was accounted for in part by lower negative affect and urges to smoke on quit day.
Results support the efficacy of bupropion in reducing relapse risk associated with urges to smoke and negative affect and suggest the need to better understand the role of low positive affect as a risk factor for early lapse.
An inability to maintain abstinence is a key indicator of tobacco dependence. Unfortunately, little evidence exists regarding the ability of the major tobacco dependence measures to predict smoking cessation outcome. This paper used data from four placebo-controlled smoking cessation trials and one international epidemiologic study to determine relations between the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Heatherton et al., 1991), the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI; Kozlowski et al., 1994), the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS; Shiffman et al., 2004) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM; Piper et al. 2004) with cessation success. Results showed that much of the predictive validity of the FTND could be attributed to its first item, time to first cigarette in the morning, and this item had greater validity than any other single measure. Thus, the time to first cigarette item appears to tap a pattern of heavy, uninterrupted, and automatic smoking and may be a good single-item measure of nicotine dependence.
A number of personality traits have been associated with cigarette smoking. Current smokers generally show higher levels of negative emotionality and lower levels of behavioral constraint than former smokers and those who never smoked. However, prior investigations have not examined thoroughly whether these smoking–personality associations are unique to smoking status or simply reflect the fact that these personality traits tend to be elevated across numerous forms of psychopathology. Likewise, prior studies have not addressed whether personality shows differential associations with smoking based on the presence or absence of lifetime psychiatric disorders.
The present study examined these questions using data from 472 current, 311 former, and 324 never-smokers aged 34–44 years.
Current smokers reported being more reactive to stress, more aggressive, more alienated, and less harm avoidant than both former smokers and never-smokers, whereas former smokers and never-smokers showed similar personality profiles overall. Psychiatric disorder history did not interact with smoking status in predicting personality. Controlling for differences in four major lifetime psychiatric disorders (major depression, alcohol dependence, drug dependence, and conduct disorder) reduced the differences in personality traits associated with smoking status. However, smoking status continued to relate uniquely and significantly to higher levels of negative emotionality and behavioral undercontrol with the most robust effect observed for trait alienation.
These results provide the most comprehensive depiction to date of interrelations among personality, psychopathology, and smoking and suggest an important role of personality in smoking that is not redundant with or conditional upon lifetime psychopathology.
This study investigated the relationship between cigarette smoking status and 12-month alcohol and marijuana treatment outcomes in a sample of 1779 adolescents from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study for Adolescence (DATOS-A). Participants were classified into 4 groups based on change in cigarette smoking status from intake to the 12-month follow-up: Persistent Smokers, Non-Smokers, Quitters, and Smoking Initiators. Logistic regression was used to predict likelihood of relapse to alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs after controlling for intake levels and demographic/treatment characteristics. Results found Persistent Smokers and Smoking Initiators to have significantly greater odds of alcohol and marijuana relapse compared to Quitters. Furthermore, Persistent Smokers, and Smoking Initiators were also found to have distinctively shorter periods of time to marijuana relapse at follow-up. Implications for the implementation of tobacco cessation treatment in the context of substance abuse treatment for adolescents are discussed.
Adolescent; Tobacco Use; Substance Use; Substance Abuse Treatment; DATOS-A
Tobacco use for many people is compulsive in nature. Compelling theories of how smoking becomes compulsive exist but are largely based on extrapolation from neuroscience findings. Research on smokers is impeded, in part, by a lack of instruments that specifically measure compulsive smoking.
This study evaluated the measurement structure and validity of the Obsessive Compulsive Smoking Scale (OCSS), a ten-item questionnaire designed to measure compulsive smoking.
Participants were 239 daily smokers (≥1 cigarette/day), including 142 students at a public university in Chicago and 97 veterans treated at the VA Boston Healthcare System. The OCSS and questionnaires measuring current and past smoking, cigarette craving, automatic smoking, and nicotine dependence were administered.
Factor analysis with maximum likelihood extraction and oblique rotation revealed two correlated underlying factors, interpreted as “Preoccupation with Smoking” and “Compulsive Drive.” The measurement structure was consistent across students and veterans, and confirmed in an independent sample of adults (n = 95). Veterans exhibited higher OCSS scores (full scale and subscales) than students. Across groups, higher OCSS scores were positively correlated with smoking intensity, craving, and nicotine dependence. OCSS full-scale and compulsive drive scores, but not smoking preoccupation scores, were inversely correlated with past month smoking reduction and minutes since last cigarette.
The OCSS is a valid and reliable inventory for measuring the degree to which daily smokers are preoccupied with smoking and engage in compulsive tobacco use, and may be useful for advancing understanding of core smoking phenotypes or for tailoring cessation therapies.
Tobacco use; Addiction; Smoking preoccupation; Compulsive smoking; Craving; Psychometrics; Obsessive compulsive smoking scale; College students; Adults
The Internet can deliver smoking cessation interventions to large numbers of smokers. Little is known about the feasibility, reach, or efficacy of Internet cessation interventions. Virtually no data exist on who enrolls in cessation programs or on differences between those who complete enrollment and those who do not. This paper reports recruitment and enrollment findings for the first 764 participants in an ongoing randomized controlled trial that tested the efficacy of a widely disseminated Internet smoking cessation service (www.QuitNet.com) alone and in conjunction with telephone counseling. Study participants were recruited through Internet search engines using an active user sampling protocol. During the first 16 weeks of the study, 28,297 individuals were invited. Of those, 11,147 accepted the invitation, 5,557 screened eligible, 3,614 were recruited, 1,489 provided online informed consent, and 764 were confirmed eligible and enrolled. Of those who were at least curious about a cessation trial (n=11,147), 6.9% enrolled. Of those who were eligible and recruited (n=3,614), 21.1% enrolled. Depending on the denominator selected, results suggest that 7% to 21% of smokers interested in cessation will enroll into a research trial. Internet recruitment provides unique challenges and opportunities for managing sample recruitment, analyzing subsamples to determine generalizability, and understanding the characteristics of individuals who participate in online research.