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author:("Xu, jiangling")
1.  Evidence That HIV-1 CRF01_AE Is Associated with Low CD4+T Cell Count and CXCR4 Co-Receptor Usage in Recently Infected Young Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in Shanghai, China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(2):e89462.
Men who have sex with men (MSM) have recently accounted for an alarmingly increasing proportion of HIV-1 transmission in China. In order to investigate the immune status as a result of CRF01_AE infection and CXCR4 co-receptor usage in a young Shanghai-based HIV-1-infected MSM population in Shanghai, 364 HIV-1-infected MSM with average age of 22.7 years old, newly diagnosed between Jan 2009 and Jul 2013 were analyzed for CD4+T cell count, subtyping using phylogenetic analysis, and viral co-receptor tropism using Geno2pheno and webPSSM in combination. A total of 276 individuals were identified as recently infected. Subtype assignment were as follows: 176 (63.8%) CRF01_AE, 77 (27.9%) CRF07_BC, and 23 (8.3%) subtype B. Besides, 24 second-generation recombinant strains were identified. A lower CD4+T cell count at baseline survey was observed among CRF01_AE strain-infected individuals, compared to those who were infected with CRF07_BC (P<0.01). The frequency of baseline CD4+T cell count <200 was higher and the frequency of CD4 T counts >500 lower in CRF01_AE infection than CRF07_BC infection. It is worth noting that 32.4%–40.9% of CRF01_AE strain-infected individuals were predicted to carry CXCR4-tropic viruses whereas none of CRF07_BC and subtype B were found to be as CXCR4-tropic viruses (P<0.001). As could be expected CXCR4 tropism was associated with lower CD4 T counts. This study revealed that CRF01_AE strains with high frequency of CXCR4 tropism are prevailing in the young MSM population in China and could potentially cause a severe loss of CD4+T cell count and rapid disease progression. A regular surveillance of HIV-1 subtypes, CD4+T cell count and viral co-receptor usage would be greatly beneficial for effectively monitoring disease progression, improvement of antiretroviral therapy strategy and prompt intervention of transmission.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089462
PMCID: PMC3931781  PMID: 24586795
2.  Cost-Effectiveness of Alternative Strategies for Annual Influenza Vaccination among Children Aged 6 Months to 14 Years in Four Provinces in China 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e87590.
Background
To support policy making, we developed an initial model to assess the cost-effectiveness of potential strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates among children in China.
Methods
We studied on children aged 6 months to 14 years in four provinces (Shandong, Henan, Hunan, and Sichuan), with a health care system perspective. We used data from 2005/6 to 2010/11, excluding 2009/10. Costs are reported in 2010 U.S. dollars.
Results
In comparison with no vaccination, the mean (range) of Medically Attended Cases averted by the current self-payment policy for the two age groups (6 to 59 months and 60 months to 14 years) was 1,465 (23∼11,132) and 792 (36∼4,247), and the cost effectiveness ratios were $ 0 (-11-51) and $ 37 (6-125) per case adverted, respectively. In comparison with the current policy, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of alternative strategies, OPTION One-reminder and OPTION Two-comprehensive package, decreased as vaccination rate increased. The ICER for children aged 6 to 59 months was lower than that for children aged 60 months to 14 years.
Conclusions
The model is a useful tool in identifying elements for evaluating vaccination strategies. However, more data are needed to produce more accurate cost-effectiveness estimates of potential vaccination policies.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0087590
PMCID: PMC3909220  PMID: 24498145
3.  Differential Compartmentalization of HIV-Targeting Immune Cells in Inner and Outer Foreskin Tissue 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e85176.
Ex vivo foreskin models have demonstrated that inner foreskin is more susceptible to HIV-1 infection than outer foreskin. In the present study we characterized the compartition of HIV-1 target cells and quantified these cells in the epidermis and dermis of inner and outer foreskins using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Our data showed that the epidermis of the inner foreskin was more enriched with CD4+ T cells and Langerhans cells (LCs), with the co-expression of CCR5 and α4β7 receptors, than the outer foreskin. Interestingly, the vast majority of CD4+ T cells and LCs expressed CCR5, but not CXCR4, indicating that the inner foreskin might capture and transmit R5-tropic HIV strains more efficiently. In addition, lymphoid aggregates, composed of T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in the dermis, were closer to the epithelial surface in the inner foreskin than in the outer foreskin. As dendritic cells are able to capture and pass HIV particles to susceptible target cells, HIV may be able to more efficiently infect the inner foreskin by hijacking the augmented immune communication pathways in this tissue. After the inoculation of HIV-1 particles in a foreskin explant culture model, the level of p24 antigen in the supernatant from the inner foreskin was slightly higher than that from the outer foreskin, although this difference was not significant. The present study is the first to employ both CCR5 and α4β7 to identify HIV target cells in the foreskin. Our data demonstrated that the inner foreskin was more enriched with HIV target immune cells than the outer foreskin, and this tissue was structured for efficient communication among immune cells that may promote HIV transmission and replication. In addition, our data suggests the R5-tropism of HIV sexual transmission is likely shaped through the inherent receptor composition on HIV target cells in the mucosa.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085176
PMCID: PMC3893184  PMID: 24454812
4.  The Temporal Trend of Influenza-Associated Morbidity and the Impact of Early Appearance of Antigenic Drifted Strains in a Southeast Asian Country 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(1):e84239.
Globally, influenza infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, who are suggested to be the major target group for trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) vaccination by World Health Organization. In spite of an increasing trend in vaccine coverage rates in many countries, the effect of vaccination among the elderly in reducing hospitalization and mortality remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a historical cohort study to evaluate the temporal pattern of influenza-associated morbidity among persons older than 64 years over a decade. The temporal patterns of influenza-associated morbidity rates among the elderly older than 64 years indicated that Taiwan's elderly P&I outpatient visits have been decreasing since the beginning of the 1999–2000 influenza season; however, hospitalization has been increasing despite significant increases in vaccine coverage. The propensity score logistic regression model was implemented to evaluate the source of bias and it was found that the TIV-receiving group had a higher propensity score than the non-receiving group (P<0.0001). In order to investigate the major factors affecting the temporal pattern of influenza-associated morbidity, we then used the propensity score as a summary confounder in a multivariate Poisson regression model based on the trimmed data. Our final models suggested that the factors affected the temporal pattern of morbidity differently. The variables including co-morbidity, vaccination rate, influenza virus type A and B isolation rate were associated with increased outpatient visits and hospitalization (p<0.05). In contrast, variables including high propensity score, increased 1°C in temperature, matching vaccine strains of type A/H1N1 and type B were associated with decreased outpatient visits and hospitalization (p<0.05). Finally, we assessed the impact of early appearance of antigenic-drifted strains and concluded that an excess influenza-associated morbidity substantial trends toward higher P&I hospitalization, but not outpatient visits, during the influenza season with early appearance of antigenic-drifted strains.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0084239
PMCID: PMC3885564  PMID: 24416205
5.  Five New CRF07_BC Near Full-Length Sequences Isolated from Sichuan, China 
Abstract
The main heroine traffic from Yunnan province to the Xinjiang Autonomous Region is believed to initiate the transmission of CRF07_BC which is the predominant strain in intravenous drug users (IDUs) in China. However, the great distances between Yunnan and Xinjiang lead to an unclear and elusive diffusion process of CRF07_BC due to the absence of an important middle site such as Sichuan province. Moreover, in recent years the rapidly increasing infection rate among IDUs in the Liangshan region of Sichuan made it necessary to characterize the genetic character of the circulating strain of Sichuan IDUs. In this study, we characterized the genetic character of seven newly isolated CRF07_BC genomes (five from Sichuan and two from Xinjiang) and analyzed the transmission linkage among strains from IDUs in different regions. By conducting Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analysis and reconstruction of neighbor-joining trees and maximum-likelihood trees, our results revealed the genetic variation and important role of Sichuan-derived CRF07_BC strains during the transmission of CRF07_BC.
doi:10.1089/aid.2012.0124
PMCID: PMC3537321  PMID: 22931113
6.  Deciphering the Complex Distribution of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtypes among Different Cohorts in Northern Tanzania 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(12):e81848.
Background
Increased understanding of the genetic diversity of HIV-1 is challenging but important in the development of an effective vaccine. We aimed to describe the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes in northern Tanzania among women enrolled in studies preparing for HIV-1 prevention trials (hospitality facility-worker cohorts), and among men and women in an open cohort demographic surveillance system (Kisesa cohort).
Methods
The polymerase encompassing partial reverse transcriptase was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis performed and subtype determined. Questionnaires documented demographic data. We examined factors associated with subtype using multinomial logistic regression, adjusted for study, age, and sex.
Results
Among 140 individuals (125 women and 15 men), subtype A1 predominated (54, 39%), followed by C (46, 33%), D (25, 18%) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) (15, 11%). There was weak evidence to suggest different subtype frequencies by study (for example, 18% URFs in the Kisesa cohort versus 5–9% in the hospitality facility-worker cohorts; adjusted relative-risk ratio (aRR) = 2.35 [95% CI 0.59,9.32]; global p = 0.09). Compared to men, women were less likely to have subtype D versus A (aRR = 0.12 [95% CI 0.02,0.76]; global p = 0.05). There was a trend to suggest lower relative risk of subtype D compared to A with older age (aRR = 0.44 [95% CI 0.23,0.85] per 10 years; global p = 0.05).
Conclusions
We observed multiple subtypes, confirming the complex genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains circulating in northern Tanzania, and found some differences between cohorts and by age and sex. This has important implications for vaccine design and development, providing opportunity to determine vaccine efficacy in diverse HIV-1 strains.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0081848
PMCID: PMC3859540  PMID: 24349139
7.  Multiple Independent Introductions of HIV-1 CRF01_AE Identified in China: What Are the Implications for Prevention? 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(11):e80487.
Background
HIV-1 CRF01_AE accounts for an important fraction of HIV infections in Asia including China, but little is known about the phylogenetic and evolutionary history of this CRF (circulating recombinant form). In the current study, we collected a large number of 1,957 CRF01_AE gag p17 sequences with known sampling year (1990-2010) from 5 global regions representing 15 countries to better understand the phylogenetic relationships and epidemic history of CRF01_AE strains in China.
Methodology/Principal Findings
CRF01_AE gag p17 sequences were retrieved from public databases to explore phylogenetic relationships and phylogeographic dynamics of CRF01_AE in Asia by using maximum-likelihood phylogenetics and Bayesian coalescent-based analyses. We found close phylogenetic relationships between sequences from Thailand, Vietnam and China. Moreover, at least 5 independent introductions and 5 independent autochthonous clades of CRF01_AE, which descended from Thailand or Vietnam were identified in China from 1991 through 2003.
Conclusion/Significance
The current study not only defines the migration of CRF01_AE clades to/in Asia, but also demonstrates the criticalness of identifying the circulating strains in the population for the development of vaccine and microbicides.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0080487
PMCID: PMC3839914  PMID: 24282546
8.  Identification of Dominant Antibody-Dependent Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Epitopes on the Hemagglutinin Antigen of Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(10):5831-5840.
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) bridges innate and adaptive immunity, and it involves both humoral and cellular immune responses. ADCC has been found to be a main route of immune protection against viral infections in vivo. Hemagglutinin (HA) of influenza virus is highly immunogenic and considered the most important target for immune protection. Several potent cross-reactive HA-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been reported, and their conserved neutralizing epitopes have been revealed, but there has been no report so far about ADCC epitopes on HA. Here we identified two dominant ADCC epitopes, designated E1 (amino acids [aa] 92 to 117) and E2 (aa 124 to 159), on HA of pandemic H1N1 influenza virus by epitope mapping of convalescent-phase plasma IgG antibodies from six H1N1-infected human subjects in China that exhibited different levels of ADCC activity. The E1 and E2 ADCC epitopes overlapped with immunodominant epitopes of HA. Depletion of purified patient plasma IgG antibodies with EBY100 yeast cells expressing E1 or E2 decreased the ADCC activity of the IgG antibodies. E1 and E2 sequences were found to be highly conserved in H1N1 strains but less so in other subtypes of influenza A viruses. Our study may aid in designing immunogens that can elicit antibodies with high ADCC activity. Vaccine immunogens designed to include the structural determinants of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies and ADCC epitopes may confer comprehensive immune protection against influenza virus infection.
doi:10.1128/JVI.00273-13
PMCID: PMC3648183  PMID: 23487456
9.  Safe Pseudovirus-based Assay for Neutralization Antibodies against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2013;19(10):1685-1687.
Serologic studies are urgently needed to assist in understanding an outbreak of influenza A(H7N9) virus. However, a biosafety level 3 laboratory is required for conventional serologic assays with live lethal virus. We describe a safe pseudovirus–based neutralization assay with preliminary assessment using subtype H7N9–infected samples and controls.
doi:10.3201/eid1910.130728
PMCID: PMC3810762  PMID: 24047684
Influenza; subtype H7N9; serology; neutralization tests; pseudovirus; viruses
10.  Timeliness Vaccination of Measles Containing Vaccine and Barriers to Vaccination among Migrant Children in East China 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(8):e73264.
Background
The reported coverage rates of first and second doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV) are almost 95% in China, while measles cases are constantly being reported. This study evaluated the vaccine coverage, timeliness, and barriers to immunization of MCV1 and MCV2 in children aged from 8–48 months.
Methods
We assessed 718 children aged 8–48 months, of which 499 children aged 18–48 months in September 2011. Face to face interviews were administered with children’s mothers to estimate MCV1 and MCV2 coverage rate, its timeliness and barriers to vaccine uptake.
Results
The coverage rates were 76.9% for MCV1 and 44.7% for MCV2 in average. Only 47.5% of surveyed children received the MCV1 timely, which postpone vaccination by up to one month beyond the stipulated age of 8 months. Even if coverage thus improves with time, postponed vaccination adds to the pool of unprotected children in the population. Being unaware of the necessity for vaccination and its schedule, misunderstanding of side-effect of vaccine, and child being sick during the recommended vaccination period were significant preventive factors for both MCV1 and MCV2 vaccination. Having multiple children, mother’s education level, household income and children with working mothers were significantly associated with delayed or missing MCV1 immunization.
Conclusions
To avoid future outbreaks, it is crucial to attain high coverage levels by timely vaccination, thus, accurate information should be delivered and a systematic approach should be targeted to high-risk groups.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073264
PMCID: PMC3755000  PMID: 24013709
11.  Enzymatic Excision of Uracil Residues in Nucleosomes Depends on Local DNA Structure and Dynamics† 
Biochemistry  2012;51(30):6028-6038.
The excision of uracil bases from DNA is accomplished by the enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG). Recognition of uracil bases in free DNA is facilitated by uracil base pair dynamics, but it is not known whether this same mechanistic feature is relevant for detection and excision of uracil residues embedded in nucleosomes. Here we investigate this question using nucleosome core particles (NCPs) generated from X. laevis histones and the high-affinity “Widom 601” positioning sequence. The reactivity of uracil residues in NCPs under steady-state multiple turnover conditions was generally decreased as compared to free 601 DNA, mostly due to anticipated steric effects of histones. However, some sites in NCPs had equal or even greater reactivity than free DNA, and the observed reactivities were not readily explained by simple steric considerations, or by global DNA unwrapping models for nucleosome invasion. In particular, some reactive uracils were found in occluded positions, while some unreactive uracils were found in exposed positions. One feature of many exposed reactive sites is a wide DNA minor groove, which allows penetration of a key active site loop of the enzyme. In single-turnover kinetic measurements, multi-phasic reaction kinetics were observed for several uracil sites, where each kinetic transient was independent of the UNG concentration. These kinetic measurements, and supporting structural analyses, support a mechanism where some uracils are transiently exposed to UNG by local, rate-limiting nucleosome conformational dynamics, followed by rapid trapping of the exposed state by the enzyme. We present structural models and plausible reaction mechanisms for the reaction of UNG at three distinct uracil sites in the NCP.
doi:10.1021/bi3006412
PMCID: PMC3448002  PMID: 22784353
12.  Factors Associated with Serological Cure and the Serofast State of HIV-Negative Patients with Primary, Secondary, Latent, and Tertiary Syphilis 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e70102.
Background
Some syphilis patients remain in a serologically active state after the recommended therapy. We currently know too little about the characteristics of this serological response.
Methods
We conducted a cohort study using the clinical database from Zhongshan Hospital, Medical College of Xiamen. In total, 1,327 HIV-negative patients with primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis were enrolled. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were utilised to identify factors associated with a serological cure and serofast state in syphilis patients one year after therapy. Chi-square tests were used to determine the differences in the serological cure rate across different therapy time points.
Results
One year after the recommended therapy, 870 patients achieved a serological cure, and 457 patients (34.4%) remained in the serofast state. The serological cure rate increased only within the first 6 months. The bivariate analysis indicated that male or younger patients had a higher likelihood of a serological cure than female or older patients. Having a baseline titre ≤1∶2 or ≥1∶64 was associated with an increased likelihood of a serological cure. The serological cure rate decreased for the different disease stages in the order of primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary syphilis. A distinction should be drawn between early and late syphilis. The multivariate analysis indicated that a serological cure was significantly associated with the disease phase, gender, age, and baseline rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre.
Conclusions
The serofast state is common in clinical work. After one year of the recommended therapy, quite a few syphilis patients remained RPR positive. The primary endpoint of the study indicated that disease phase, gender, age and baseline RPR titre were crucial factors associated with a serological cure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070102
PMCID: PMC3720935  PMID: 23894598
13.  Comparison of Different Risk Perception Measures in Predicting Seasonal Influenza Vaccination among Healthy Chinese Adults in Hong Kong: A Prospective Longitudinal Study 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68019.
Background
Risk perception is a reported predictor of vaccination uptake, but which measures of risk perception best predict influenza vaccination uptake remain unclear.
Methodology
During the main influenza seasons (between January and March) of 2009 (Wave 1) and 2010 (Wave 2),505 Chinese students and employees from a Hong Kong university completed an online survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to assess how well different risk perceptions measures in Wave 1 predicted vaccination uptake against seasonal influenza in Wave 2.
Principal Findings
The results of the multivariate logistic regression models showed that feeling at risk (β = 0.25, p = 0.021) was the better predictor compared with probability judgment while probability judgment (β = 0.25, p = 0.029 ) was better than beliefs about risk in predicting subsequent influenza vaccination uptake. Beliefs about risk and feeling at risk seemed to predict the same aspect of subsequent vaccination uptake because their associations with vaccination uptake became insignificant when paired into the logistic regression model. Similarly, to compare the four scales for assessing probability judgment in predicting vaccination uptake, the 7-point verbal scale remained a significant and stronger predictor for vaccination uptake when paired with other three scales; the 6-point verbal scale was a significant and stronger predictor when paired with the percentage scale or the 2-point verbal scale; and the percentage scale was a significant and stronger predictor only when paired with the 2-point verbal scale.
Conclusions/Significance
Beliefs about risk and feeling at risk are not well differentiated by Hong Kong Chinese people. Feeling at risk, an affective-cognitive dimension of risk perception predicts subsequent vaccination uptake better than do probability judgments. Among the four scales for assessing risk probability judgment, the 7-point verbal scale offered the best predictive power for subsequent vaccination uptake.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068019
PMCID: PMC3716928  PMID: 23894292
14.  A Review of the Evidence to Support Influenza Vaccine Introduction in Countries and Areas of WHO's Western Pacific Region 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e70003.
Background
Immunization against influenza is considered an essential public health intervention to control both seasonal epidemics and pandemic influenza. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are five key policy and three key programmatic issues that decision-makers should consider before introducing a vaccine. These are (a) public health priority, (b) disease burden, (c) efficacy, quality and safety of the vaccine, (d) other inventions, (e) economic and financial issues, (f) vaccine presentation, (g) supply availability and (h) programmatic strength. We analyzed the body of evidence currently available on these eight issues in the WHO Western Pacific Region.
Methodology/Principal Findings
Studies indexed in PubMed and published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2010 from the 37 countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region were screened for keywords pertaining to the five policy and three programmatic issues. Studies were grouped according to country income level and vaccine target group. There were 133 articles that met the selection criteria, with most (90%) coming from high-income countries. Disease burden (n = 34), vaccine efficacy, quality and safety (n = 27) and public health priority (n = 27) were most frequently addressed by studies conducted in the Region. Many studies assessed influenza vaccine policy and programmatic issues in the general population (42%), in the elderly (24%) and in children (17%). Few studies (2%) addressed the eight issues relating to pregnant women.
Conclusions/Significance
The evidence for vaccine introduction in countries and areas in this Region remains limited, particularly in low- and middle-income countries that do not currently have influenza vaccination programmes. Surveillance activities and specialized studies can be used to assess the eight issues including disease burden among vaccine target groups and the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccine. Multi-country studies should be considered to maximize resource utilization for cross-cutting issues such as vaccine presentation and other inventions.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070003
PMCID: PMC3713047  PMID: 23875015
15.  Recruitment of HIV-1 target cells at topical mucosal sites: a sensitive and early marker for determining the safety of microbicide candidates 
To explore early biomarkers for establishing more sensitive safety evaluation assays in preclinical settings that determine the potential risks during the application of microbicide candidates, three representative microbicide candidates (cellulose sulphate, nonoxynol-9 and tenofovir), whose safety profiles have been well established in clinical trials, were included to gauge the sensitivities of different assays. Both mouse models and cell lines were employed to determine the sensitivities. The recruitment of immune cells at topical mucosal sites and the upregulation of HIV receptor/coreceptors in vitro were identified as highly sensitive biomarkers of the impact of microbicide candidates. Our data suggest that different evaluations/assays have their inherent sensitivities, and at least one assay from each sensitivity level should be included in the safety evaluation algorithm.
doi:10.1038/emi.2013.42
PMCID: PMC3820983
HIV; microbicides; coreceptor; recruitment; receptor; safety; sensitivity
16.  Identification of a Human Protein-Derived HIV-1 Fusion Inhibitor Targeting the gp41 Fusion Core Structure 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e66156.
The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) gp41 plays a crucial role in the viral fusion process. The peptides derived from the C-terminal heptad repeat (CHR) of gp41 are potent HIV fusion inhibitors. However, the activity of these anti-HIV-1 peptides in vivo may be attenuated by their induction of anti-gp41 antibodies. Thus, it is essential to identify antiviral peptides or proteins with low, or no, immunogenicity to humans. Here, we found that the C-terminal fragment (aa 462–521) of the human POB1 (the partner of RalBP1), designated C60, is an HIV-1 fusion inhibitor. It bound to N36, the peptide derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (NHR) of gp41, and to the six-helix bundle (6-HB) formed by N36 and C34, a CHR-peptide, but it did not bind to C34. Unlike the CHR-peptides, C60 did not block gp41 6-HB formation. Rather, results suggest that C60 inhibits HIV-1 fusion by binding to the 6-HB, in particular, the residues in the gp41 NHR domain that are exposed on the surface of 6-HB. Since 6-HB plays a crucial role in the late stage of fusion between the viral envelope and endosomal membrane during the endocytic process of HIV-1, C60 may serve as a host restriction factor to suppress HIV-1 entry into CD4+ T lymphocytes. Taken together, it can be concluded from these results that C60 can be used as a lead for the development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutics or microbicides for the treatment and prevention of HIV-1 infection, as well as a molecular probe to study the fusogenic mechanism of HIV-1.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066156
PMCID: PMC3669275  PMID: 23741527
17.  Serverification of Molecular Modeling Applications: The Rosetta Online Server That Includes Everyone (ROSIE) 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(5):e63906.
The Rosetta molecular modeling software package provides experimentally tested and rapidly evolving tools for the 3D structure prediction and high-resolution design of proteins, nucleic acids, and a growing number of non-natural polymers. Despite its free availability to academic users and improving documentation, use of Rosetta has largely remained confined to developers and their immediate collaborators due to the code’s difficulty of use, the requirement for large computational resources, and the unavailability of servers for most of the Rosetta applications. Here, we present a unified web framework for Rosetta applications called ROSIE (Rosetta Online Server that Includes Everyone). ROSIE provides (a) a common user interface for Rosetta protocols, (b) a stable application programming interface for developers to add additional protocols, (c) a flexible back-end to allow leveraging of computer cluster resources shared by RosettaCommons member institutions, and (d) centralized administration by the RosettaCommons to ensure continuous maintenance. This paper describes the ROSIE server infrastructure, a step-by-step ‘serverification’ protocol for use by Rosetta developers, and the deployment of the first nine ROSIE applications by six separate developer teams: Docking, RNA de novo, ERRASER, Antibody, Sequence Tolerance, Supercharge, Beta peptide design, NCBB design, and VIP redesign. As illustrated by the number and diversity of these applications, ROSIE offers a general and speedy paradigm for serverification of Rosetta applications that incurs negligible cost to developers and lowers barriers to Rosetta use for the broader biological community. ROSIE is available at http://rosie.rosettacommons.org.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063906
PMCID: PMC3661552  PMID: 23717507
18.  In Situ IgM Production and Clonal Expansion of B-1 Cells in Peritoneal Cavity Promote Elimination of C. albicans Infection in IgH Transgenic Mice with VH Derived from a Natural Antibody 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(4):e60779.
B-1 cells are innate-like cells that play important roles in host defense against infection. However, the function of B-1 cells in fungi infection remains unclear. Previously we produced IgH transgenic mice TgVH3B4 with VH derived from a natural antibody 3B4 that can identify C. albicans, and found that TgVH3B4 mice were resistant to intraperitoneal (i. p.) and intravenous C. albicans infection. Most of the peritoneal cavity (PEC) B-1 cells in TgVH3B4 mice express transgenic BCR that binds C. albicans. In the present study, we explored the response of B-1 cells to C. albicans infection by applying i. p. inoculation of fungi in TgVH3B4 mice. We found that C. albicans was cleared more efficiently in TgVH3B4 mice after i. p. inoculation than that of littermate control. The level of C. albicans-reactive IgM in PEC of TgVH3B4 mice was much higher than that of control, and the number of B-1a B cells was also elevated in TgVH3B4 mice, which was mainly due to enhanced proliferation of B-1 cells. Additionally, numbers of C. albicans-specific B cells increased greatly in TgVH3B4 mice after C. albicans inoculation. Our data suggested that in situ IgM production and clonal expansion of B-1 cells in PEC participate in host defense against C. albicans infection.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0060779
PMCID: PMC3614557  PMID: 23565274
19.  Surveillance on the Status of Immune Cells after Echinnococcus granulosus Protoscoleces Infection in Balb/c Mice 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e59746.
Background
Cystic echinococcosis is a global parasitic disease caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus larvae with potentially life-threatening complications in humans. To date, the status of the immune cells believed to be associated with the pathogenicity of E. granulosus infection has not been demonstrated clearly.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In this study, we developed a multiplex flow cytometry assay to investigate the systemic immune status of innate and adaptive immunity at 30, 180, 360 days post-infection (dpi) in mice infected with E. granulousus. At 30 dpi, an increase in the number of CD11b+ and CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was observed. This was accompanied by the slight down-regulated expression of the co-stimulatory molecule MHC-II, indicating the impairment of APCs in early infection through the release of secretory-excretory products. In all infected groups, we observed a significant increase in innate immune cells, including APCs and GR-1+ cells, and a dramatic increase in the myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) expressing CD11b+/GR-1+. Moreover, the upregulation of the activated markers CD69, CD44, CD40L, and the downregulation of CD62L were observed in the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following infection. Regulatory T cells expressing CD4+/CD25+/FoxP3+ increased significantly over the course of infection.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrate that the microenvironment in the peripheral immune system after E. granulosus infection changes in subtle but detectably ways, especially during the persistent period of infection. We found that T cells were activated following infection, but observed that the significant increase of immunosuppressive cells such as MDSC and Treg cells could inhibit T cell response to E. granulosus antigens. We suggest these cells may play a neglected but key role in the downregulation of the immune response in long-term parasitic infection. Understanding the basic functions and temporal interactions of these immunosuppressive cells will pave the way for new strategies of parasite vaccine design.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059746
PMCID: PMC3608569  PMID: 23555767
20.  New Emerging Recombinant HIV-1 Strains and Close Transmission Linkage of HIV-1 Strains in the Chinese MSM Population Indicate a New Epidemic Risk 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e54322.
In recent years, the population of men who have sex with men (MSM) have become the most significant increasing group of HIV-1 transmission in China. To identify new recombinant strains and transmission patterns of HIV-1 in Chinese MSM population, a cross-sectional investigation of MSM in Anhui Province (in south-eastern China) was performed in 2011. The diagnosed AIDS case rate, CD4 T-cell counts, HIV subtypes, and origin of the recombinant strains were investigated in 138 collected samples. The phylogenetic and bootscan analyses demonstrated that, apart from three previously reported circulating strains (CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, subtype B), various recombinant strains among subtype B, subtype C, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC were simultaneously identified in Chinese MSM for the first time. The introducing time of B subtype in Chinese MSM populations was estimated in 1985, CRF01_AE in 2000, and CRF07_BC in 2003; the latter two account for more than 85% of MSM infections. Notably, in comparison with B subtype infections in Anhui MSM, CRF01_AE, with the highest prevalence rate, may accelerate AIDS progression. Over half of patients (56%) infected with new recombinant strains infection are diagnosed as progression into AIDS. Both Bayes and phylogenetic analyses indicated that there was active HIV transmission among MSM nationwide, which may facilitate the transmission of the new 01B recombinant strains in MSM. In conclusion, new recombinant strains and active transmission were identified in the Chinese MSM population, which may lead to a new alarming HIV pandemic in this population due to the increased pathogenesis of the newly emerging strains.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0054322
PMCID: PMC3553145  PMID: 23372706
21.  A Critical HA1 Neutralizing Domain of H5N1 Influenza in an Optimal Conformation Induces Strong Cross-Protection 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(1):e53568.
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses, especially the laboratory-generated H5N1 mutants, have demonstrated the potential to cross the species barrier and infect mammals and humans. Consequently, the design of an effective and safe anti-H5N1 vaccine is essential. We previously demonstrated that the full-length hemagglutinin 1 (HA1) could induce significant neutralizing antibody response and protection. Here, we intended to identify the critical neutralizing domain (CND) in an optimal conformation that can elicit strong cross-neutralizing antibodies and protection against divergent H5N1 strains. We thus constructed six recombinant proteins covering different regions of HA1 of A/Anhui/1/2005(H5N1), each of which was fused with foldon (Fd) and Fc of human IgG. We found that the critical fragment fused with Fd/Fc (HA-13–263-Fdc, H5 numbering) that could elicit the strongest neutralizing antibody response is located in the N-terminal region of HA1 (residues 13–263), which covers the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 112–263). We then constructed three additional recombinants fused with Fd plus His tag (HA-13–263-Fd-His), Fc only (HA-13–263-Fc), and His tag only (HA-13–263-His), respectively. We found that the HA-13–263-Fdc, which formed an oligomeric conformation, induced the strongest neutralizing antibody response and cross-protection against challenges of two tested H5N1 virus strains covering clade 1: A/VietNam/1194/2004 (VN/1194) or clade 2.3.4: A/Shenzhen/406H/06 (SZ/406H), while HA-13–263-Fc dimer and HA-13–263-Fd-His trimer elicited higher neutralizing antibody response and protection than HA-13–263-His monomer. These results suggest that the oligomeric form of the CND containing the RBD can be further developed as an effective and safe vaccine for cross-protection against divergent strains of H5N1 viruses.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0053568
PMCID: PMC3539987  PMID: 23320093
22.  A New Migration Map of HIV-1 CRF07_BC in China: Analysis of Sequences from 12 Provinces over a Decade 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e52373.
Background
As one of prevalence HIV-1 strains in IDUs in Asia, the origination and full transmission map of CRF07_BC is of great interested and remains unclear. In the study, we collected 769 CRF07_BC derived sequences (including 45 sequences generated in our laboratory) from 12 provinces in China for reconstructing transmission map. Meanwhile, ample historic epidemic evidences were also reviewed to assist sequences analysis.
Methodology/Principal Findings
In the study, we collected 769 CRF07_BC derived sequences and identified 138 independent sequences from 12 provinces in China for subsequent phylogeographic tree analysis, Bayes Factor test and the estimation of state tMRCA. The analyses demonstrated that CRF07_BC was originated in 1993 in IDU in Yunnan province and then initially spread to Guangxi (eastern neighbor to Yunnan) in 1994, to Xinjiang (northwest) in 1995 and to Sichuan (northern neighbor to Yunnan) in 1996. The subsequent transmissions occurred from Yunnan to Liaoning (northeast) in 1997 and to Jiangsu in 1998. Interestingly, after the early introduction of CRF07_BC into Guangxi, Xinjiang and Sichuan, these three regions served as secondary epicenters for further spreading into Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Beijing and Hunan during 1999–2001. These analyzed results are in accordance with early epidemic investigations.
Conclusions/Significance
Our data not just reconstructed the migration map of CRF07_BC, but also firstly revealed the active roles of these secondary epicenters in the dynamic migration of CRF07_BC in China.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052373
PMCID: PMC3530601  PMID: 23300654
23.  Controlling Antimicrobial Resistance through Targeted, Vaccine-Induced Replacement of Strains 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(12):e50688.
Vaccination has proven effective in controlling many infectious diseases. However, differential effectiveness with regard to pathogen genotype is a frequent reason for failures in vaccine development. Often, insufficient immune response is induced to prevent infection by the diversity of existing serotypes present in pathogenic populations of bacteria. These vaccines that target a too narrow spectrum of serotypes do not offer sufficient prevention of infections, and can also lead to undesirable strain replacements. Here, we examine a novel idea to specifically exploit the narrow spectrum coverage of some vaccines to combat specific, emerging multi- and pan-resistant strains of pathogens. Application of a narrow-spectrum vaccine could serve to prevent infections by some strains that are hard to treat, rather than offer the vaccinated individual protection against infections by the pathogenic species as such. We suggest that vaccines targeted to resistant serotypes have the potential to become important public health tools, and would represent a new approach toward reducing the burden of particular multi-resistant strains occurring in hospitals. Vaccines targeting drug-resistant serotypes would also be the first clinical intervention with the potential to drive the evolution of pathogenic populations toward drug-sensitivity. We illustrate the feasibility of this approach by modeling a hypothetical vaccine that targets a subset of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genotypes, in combination with drug treatment targeted at drug-sensitive genotypes. We find that a combined intervention strategy can limit nosocomial outbreaks, even when vaccine efficacy is imperfect. The broader utility of vaccine-based resistance control strategies should be further explored taking into account population structure, and the resistance and transmission patterns of the pathogen considered.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050688
PMCID: PMC3515573  PMID: 23227198
24.  Reliability of a Newly-Developed Immunochromatography Diagnostic Kit for Pandemic Influenza A/H1N1pdm Virus: Implications for Drug Administration 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50670.
Background
For the diagnosis of seasonal influenza, clinicians rely on point-of-care testing (POCT) using commercially available kits developed against seasonal influenza viruses. However, POCT has not yet been established for the diagnosis of pandemic influenza A virus (H1N1pdm) infection due to the low sensitivity of the existing kits for H1N1pdm.
Methodology/Principal Findings
An immunochromatography (IC) test kit was developed based on a monoclonal antibody against H1N1pdm, which does not cross-react with seasonal influenza A or B viruses. The efficacy of this kit (PDM-IC kit) for the diagnosis of H1N1pdm infection was compared with that of an existing kit for the detection of seasonal influenza viruses (SEA-IC kit). Nasal swabs (n = 542) were obtained from patients with flu-like syndrome at 13 clinics in Osaka, Japan during the winter of 2010/2011. Among the 542 samples, randomly selected 332 were further evaluated for viral presence by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The PDM-IC kit versus the SEA-IC kit showed higher sensitivity to and specificity for H1N1pdm, despite several inconsistencies between the two kits or between the kits and RT-PCR. Consequently, greater numbers of false-negative and false-positive cases were documented when the SEA-IC kit was employed. Significant correlation coefficients for sensitivity, specificity, and negative prediction values between the two kits were observed at individual clinics, indicating that the results could be affected by clinic-related techniques for sampling and kit handling. Importantly, many patients (especially influenza-negative cases) were prescribed anti-influenza drugs that were incongruous with their condition, largely due to physician preference for patient responses to questionnaires and patient symptomology, as opposed to actual viral presence.
Conclusions/Significance
Concomitant use of SEA-IC and PDM-IC kits increased the likelihood of correct influenza diagnosis. Increasing the credibility of POCT is anticipated to decrease the inappropriate dispensing of anti-influenza drugs, thereby minimizing the emergence of drug-resistant H1N1pdm strains.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050670
PMCID: PMC3511324  PMID: 23226350
25.  Vaccination Rates among the General Adult Population and High-Risk Groups in the United States 
PLoS ONE  2012;7(11):e50553.
Background
In order to adequately assess the effectiveness of vaccination in helping to control vaccine-preventable infectious disease, it is important to identify the adherence and uptake of risk-based recommendations.
Methods
The current project includes data from five consecutive datasets of the National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS): 2007 through 2011. The NHWS is an annual, Internet-based health questionnaire, administered to a nationwide sample of adults (aged 18 or older) which included items on vaccination history as well as high-risk group status. Vaccination rates and characteristics of vaccinees were reported descriptively. Logistic regressions were conducted to predict vaccination behavior from sociodemographics and risk-related variables.
Results
The influenza vaccination rate for all adults 18 years and older has increased significantly from 28.0% to 36.2% from 2007 to 2011 (ps<.05). Compared with those not at high risk (25.1%), all high-risk groups were vaccinated at a higher rate, from 36.8% (pregnant women) to 69.7% (those with renal/kidney disease); however, considerable variability among high-risk groups was observed. Vaccination rates among high-risk groups for other vaccines varied considerably though all were below 50%, with the exception of immunocompromised respondents (57.5% for the hepatitis B vaccine and 52.5% for the pneumococcal vaccine) and the elderly (50.4% for the pneumococcal). Multiple risk factors were associated with increased rate of vaccination for most vaccines. Significant racial/ethnic differences with influenza, hepatitis, and herpes zoster vaccination rates were also observed (ps<.05).
Conclusions
Rates of influenza vaccination have increased over time. Rates varied by high-risk status, demographics, and vaccine. There was a pattern of modest vaccination rate increases for individuals with multiple risk factors. However, there were relatively low rates of vaccination for most risk-based recommendations and all fell below national goals.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050553
PMCID: PMC3511565  PMID: 23226312

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