Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), have been shown to act selectively on gene expression, and are potent inducers of growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis in various types of cancers in vitro and in vivo. This study aimed to elucidate the anti-tumor effects and molecular mechanisms of SAHA on the aggressive phenotypes of ovarian carcinoma. Two pairs of cell lines (SKOV3 and SKOV3/DDP; HO8910 and HO8910-PM) were exposed to SAHA treatment, and the effects on acetyl-Histone H3 and H4 expression levels were analyzed and compared against the aggressive behaviors of ovarian carcinoma. Our results showed that SAHA suppressed proliferation in both a concentration- and time-dependent manner in all four cell lines; induced S/G2 arrest in SKOV3 and SKOV3/DDP cells; and conversely, induced G1 arrest in HO8910 and HO8910-PM cells. SAHA treatment induced apoptosis and reduced migration, invasion and lamellipodia formation in the ovarian carcinoma cells; furthermore, SAHA decreased expression of Cyclin B1 and CDC2P34 mRNA, and downregulated CDC2P34, Erk1/2, CyclinB1 and MMP-9 proteins. In contrast, SAHA increased expression of Caspase-3, p21 and p53 mRNA, and upregulated acetyl-Histones H3 and H4, Caspase-8, and p53 proteins. Basal acetylation of histone H3 and H4 was higher in ovarian carcinoma compared to normal ovarian tissues and benign ovarian tumors, and in borderline tumor than in normal ovarian tissues, and was positively correlated with differentiation and expression of the proliferative marker, Ki-67 (P < 0.05). We suggest that SAHA may suppress growth, migration and invasion in ovarian carcinoma cells, including cisplatin-resistant or highly-invasive ovarian cells, by promoting histone acetylation and modulating their phenotype-related molecules. As such, aberrant acetylation of histone H3 and H4 may play an important role in the carcinogenesis and differentiation of ovarian carcinoma.
AIM: To investigate the effects of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) deficiency on the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents toward colorectal cancer cells.
METHODS: PTEN-deficient colorectal cancer (CRC) cells were generated by human somatic cell gene targeting using the adeno-associated virus system. The cytotoxic effects of compounds including curcumin, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), irinotecan (CPT-11) and oxaliplatin (OXA) on cancer cells were determined using the MTT assay. Enhanced cytotoxicity of curcumin in PTEN-deficient CRC cells was observed, and this was confirmed using clonogenic assays. Apoptosis and cell cycle progression were analyzed by flow cytometry. Levels of apoptosis and cell cycle-related proteins were examined by Western blotting.
RESULTS: We developed an isogenic set of CRC cell lines that differed only in their PTEN status. Using this set of cell lines, we found that disruption of the PTEN gene had no effect on the sensitivity of CRC cells to 5-FU, CPT-11, DHA, or OXA, whereas PTEN disruption increased the sensitivity of CRC cells to curcumin. Loss of PTEN did not alter the curcumin-induced apoptosis in CRC cells. However, PTEN deficiency led to an altered pattern of curcumin-mediated cell cycle arrest. In HCT116 PTEN+/+ cells, curcumin caused a G2/M phase arrest, whereas it caused a G0/G1 phase arrest in HCT116 PTEN-/- cells. Levels of cell cycle-related proteins were consistent with these respective patterns of cell cycle arrest.
CONCLUSION: Curcumin shows enhanced cytotoxicity toward PTEN-deficient cancer cells, suggesting that it might be a potential chemotherapeutic agent for cancers harboring PTEN mutations.
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10; Curcumin; Chemotherapeutic agents; Cell cycle; AKT signaling
BTG (B-cell translocation gene) can inhibit cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis and regulate cell cycle progression and differentiation in a variety of cell types. We aimed to clarify the role of BTG1 in ovarian carcinogenesis and progression. A BTG1-expressing plasmid was transfected into ovarian carcinoma cells and their phenotypes and related proteins were examined. BTG1 mRNA expression was detected in ovarian normal tissue (n = 17), ovarian benign tumors (n = 12), and ovarian carcinoma (n = 64) using real-time RT-PCR. Ectopic BTG1 expression resulted in lower growth rate, high cisplatin sensitivity, G1 arrest, apoptosis, and decreased migration and invasion. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein kinase B, Bcl-xL, survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 mRNA and protein expression was reduced in transfectants as compared to control cells. There was higher expression of BTG1 mRNA in normal tissue than in carcinoma tissue (p = 0.001) and in benign tumors than in carcinoma tissue (p = 0.027). BTG1 mRNA expression in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I/II ovarian carcinomas was higher than that in FIGO stage III/IV ovarian carcinomas (p = 0.038). Altered BTG1 expression might play a role in the pathogenesis and progression of ovarian carcinoma by modulating proliferation, migration, invasion, the cell cycle, and apoptosis.
ovarian carcinoma; BTG1; phenotypes; tumorigenesis; progression
To evaluate the validity of the novel and noninvasive retro-mode imaging modality of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) for detecting the morphological features of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
Prospective, observational, consecutive case series.
Twenty-six patients (29 eyes) with PCV were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examinations and imaging studies, including retro-mode imaging, fundus autofluorescence (FAF), fundus photography, fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We investigated the retro-mode images and compared the results with those of SD-OCT, FFA and ICGA.
In the 29 PCV eyes, the retro-mode images clearly revealed polypoidal lesions in 27 (93.1%) eyes as well as branching vascular networks in 16 (55.2%) eyes. Others findings, including pigment epithelial detachment (PED) in 20 (69.0%) eyes, neuroretinal detachment (NRD) in 3 (10.3%) eyes, cystoid macular edema (CME) in 3 (10.3%) eyes, drusen in 4 (13.8%) eyes and minute granular changes of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in 12 (41.3%) eyes, were also clearly visualized. When we compared the results with those of SD-OCT, FFA and ICGA, there was no significant difference between ICGA and retro-mode imaging for finding polypoidal lesions and (or) branching choroidal vascular networks (P>0.05). However, the rate of PED detection was significantly better with retro-mode imaging than with the ICGA (P<0.05). The differences were not statistically significant between SD-OCT and retro-mode imaging for detecting PED, NRD, CME, drusen and minute granular RPE changes (P>0.05). The differences were not statistically significant between FFA and retro-mode imaging for detecting PED, NRD, CME (P>0.05).
The novel and noninvasive retro-mode imaging by cSLO is able to clearly visualize the morphological features of PCV.
Functional characterization of causal variants present on risk haplotypes identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is a primary objective of human genetics. In this report, we evaluate the function of a pair of tandem polymorphic dinucleotides, 42 kb downstream of the promoter of TNFAIP3, (rs148314165, rs200820567, collectively referred to as TT>A) recently nominated as causal variants responsible for genetic association of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with tumor necrosis factor alpha inducible protein 3 (TNFAIP3). TNFAIP3 encodes the ubiquitin-editing enzyme, A20, a key negative regulator of NF-κB signaling. A20 expression is reduced in subjects carrying the TT>A risk alleles; however, the underlying functional mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We used a combination of electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), mass spectrometry (MS), reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR (ChIP-PCR) and chromosome conformation capture (3C) EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) from individuals carrying risk and non-risk TNFAIP3 haplotypes to characterize the effect of TT>A on A20 expression. Our results demonstrate that the TT>A variants reside in an enhancer element that binds NF-κB and SATB1 enabling physical interaction of the enhancer with the TNFAIP3 promoter through long-range DNA looping. Impaired binding of NF-κB to the TT>A risk alleles or knockdown of SATB1 expression by shRNA, inhibits the looping interaction resulting in reduced A20 expression. Together, these data reveal a novel mechanism of TNFAIP3 transcriptional regulation and establish the functional basis by which the TT>A risk variants attenuate A20 expression through inefficient delivery of NF-κB to the TNFAIP3 promoter. These results provide critical functional evidence supporting a direct causal role for TT>A in the genetic predisposition to SLE.
A key objective of human genetics is the identification and characterization of variants responsible for association with complex diseases. A pair of single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs148314165, rs200820567) 42 kb downstream from the promoter of TNFAIP3, have been proposed as the variants responsible for association with systemic lupus erythematosus based on comprehensive genetic and bioinformatic analyses. TNFAIP3 encodes for the ubiquitin-editing enzyme, A20, which plays a central role in maintaining immune system homeostasis through restriction of NF-κB signaling. Cells that carry this risk haplotype express low levels of TNFAIP3 compared to cells carrying the nonrisk haplotype. How the risk alleles of rs148314165 and rs200820567 might influence low TNFAIP3 expression is unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that these variants reside in an enhancer element that binds NF-κB and SATB1 enabling the interaction of the enhancer with the TNFAIP3 promoter through long-range DNA looping. Impaired binding of NF-κB directly to the risk alleles or shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB1 inhibits interaction of the enhancer with the TNFAIP3 promoter resulting in reduced A20 expression. These results clarify the functional mechanism by which rs148314165 and rs200820567 attenuate A20 expression and support a causal role for these variants in the predisposition to autoimmune disease.
The activity of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor-1 (I-1) is antithetically modulated by the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+-protein kinase C (PKC) signaling axes. β-adrenergic (β-AR) stimulation results in PKA-phosphorylation of I-1 at threonine 35 (Thr35) and depressed PP1 activity, while PKC phosphorylation at serine 67 (Ser67) and/or Thr75 increases PP1 activity. In heart failure, pThr35 is decreased while pSer67 and pThr75 are elevated. However, the role of Ser67/Thr75 phosphorylation in vivo and its effects on Ca2+-cycling are not known. Thus, our aim was to investigate the functional significance of Ser67 and Thr75 phosphorylation in intact hearts. We generated transgenic mice (TG) with cardiac-specific overexpression of constitutively phosphorylated I-1 at Ser67 and Thr75 (S67D/T75D) and evaluated cardiac function. The S67D/T75D cardiomyocytes exhibited significantly depressed Ca2+-kinetics and contractile parameters, compared with wild-type (WT) cells. The decreased Ca2+-cycling was associated with a 27 % increase in PP1 activity, no alterations in PP2 activity and impaired phosphorylation of myosin-binding protein-C (MyBPC). Upon aging, there was cardiac remodeling associated with increases in systolic and diastolic left ventricular internal diameter dimensions (at 16 months), compared with WTs. The results indicate that phosphorylation of I-1 at Ser67 and Thr75 is associated with increased PP1 activity and depressed cardiomyocyte Ca2+-cycling, which manifests in geometrical alterations over the long term. Thus, hyper-phosphorylation of these sites in failing hearts may contribute to deteriorative remodeling.
Protein phosphatase 1; Inhibitor-1; Calcium cycling; Cardiac function
The understanding of proliferative and apoptotic changes has aided the improvement of the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of gastric cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 in gastric cancer. The expression levels of Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 were evaluated on tissue microarrays of gastric carcinomas specimens by immunohistochemistry and compared with the clinicopathological parameters and survival time of the patients. It was observed that the elder or male patients with gastric cancer showed p53 overexpression compared with the younger or female patients, respectively (P<0.05). The expression of Ki-67 and p53 was positively associated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging (P<0.05). There was higher caspase-3 and p53 expression in the intestinal-type compared with the diffuse-type of carcinomas (P<0.05). There was a positive correlation among Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 expression in gastric cancer (P<0.05). A Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that there was positive correlation between caspase-3 expression and the adverse prognosis of the patients (P>0.05). Cox’s proportional hazards model indicated that the patient age, gender, depth of invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM staging, Lauren’s classification and caspase-3 expression were independent prognostic factors for gastric carcinomas (P<0.05). The data indicated that the expression of Ki-67, caspase-3 and p53 may be involved in the progression or differentiation of gastric carcinoma. This expression may be employed as an indicator of the pathobiological behavior and prognosis of gastric carcinomas.
gastric carcinoma; Ki-67; caspase-3; p53; clinicopathological significance; prognosis
Regulation of apical calcium entry is important for the function of principal cells of the collecting duct. However, the molecular identity and the regulators of the transporter/channel, which is responsible for apical calcium entry and what factors regulate the calcium conduction remain unclear.
Methods and Results
We report that endogenous TRPP2 and TRPV4 assemble to form a 23-pS divalent cation-permeable non-selective ion channel at the apical membrane of renal principal cells of the collecting duct. TRPP2\TRPV4 channel complex was identified by patch-clamp, immunofluorescence and co-immunprecipitation studies in both principal cells that either possess normal cilia (cilia (+)) or in which cilia are absent (cilia (-)). This channel has distinct biophysical and pharmacological and regulatory profiles compared to either TRPP2 or TRPV4 channels. The rate of occurrence detected by patch clamp was higher in cilia (-) compared to cilia (+) cells. In addition, shRNA knockdown of TRPP2 increased the prevalence of TRPV4 channel activity while knockdown of TRPV4 resulted in TRPP2 activity and knockdown of both proteins vastly decreased the 23-pS channel activity. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulated TRPP2\TRPV4 channel through the EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase-dependent signaling. With loss of cilia, apical EGF treatment resulted in 64-fold increase in channel activity in cilia (-) but not cilia (+) cells. In addition EGF increased cell proliferation in cilia (-) cell that was dependent upon TRPP2\TRPV4 channel mediated increase in intracellular calcium.
We conclude that in the absence of cilia, an EGF activated TRPP2\TRPV4 channel may play an important role in increased cell proliferation and cystogenesis.
The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata.
Background and Aims
Treatment of patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (BCLC-B HCC) is controversial. This study compared the long-term survival of patients with BCLC-B HCC who received liver resection (LR) or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE).
A total of 257 and 135 BCLC-B HCC patients undergoing LR and TACE, respectively, were retrospectively evaluated. Kaplan–Meier method was used for long-term survival analysis. Independent prognostic predictors were determined by the Cox proportional hazards model.
The hospital mortality rate was similar between groups (3.1% vs. 3.7%; P = 0.76). However, the LR group showed a significantly higher postoperative complication rate than the TACE group (28 vs. 18.5%; P = 0.04). At the same time, the LR group showed significantly higher overall survival rates (1 year, 84 vs. 69%; 3 years, 59 vs. 29%; 5 years, 37 vs. 14%; P<0.001). Moreover, similar results were observed in the propensity score model. Three independent prognostic factors were associated with worse overall survival: serum AFP level (≥400 ng/ml), serum ALT level, and TACE.
LR appears to be as safe as TACE for patients with BCLC-B HCC, and it provides better long-term overall survival. However, prospective studies are needed to disclose if LR may be regarded as the preferred treatment for these patients as long as liver function is preserved.
Vaccination is considered as the most effective preventive method to control influenza. The hallmark of influenza virus is the remarkable variability of its major surface glycoproteins, HA and NA, which allows the virus to evade existing anti-influenza immunity in the target population. So it is necessary to develop a novel vaccine to control animal influenza virus. Also we know that the ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved in animal influenza A viruses, so a vaccine based on the M2e could avoid several drawbacks of the traditional vaccines. In this study we designed a novel tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) based vaccine, which was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper (Th) cell epitope, and then investigated its immune responses.
Our results show that the M2e-MAP induced strong M2e-specific IgG antibody,which responses following 2 doses immunization in the presence of Freunds’ adjuvant. M2e-MAP vaccination limited viral replication substantially. Also it could attenuate histopathological damage in the lungs of challenged mice and counteracted weight loss. M2e-MAP-based vaccine protected immunized mice against the lethal challenge with PR8 virus.
Based on these findings, M2e-MAP-based vaccine seemed to provide useful information for the research of M2e-based influenza vaccine. Also it show huge potential to study vaccines for other similarly viruses.
Influenza A virus; Influenza; M2e; Synthetic peptide vaccine
The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C19H19N3O4, contains two molecules with very few conformational differences; a C atom in the pyrimidine ring in one of the molecules is disordered in a 0.688 (15):0.312 (15) ratio. In both molecules, the fused pyridine and pyrimidine rings adopt half-chair conformations. The dihedral angles between the furan and benzene rings are 81.00 (13) and 84.99 (10)° in the two molecules. The molecular structure is consolidated by intramolecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. In the crystal, C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the molecules into a three-dimensional network.
Rare Earth Elements (REE) are essential to modern society but the origins of many large REE deposits remain unclear. The U-Th-Pb ages, chemical compositions and C, O and Mg isotopic compositions of Bayan Obo, the world's largest REE deposit, indicate a protracted mineralisation history with unusual chemical and isotopic features. Coexisting calcite and dolomite are in O isotope disequilibrium; some calcitic carbonatite samples show highly varied δ26Mg which increases with increasing Si and Mg; and ankerite crystals show decreases in Fe and REE from rim to centre, with highly varied REE patterns. These and many other observations are consistent with an unusual mineralisation process not previously considered; protracted fluxing of calcitic carbonatite by subduction-released high-Si fluids during the closure of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean. The fluids leached Fe and Mg from the mantle wedge and scavenged REE, Nb and Th from carbonatite, forming the deposit through metasomatism of overlying sedimentary carbonate.
Junctin and triadin are calsequestrin-binding proteins that regulate sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release by interacting with the ryanodine receptor. The levels of these proteins are significantly down-regulated in failing human hearts. However, the significance of such decreases is currently unknown. Here, we addressed the functional role of these accessory proteins in the heart's responses to ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury.
Methods and results
Isolated mouse hearts were subjected to global I/R, and contractile parameters were assessed in wild-type (WT), junctin-knockout (JKO), and triadin-knockout (TKO) hearts. Both JKO and TKO were associated with significantly depressed post-I/R contractile recovery. However, ablation of triadin resulted in the most severe post-I/R phenotype. The additional contractile impairment of TKO hearts was not related to a mitochondrial death pathway, but attributed to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis. Activation of the X-box-binding protein-1 and transcriptional up-regulation of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) provided a molecular mechanism of caspase-12-dependent apoptosis in myocytes. In addition, elevation of cytosolic Ca2+ during reperfusion was associated with the activation of calpain proteases and troponin I breakdown. Accordingly, treatment with the calpain inhibitor MDL-28170 significantly ameliorated post-I/R impairment of contractile recovery in intact hearts.
These findings indicate that deficiency of either junctin or triadin impairs the contractile recovery in post-ischaemic hearts, which appears to be primarily attributed to increased ER stress and activation of calpain.
Junctin; Triadin; Ischaemia/reperfusion; ER stress; Calpain
The onset and progression of breast cancer (BC) is influenced by many factors, including the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13281615 at 8q24. However, studies of the potential association between rs13281615 at 8q24 and risk of BC have given inconsistent results. We performed a meta-analysis to address this controversy.
PubMed, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were systematically searched to identify relevant studies. Two curators independently extracted data, and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of the association between rs13281615 at 8q24 and risk of BC.
Fourteen studies are included in the meta-analysis, involving 44,283 cases (5,170 Chinese and 39,113 mixed) and 55,756 controls (5,589 Chinese and 50,167 mixed). The GG and G-allele genotypes of rs13281615 at 8q24 are significantly associated with increased risk of BC (GG vs. AG+AA, OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08–1.19, P<0.001; G-allele vs. A-allele, OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14, P<0.001; GG vs. AA, OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12–1.29, P<0.001). Conversely, the AA genotype is significantly associated with decreased risk of BC (AA vs. AG+GG, OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.84–0.93, P<0.001).
G-allele genotypes of rs13281615 at 8q24 polymorphism are a risk factor for developing BC, while the AA genotype is a protective factor. Further large and well-designed studies are required to confirm this conclusion.
The aquaporin (AQP) family consists of a number of small integral membrane proteins that transport water and glycerol. AQPs are critical for trans-epithelial fluid transport. Recent reports demonstrated that AQPs, particularly AQP1 and AQP5, are expressed in high grade tumor cells of a variety of tissue origins, and that AQPs are involved in cell migration and metastasis. Based on this background, we examined whether AQP3, another important member of the AQP family, could facilitate cell migration in human breast cancers.
Potential role of AQP3 was examined using two representative breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and Bcap-37). Briefly, AQP3 expression was inhibited with a lentivirus construct that stably expressed shRNA against the AQP3 mRNA. AQP3 expression inhibition was verified with Western blot. Cell migration was examined using a wound scratch assay in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2). In additional experiments, AQP3 was inhibited by CuSO4. Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitor PD173074, PI3K inhibitor LY294002, and MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 were used to dissect the molecular mechanism of FGF-2 induced AQP3 expression.
FGF-2 treatment increased AQP3 expression and induced cell migration in a dose dependent manner. Silencing AQP3 expression by a lentiviral shRNA inhibited FGF-2 induced cell migration. CuSO4, a water transport inhibitor selective for AQP3, also suppressed FGF-2-induced cell migration. The FGFR kinase inhibitor PD173074, significantly inhibited FGF-2-induced AQP3 expression and cell migration. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 inhibited, but not fully blocked, FGF-2-induced AQP3 expression and cell migration.
AQP3 is required for FGF-2-induced cell migration in cultured human breast cancer cells. Our findings also suggest the importance of FGFR-PI3K and FGFR-ERK signaling in FGF-2-induced AQP3 expression. In summary, our findings suggest a novel function of AQP3 in cell migration and metastasis of breast cancers.
Increasing evidence has shown that immune surveillance is compromised in a tumor-promoting microenvironment for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and can be restored by appropriate chemotherapy.
To test this hypothesis, we analyzed microarray gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 30 patients with newly-diagnosed advanced stage NSCLC, and 20 age-, sex-, and co-morbidity-matched healthy controls. All the patients received a median of four courses of chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine for a 28-day cycle as first line treatment.
Sixty-nine differentially expressed genes between the patients and controls, and 59 differentially expressed genes before and after chemotherapy were identified. The IL4 pathway was significantly enriched in both tumor progression and chemotherapy signatures. CXCR4 and IL2RG were down-regulated, while DOK2 and S100A15 were up-regulated in the patients, and expressions of all four genes were partially or totally reversed after chemotherapy. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR for the four up-regulated (S100A15, DOK2) and down-regulated (TLR7, TOP1MT) genes in the patients, and the six up-regulated (TLR7, CRISP3, TOP1MT) and down-regulated (S100A15, DOK2, IL2RG) genes after chemotherapy confirmed the validity of the microarray results. Further immunohistochemical analysis of the paraffin-embedded lung cancer tissues identified strong S100A15 nuclear staining not only in stage IV NSCLC as compared to stage IIIB NSCLC (p = 0.005), but also in patients with stable or progressive disease as compared to those with a partial response (p = 0.032). A high percentage of S100A15 nuclear stained cells (HR 1.028, p = 0.01) was the only independent factor associated with three-year overall mortality.
Our results suggest a potential role of the IL4 pathway in immune surveillance of advanced stage NSCLC, and immune potentiation of combination chemotherapy. S100A15 may serve as a potential biomarker for tumor staging, and a predictor of poor prognosis in NSCLC.
Objective. To determine early predictors of outcomes of adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure. Method. 100 consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure were evaluated in this retrospective study. Data including comorbidities, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score, PaO2, FiO2, PaO2/FiO2, PEEP, mean airway pressure (mPaw), and oxygenation index (OI) on the 1st and the 3rd day of mechanical ventilation, and change in OI within 3 days were recorded. Primary outcome was hospital mortality; secondary outcome measure was ventilator weaning failure. Results. 38 out of 100 (38%) patients died within the study period. 48 patients (48%) failed to wean from ventilator. Multivariate analysis showed day 3 OI (P = 0.004) and SOFA (P = 0.02) score were independent predictors of hospital mortality. Preexisting cerebrovascular accident (CVA) (P = 0.002) was the predictor of weaning failure. Results from Kaplan-Meier method demonstrated that higher day 3 OI was associated with shorter survival time (log-Rank test, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Early OI (within 3 days) and SOFA score were predictors of mortality in severe acute respiratory failure. In the future, prospective studies measuring serial OIs in a larger scale of study cohort is required to further consolidate our findings.
Aim of the study
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of percutaneous interventional treatment on obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus.
Material and methods
A total of 16 patients with bile duct tumor thrombus were included in the current retrospective study. All the patients were subjected to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). Treatment included permanent external drainage, internal drainage and routine tube adjustment, and covered stents according to the patients’ clinical manifestations.
The success rate of PTBD was 100%. Among all the patients, two were treated with permanent external drainage, seven were treated with internal drainage and routine tube adjustment, and seven were treated with detaining covered stents. All the drainage tubes were successfully pulled out from the patients receiving covered stents. Among all the 16 patients, the clinical symptoms and life quality of 12 patients (12/16, 75%) were improved. The average survival time of all the patients was 203.7 days (ranging from 30 days to 391 days) with the median survival time of 199.5 days.
Percutaneous interventional therapy for obstructive jaundice caused by hepatocellular carcinoma with bile duct tumor thrombus is a good choice. It improves patients’ life quality. Permanent external drainage, internal drainage, and covered stents are alternative methods which should be chosen according to the patient's condition.
hepatocellular carcinoma; bile duct tumor thrombus; biliary drainage; covered stent
Sleep:wake cycles break down with age, but the causes of this degeneration are not clear. Using a Drosophila model we addressed the contribution of circadian mechanisms to this aged-induced deterioration. We found that in old flies free-running circadian rhythms (behavioral rhythms assayed in constant darkness) have a longer period and an unstable phase before they eventually degenerate. Surprisingly, rhythms are weaker in light:dark cycles and the circadian-regulated morning peak of activity is diminished under these conditions. On a molecular level, aging results in reduced amplitude of circadian clock gene expression in peripheral tissues. However, oscillations of the clock protein PERIOD (PER) are robust and synchronized among different clock neurons, even in very old, arrhythmic flies. To improve rhythms in old flies, we manipulated environmental conditions, which can have direct effects on behavior, and also tested a role for molecules that act downstream of the clock. Coupling temperature cycles with a light:dark schedule or reducing expression of protein kinase A (PKA) improved behavioral rhythms and consolidated sleep. Our data demonstrate that a robust molecular time-keeping mechanism persists in the central pacemaker of aged flies, and reducing PKA can strengthen behavioral rhythms.
Aging; Behavioral rhythms; Circadian clock; Period; Sleep; PKA
Drosophila melanogaster exhibits circadian (≅24 hr) regulated morning and evening bouts of activity that are separated by a mid-day siesta. Increases in daily ambient temperature are accompanied by a progressively longer mid-day siesta and delayed evening activity. Presumably, this behavioral plasticity reflects an adaptive response that endows D. melanogaster with the ability to temporally optimize daily activity levels over a wide range of physiologically relevant temperatures. For example, the shift in activity towards the cooler nighttime hours on hot days might minimize the risks associated with exposure to mid-day heat, whereas on cold days activity is favored during the warmer daytime hours. These temperature-induced shifts in the distribution of daily activity are partly based on the thermal sensitive splicing of an intron found in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the circadian clock gene termed period (per). As temperature decreases, splicing of this 3′-terminal intron (termed dmpi8) is gradually increased, which is causally linked to a shorter mid-day siesta. Herein we identify several natural polymorphisms in the per 3′ UTR from wild-caught populations of flies originating along the east coast of the United States. Two non-intronic closely spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulate dmpi8 splicing efficiency, with the least efficiently spliced version associated with a longer mid-day siesta, especially at lower temperatures. Although these SNPs modulate the splicing efficiency of dmpi8 they have little to no effect on its thermal responsiveness, consistent with the notion that the suboptimal 5′ and 3′ splice sites of the dmpi8 intron are the primary cis-acting elements mediating temperature regulation. Our results demonstrate that natural variations in the per gene can modulate the splicing efficiency of the dmpi8 intron and the daily distribution of activity, providing natural examples for the involvement of dmpi8 splicing in the thermal adaptation of behavioral programs in D. melanogaster.
Genomic ANI (Average Nucleotide Identity) has been found to be able to replace DNA-DNA hybridization in prokaryote taxonomy. The ANI of each of the core genes that has a phylogeny congruent with the reference species tree of rhizobia was compared to the genomic ANI. This allowed us to identify three housekeeping genes (SMc00019-truA-thrA) whose ANI reflected the intraspecies and interspecies genomic ANI among rhizobial strains, revealing an ANI gap (≥2%) between the inter- and intra-species comparisons. The intraspecies (96%) and interspecies (94%) ANI boundaries calculated from three genes (SMc00019-truA-thrA) provided a criterion for bacterial species definition and confirmed 621/629 of known interspecies relationships within Bradyrhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Sinorhizobium and Rhizobium. Some widely studied strains should be renamed. The SMc00019-truA-thrA ANI also correlates well with the genomic ANI of strains in Agrobacterium, Methylobacterium, Ralstonia, Rhodopseudomonas, Cupriavidus and Burkholderia, suggesting their wide applicability in other bacteria.
Objectives. To determine risk factors associated with ventilator dependence in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Study Design. A retrospective study was conducted at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, from January 1, 2007 to January 31, 2008. Methods. This study evaluated 163 adult patients (aged ≥18 years). Eligibility was evaluated according to the criterion for VAP, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, Acute Physiological Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score. Oxygenation index, underlying comorbidities, septic shock status, previous tracheostomy status, and factors related to pneumonia were collected for analysis. Results. Of the 163 VAP patients in the study, 90 patients survived, yielding a mortality rate of 44.8%. Among the 90 surviving patients, only 36 (40%) had been weaned off ventilators at the time of discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify underlying factors such as congestive cardiac failure (P = 0.009), initial high oxygenation index value (P = 0.04), increased SOFA scores (P = 0.01), and increased APACHE II scores (P = 0.02) as independent predictors of ventilator dependence. Results from the Kaplan-Meier method indicate that initial therapy with antibiotics could increase the ventilator weaning rate (log Rank test, P < 0.001). Conclusions. Preexisting cardiopulmonary function, high APACHE II and SOFA scores, and high oxygenation index were the strongest predictors of ventilator dependence. Initial empiric antibiotic treatment can improve ventilator weaning rates at the time of discharge.
Although many parameters were investigated about weaning and mortality in critical patients in intensive units, no studies have yet investigated predictors in prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) patients following successful weaning. A cohort of 142 consecutive PMV patients with successful weaning in our respiratory care center was enrolled in this study. Successful weaning is defined as a patient having smooth respiration for more than 5 days after weaning. The results showed as follows: twenty-seven patients (19%) had the reinstitution within 14 days, and 115 patients (81%) had the reinstitution beyond 14 days. Renal disease RIFLE-LE was associated with the reinstitution within 14 days (P = 0.006). One year mortality rates showed significant difference between the two groups (85.2% in the reinstitution within 14 days group versus 53.1% in the reinstitution beyond 14 days; P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that age ≥70 years (P = 0.04), ESRD (P = 0.02), and the reinstitution within 14 days (P < 0.001) were associated with one-year mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that only the reinstitution within 14 days was the independent predictor for mortality (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the reinstitution within 14 days was a poor predictor for PMV patients after successful weaning.