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1.  Differential expression of immunomodulatory galectin-1 in peripheral leukocytes and adult tissues and its cytosolic organization in striated muscle 
Glycobiology  2010;20(5):507-520.
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) is important in immune function and muscle regeneration, but its expression and localization in adult tissues and primary leukocytes remain unclear. To address this, we generated a specific monoclonal antibody against Gal-1, termed αhGal-1, and defined a sequential peptide epitope that it recognizes, which is preserved in human and porcine Gal-1, but not in murine Gal-1. Using αhGal-1, we found that Gal-1 is expressed in a wide range of porcine tissues, including striated muscle, liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and intestine. In most types of cells, Gal-1 exhibits diffuse cytosolic expression, but in cells within the splenic red pulp, Gal-1 showed both cytosolic and nuclear localization. Gal-1 was also expressed in arterial walls and exhibited prominent cytosolic and nuclear staining in cultured human endothelial cells. However, human peripheral leukocytes and promyelocytic HL60 cells lack detectable Gal-1 and also showed very low levels of Gal-1 mRNA. In striking contrast, Gal-1 exhibited an organized cytosolic staining pattern within striated muscle tissue of cardiac and skeletal muscle and colocalized with sarcomeric actin on I bands. These results provide insights into previously defined roles for Gal-1 in inflammation, immune regulation and muscle biology.
PMCID: PMC2900886  PMID: 20053628
galectin-1 expression; leukocytes; monoclonal antibody; muscle; tissue localization
2.  Lactobacillus rhamnosus blocks inflammatory signaling in vivo via reactive oxygen species generation 
Free radical biology & medicine  2009;47(8):1205-1211.
Uncontrolled inflammatory responses in the immature gut may play a role in the pathogenesis of many intestinal inflammatory syndromes that present in newborns or children such as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), or infectious enteritis. Consistent with previous reports that murine intestinal function matures over the first 3 weeks of life, we show that inflammatory signaling in neonatal mouse gut increases during postnatal maturation with peak responses occurring at 2-3 weeks. Probiotic bacteria can block inflammatory responses in cultured epithelia by inducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which inhibit NF-κB activation through oxidative inactivation of the key regulatory enzyme Ubc12. We now report for the first time that the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) can induce ROS generation in intestinal epithelia in vitro and in vivo. Intestines from immature mice gavage fed LGG exhibited increased GSH oxidation and cullin-1 deneddylation reflecting local ROS generation and its resultant Ubc12 inactivation, respectively. Furthermore, prefeeding LGG prevented TNF-α induced intestinal NF-κB activation. These studies indicate that LGG can reduce inflammatory signaling in immature intestines by inducing local ROS generation and may be a mechanism by which probiotic bacteria can prevent NEC in premature infants or reduce severity of IBD in children.
PMCID: PMC2760264  PMID: 19660542
Necrotizing enterocolitis; inflammatory bowel disease; inflammation; reactive oxygen species; probiotics; lactobacillus

Results 1-2 (2)