Metabolomics offers a powerful means to investigate human malaria parasite biology and host-parasite interactions at the biochemical level, and to discover novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers of infection. Here, we used an approach based on liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry to perform an untargeted metabolomic analysis of metabolite extracts from Plasmodium falciparum–infected and uninfected patient plasma samples, and from an enriched population of in vitro cultured P. falciparum-infected and uninfected erythrocytes. Statistical modeling robustly segregated infected and uninfected samples based on metabolite species with significantly different abundances. Metabolites of the α-linolenic acid (ALA) pathway, known to exist in plants but not known to exist in P. falciparum until now, were enriched in infected plasma and erythrocyte samples. In vitro labeling with 13C-ALA showed evidence of plant-like ALA pathway intermediates in P. falciparum. Ortholog searches using ALA pathway enzyme sequences from 8 available plant genomes identified several genes in the P. falciparum genome that were predicted to potentially encode the corresponding enzymes in the hitherto unannotated P. falciparum pathway. These data suggest that our approach can be used to discover novel facets of host/malaria parasite biology in a high-throughput manner.
Recent advances in liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry have enabled the highly parallel, quantitative measurement of metabolites within a cell and the ability to trace their biochemical fates. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), these advances have highlighted major gaps in our understanding of central carbon metabolism (CCM) that have prompted fresh interpretations of the composition and structure of its metabolic pathways and the phenotypes of Mtb strains in which CCM genes have been deleted. High-throughput screens have demonstrated that small chemical compounds can selectively inhibit some enzymes of Mtb’s CCM while sparing homologs in the host. Mtb’s CCM has thus emerged as a frontier for both fundamental and translational research.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is thought to preferentially rely on fatty acid metabolism to both establish and maintain chronic infections. Its metabolic network, however, allows efficient co-catabolism of multiple carbon substrates. To gain insight into the importance of carbohydrate substrates for Mtb pathogenesis we evaluated the role of glucose phosphorylation, the first reaction in glycolysis. We discovered that Mtb expresses two functional glucokinases. Mtb required the polyphosphate glucokinase PPGK for normal growth on glucose, while its second glucokinase GLKA was dispensable. 13C-based metabolomic profiling revealed that both enzymes are capable of incorporating glucose into Mtb's central carbon metabolism, with PPGK serving as dominant glucokinase in wild type (wt) Mtb. When both glucokinase genes, ppgK and glkA, were deleted from its genome, Mtb was unable to use external glucose as substrate for growth or metabolism. Characterization of the glucokinase mutants in mouse infections demonstrated that glucose phosphorylation is dispensable for establishing infection in mice. Surprisingly, however, the glucokinase double mutant failed to persist normally in lungs, which suggests that Mtb has access to glucose in vivo and relies on glucose phosphorylation to survive during chronic mouse infections.
The development of new drugs targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) will benefit from a better understanding of the mechanisms by which this pathogen establishes and maintains chronic infections. Mtb has to adapt its metabolic needs to the nutritional environment in the host. We investigated the role of glucose phosphorylation and discovered that Mtb expresses two functional glucokinases. Using 13C-tracing experiments we demonstrated that both enzymes are competent to incorporate glucose into central carbon metabolism. In agreement with the view that Mtb metabolizes fatty acids to grow in vivo, both enzymes were dispensable for Mtb replication in mouse lungs and spleens. Surprisingly, however, the glucokinase double mutant was attenuated during the chronic phase of mouse infections. These studies suggest that Mtb metabolizes glucose in vivo and that its survival in chronically infected mice depends on glucose phosphorylation.
The study aimed to determine the natural history of Staphylococcus aureus nasal colonization in hemodialysis outpatients. Surveillance cultures were taken from patients presenting for hemodialysis or routine care to identify S. aureus nasal carriers. A prospective cohort study was performed to identify risks for persistent colonization. Detailed microbiologic and molecular studies of colonizing isolates were performed. Only 23/145 (15.9%) dialysis patients were persistently colonized, and only HIV-positive status was associated with persistence (P = 0.05). Prior hospitalization was the only risk factor for methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage (OR 2.5, P = 0.03). In isolates from patients with ≤42 days of vancomycin exposure, vancomycin minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) increased with duration of exposure. Among dialysis patients, S. aureus colonization was limited and transient; only HIV status was associated with persistence. Nevertheless, duration of vancomycin exposure was associated with increasing vancomycin MBCs. Vancomycin exposure in S. aureus carriers may be involved in increasing resistance.
Staphylococcus aureus; Hemodialysis; Colonization; Vancomycin
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone proposed to link nutritional status to the development of strong Th1 immunity. As Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) control is affected by starvation and diabetes, we studied the role of the leptin receptor in regulating distinct immune cells during chronic infection. Infected db/db mice, bearing a natural mutation in the leptin receptor, have a markedly increased bacterial load in their lungs when compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts. In response to MTb infection, db/db mice exhibited disorganized granulomas, neutrophilia, and reduced B cell migration to the lungs, correlating with dysfunctional lung chemokine responses that include XCL1, CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL13. In a db/db lung, myeloid cells were delayed in their production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and had reduced expression of MHC I and II. Although the Th1 cell response developed normally in the absence of leptin signaling, production of pulmonary IFNγ was delayed and ineffective. Surprisingly, a proper immune response took place in bone marrow (BM) chimeras lacking leptin receptor exclusively in BM-derived cells, indicating that leptin acts indirectly on immune cells to modulate the anti-tuberculosis response and bacterial control. Together these findings suggest that the pulmonary response to MTb is affected by the host’s nutritional status via the regulation of non-BM derived cells, and not through direct action of leptin on the Th1 immunity.
We performed this study 1) to determine the prevalence of community-associated extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) colonization and infection in New York City (NYC); 2) to determine the prevalence of newly-acquired ESBLPE during travel; 3) to look for similarilties in contemporaneous hospital-associated bloodstream ESBLPE and travel-associated ESBLPE.
Subjects were recruited from a travel medicine practice and consented to submit pre- and post-travel stools, which were assessed for the presence of ESBLPE. Pre-travel stools and stools submitted for culture were used to estimate the prevalence of community-associated ESBLPE. The prevalence of ESBLPE-associated urinary tract infections was calculated from available retrospective data. Hospital-associated ESBLPE were acquired from saved bloodstream isolates. All ESBLPE underwent multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and ESBL characterization.
One of 60 (1.7%) pre- or non-travel associated stool was colonized with ESBLPE. Among community-associated urine specimens, 1.3% of Escherichia coli and 1.4% of Klebsiella pneumoniae were identified as ESBLPE. Seven of 28 travelers (25.0%) acquired a new ESBLPE during travel. No similarities were found between travel-associated ESBLPE and hospital-associated ESBLPE. A range of imported ESBL genes were found, including CTX-M-14 and CTX-15.
ESBL colonization and infection were relatively low during the study period in NYC. A signficant minority of travelers acquired new ESBLPE during travel.
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenases (SSADHs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the NAD(P)+-coupled oxidation of succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to succinate, the last step of the γ-aminobutyrate shunt. Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes two paralogous SSADHs (gabD1 and gabD2). Here we describe the first mechanistic characterization of GabD1, using steady-state kinetics, pH-rate profiles, 1H-NMR, and kinetic isotope effects. Our results confirmed SSA and NADP+ as substrates and demonstrated that a divalent metal, such as Mg2+, linearizes the time course. pH-rate studies failed to identify any ionizable groups with pKa between 5.5 and 10 involved in substrate binding or rate-limiting chemistry. Primary deuterium, solvent and multiple kinetic isotope effects revealed that nucleophilic addition to SSA is very fast, followed by a modestly rate-limiting hydride transfer and fast thioester hydrolysis. Proton inventory studies revealed that a single proton is associated with the solvent-sensitive rate-limiting step. Together, these results suggest that product dissociation and/or conformational changes linked to it are rate-limiting. Using structural information for the human homolog enzyme and 1H-NMR, we further established that nucleophilic attack takes place at the Si face of SSA, generating a thiohemiacetal with S stereochemistry. Deuteride transfer to the Pro-R position in NADP+ generates the thioester intermediate and [4A-2H, 4B-1H] NADPH. A chemical mechanism based on these data and the structural information available is proposed.
succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase; aldehyde dehydrogenase; chemical mechanism; stereochemistry; hydride transfer; isotope effects
Metabolomics has ushered in a novel and multi-disciplinary realm in biological research. It has provided researchers with a platform to combine powerful biochemical, statistical, computational, and bioinformatics techniques to delve into the mysteries of biology and disease. The application of metabolomics to study malaria parasites represents a major advance in our approach towards gaining a more comprehensive perspective on parasite biology and disease etiology. This review attempts to highlight some of the important aspects of the field of metabolomics, and its ongoing and potential future applications to malaria research.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adapts to persist in a nutritionally limited macrophage compartment. Lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), the third enzyme (E3) in Mtb’s pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), also serves as E1 of peroxynitrite reductase/peroxidase (PNR/P), which helps Mtb resist host reactive nitrogen intermediates. In contrast to Mtb lacking dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), the E2 of PDH and PNR/P, Lpd-deficient Mtb is severely attenuated in wild type and immunodeficient mice. This suggests that Lpd has a function that DlaT does not share. When DlaT is absent, Mtb upregulates an Lpd-dependent branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH) encoded by pdhA, pdhB, pdhC and lpdC. Without Lpd, Mtb cannot metabolize branched chain amino acids and potentially toxic branched chain intermediates accumulate. Mtb deficient in both DlaT and PdhC phenocopies Lpd-deficient Mtb. Thus, Mtb critically requires BCKADH along with PDH and PNR/P for pathogenesis. These findings position Lpd as a potential target for anti-infectives against Mtb.
Nitazoxanide (Alinia®), a nitro-thiazolyl antiparasitic drug, kills diverse microorganisms by unknown mechanisms. Here we identified two actions of nitazoxanide against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb): disruption of Mtb’s membrane potential and pH homeostasis. Both actions were shared by a structurally related anti-mycobacterial compound, niclosamide. Reactive nitrogen intermediates were reported to synergize with nitazoxanide and its deacetylated derivative tizoxanide in killing Mtb. Herein, however, we could not attribute this to increased uptake of nitazoxanide or tizoxanide as monitored by targeted metabolomics, nor to increased impact of nitazoxanide on Mtb’s membrane potential or intrabacterial pH. Thus, further mechanisms of action of nitazoxanide or tizoxanide may await discovery. The multiple mechanisms of action may contribute to Mtb’s ultra-low frequency of resistance against nitazoxanide.
Nitazoxanide; tizoxanide; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; niclosamide; pH homeostasis; membrane potential; metabolomics
Acinetobacter baumannii is an increasingly multidrug-resistant (MDR) cause of hospital-acquired infections, often associated with limited therapeutic options. We investigated A. baumannii isolates at a New York hospital to characterize genetic relatedness.
Thirty A. baumannii isolates from geographically-dispersed nursing units within the hospital were studied. Isolate relatedness was assessed by repetitive sequence polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR). The presence and characteristics of integrons were assessed by PCR. Metabolomic profiles of a subset of a prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were characterized and compared.
We detected a hospital-wide group of closely related carbapenem resistant MDR A. baumannii isolates. Compared with sporadic isolates, the prevalent strain isolates were more likely to be MDR (p = 0.001). Isolates from the prevalent strain carried a novel Class I integron sequence. Metabolomic profiles of selected prevalent strain isolates and sporadic isolates were similar.
The A. baumannii population at our hospital represents a prevalent strain of related MDR isolates that contain a novel integron cassette. Prevalent strain and sporadic isolates did not segregate by metabolomic profiles. Further study of environmental, host, and bacterial factors associated with the persistence of prevalent endemic A. baumannii strains is needed to develop effective prevention strategies.
In the search for new drug targets, we evaluated the biotin synthetic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and constructed an Mtb mutant lacking the biotin biosynthetic enzyme 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase, BioA. In biotin-free synthetic media, ΔbioA did not produce wild-type levels of biotinylated proteins, and therefore did not grow and lost viability. ΔbioA was also unable to establish infection in mice. Conditionally-regulated knockdown strains of Mtb similarly exhibited impaired bacterial growth and viability in vitro and in mice, irrespective of the timing of transcriptional silencing. Biochemical studies further showed that BioA activity has to be reduced by approximately 99% to prevent growth. These studies thus establish that de novo biotin synthesis is essential for Mtb to establish and maintain a chronic infection in a murine model of TB. Moreover, these studies provide an experimental strategy to systematically rank the in vivo value of potential drug targets in Mtb and other pathogens.
We evaluated the biotin synthetic pathway of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) as a new drug target by first generating an Mtb deletion mutant, ΔbioA, in which the biotin biosynthetic enzyme 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid synthase (BioA) has been inactivated. This mutant grew in the presence of biotin or des-thiobiotin, but not with an intermediate of the biotin biosynthesis pathway that requires BioA to be converted into biotin. Without exogenous biotin or des-thiobiotin, ΔbioA, was unable to produce biotinylated proteins, which are required for the biosynthesis of fatty acids, and thus died in biotin-free media. Using a regulatable promoter and different ribosome binding sequences we next constructed tightly controlled TetON mutants, in which expression of BioA could be induced with tetracyclines, but was inhibited in their absence. Characterization of these mutants during infections demonstrated that de novo biotin synthesis is not only required to establish infections but also to maintain bacterial persistence. Inhibition of BioA or other enzymes of the biotin biosynthesis pathways could thus be used to kill Mtb during both acute and chronic infections. Biochemical and immunological analyses of different Mtb mutants indicate that drugs targeting BioA would have to inactive approximately 99% of its activity to be effective.
Surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and -D) play a role in many acute bacterial, viral, and fungal infections and in acute allergic responses. In vitro, human SPs bind Mycobacterium tuberculosis and alter human and rat macrophage-mediated functions. Here we report the roles of SP-A and SP-D in M. tuberculosis infection following aerosol challenge of SP-A-, SP-D-, and SP-A/-D-deficient mice. These studies surprisingly identified no gross defects in uptake or immune control of M. tuberculosis in SP-A-, SP-D-, and SP-A/-D-deficient mice. While both SP-A- and SP-D-deficient mice exhibited evidence of immunopathologic defects, the CD11bhigh CD11chigh dendritic cell populations and the gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-dependent CD4+ T cell response to M. tuberculosis were unaltered in all genotypes tested. Together, these data indicate that SP-A and SP-D are dispensable for immune control of M. tuberculosis in a low-dose, aerosol challenge, murine model of tuberculosis (TB).
In recent years, illness and death due to chronic disease in the US Associated Pacific Islands (USAPI) jurisdictions have dramatically increased. Effective chronic disease surveillance can help monitor disease trends, evaluate public policy, prioritize resource allocation, and guide program planning, evaluation, and research. Although chronic disease surveillance is being conducted in the USAPI, no recently published capacity assessments for chronic disease surveillance are available. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of existing USAPI chronic disease data sources and identify jurisdictional capacity for chronic disease surveillance. The assessment included a chronic disease data source inventory, literature review, and review of surveillance documentation available from the web or through individual jurisdictions. We used the World Health Organization's Health Metric Network Framework to assess data source quality and to identify jurisdictional capacity. Results showed that USAPI data sources are generally aligned with widely accepted chronic disease surveillance indicators and use standardized data collection methodology to measure chronic disease behavioral risks, preventive practices, illness, and death. However, all jurisdictions need to strengthen chronic disease surveillance through continued assessment and expanded support for valid and reliable data collection, analysis and reporting, dissemination, and integration among population-based and institution-based data sources. For sustained improvement, we recommend investment and technical assistance in support of a chronic disease surveillance system that integrates population-based and institution-based data sources. An integrated strategy that bridges and links USAPI data sources can support evidence-based policy and population health interventions.
Activity based metabolomic profiling (ABMP) allows unbiased discovery of enzymatic activities encoded by genes of unknown function. ABMP applies liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyze the impact of a recombinant enzyme on the homologous cellular extract as a physiologic library of potential substrates and products. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein Rv1248c was incompletely characterized as a thiamine diphosphate-dependent α-ketoglutarate decarboxylase. Here, recombinant Rv1248c catalyzed consumption of α–ketoglutarate in a mycobacterial small molecule extract with matched production of 5-hydroxylevulinate (HLA) in a reaction predicted to require glyoxylate. As confirmed using pure substrates by LC-MS, 1H-NMR, chemical trapping, and intracellular metabolite profiling, Rv1248c catalyzes C-C bond formation between the activated aldehyde of α–ketoglutarate and the carbonyl of glyoxylate to yield 2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate (HOA), which decomposes to HLA. Thus, Rv1248c encodes a HOA synthase (HOAS).
Partnerships between patient communities, healthcare providers, and academic researchers are key to stepping up the pace and public health impact of clinical and translational research supported by the National Institutes of Health. With emphasis shifting toward community engagement and faster translation of research advances into clinical practice, academic researchers have a vital stake in widening the use of health information technology systems and telehealth networks to support collaboration and innovation. However, limited interaction between academic institutions and healthcare providers hinders the ability to form and sustain the integrated networks that are needed to conduct meaningful community-engaged research that improves public health outcomes. Healthcare providers, especially those affiliated with smaller practices, will need sustainable infrastructure and real incentives to utilize such networks, as well as training and additional resources for ongoing technical assistance.
business administration/economics; distance learning; e-health; home health monitoring; policy
Antibiotics are typically more effective against replicating rather than nonreplicating bacteria. However, a major need in global health is to eradicate persistent or nonreplicating subpopulations of bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Hence, identifying chemical inhibitors that selectively kill bacteria that are not replicating is of practical importance. To address this, we screened for inhibitors of dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), an enzyme required by Mtb to cause tuberculosis in guinea pigs and used by the bacterium to resist nitric oxide-derived reactive nitrogen intermediates, a stress encountered in the host. Chemical screening for inhibitors of Mtb DlaT identified select rhodanines as compounds that almost exclusively kill nonreplicating mycobacteria in synergy with products of host immunity, such as nitric oxide and hypoxia, and are effective on bacteria within macrophages, a cellular reservoir for latent Mtb. Compounds that kill nonreplicating pathogens in cooperation with host immunity could complement the conventional chemotherapy of infectious disease.
Candidate antibacterials are usually identified on the basis of their in vitro activity. However, the apparent inhibitory activity of new leads can be misleading because most culture media do not reproduce an environment relevant to infection in vivo. In this study, while screening for novel anti-tuberculars, we uncovered how carbon metabolism can affect antimicrobial activity. Novel pyrimidine–imidazoles (PIs) were identified in a whole-cell screen against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lead optimization generated in vitro potent derivatives with desirable pharmacokinetic properties, yet without in vivo efficacy. Mechanism of action studies linked the PI activity to glycerol metabolism, which is not relevant for M. tuberculosis during infection. PIs induced self-poisoning of M. tuberculosis by promoting the accumulation of glycerol phosphate and rapid ATP depletion. This study underlines the importance of understanding central bacterial metabolism in vivo and of developing predictive in vitro culture conditions as a prerequisite for the rational discovery of new antibiotics.
Candidate anti-tuberculosis drugs are often identified in whole-cell screens. Here, Pethe et al. show that inappropriate carbon-source selection can lead to the identification of compounds devoid of efficacy in vivo, underlining the importance of developing predictive in vitro screens.