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1.  Evaluation of the TREX1 gene in a large multi-ancestral lupus cohort 
Genes and immunity  2011;12(4):270-279.
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a prototypic autoimmune disorder with a complex pathogenesis in which genetic, hormonal and environmental factors play a role. Rare mutations in the TREX1 gene, the major mammalian 3′-5′ exonuclease, have been reported in sporadic SLE cases. Some of these mutations have also been identified in a rare pediatric neurologic condition featuring an inflammatory encephalopathy known as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS). We sought to investigate the frequency of these mutations in a large multi-ancestral cohort of SLE cases and controls.
Methods
Forty single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including both common and rare variants, across the TREX1 gene were evaluated in ∼8370 patients with SLE and ∼7490 control subjects. Stringent quality control procedures were applied and principal components and admixture proportions were calculated to identify outliers for removal from analysis. Population-based case-control association analyses were performed. P values, false discovery rate q values, and odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated.
Results
The estimated frequency of TREX1 mutations in our lupus cohort was 0.5%. Five heterozygous mutations were detected at the Y305C polymorphism in European lupus cases but none were observed in European controls. Five African cases incurred heterozygous mutations at the E266G polymorphism and, again, none were observed in the African controls. A rare homozygous R114H mutation was identified in one Asian SLE patient whereas all genotypes at this mutation in previous reports for SLE were heterozygous. Analysis of common TREX1 SNPs (MAF >10%) revealed a relatively common risk haplotype in European SLE patients with neurologic manifestations, especially seizures, with a frequency of 58% in lupus cases compared to 45% in normal controls (p=0.0008, OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.25-2.39). Finally, the presence or absence of specific autoantibodies in certain populations produced significant genetic associations. For example, a strong association with anti-nRNP was observed in the European cohort at a coding synonymous variant rs56203834 (p=2.99E-13, OR=5.2, 95% CI=3.18-8.56).
Conclusion
Our data confirm and expand previous reports and provide additional support for the involvement of TREX1 in lupus pathogenesis.
doi:10.1038/gene.2010.73
PMCID: PMC3107387  PMID: 21270825
2.  New roles for the major human 3'–5' exonuclease TREX1 in human disease 
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)  2008;7(12):1718-1725.
Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Familial Chilblain Lupus (FCL) and Retinal Vasculopathy and Cerebral Leukodystrophy (RVCL) {a new term encompassing three independently described conditions with a common etiology—Cerebroretinal Vasculopathy (CRV), Hereditary Vascular Retinopathy (HVR) and Hereditary Endotheliopathy, Retinopathy and Nephropathy (HERNS)}—have previously been regarded as distinct entities. However, recent genetic analysis has demonstrated that each of these diseases maps to chromosome 3p21 and can be caused by mutations in TREX1, the major human 3'–5' exonuclease. In this review, we discuss the putative functions of TREX1 in relationship to the clinical, genetic and functional characteristics of each of these conditions.
PMCID: PMC2825026  PMID: 18583934
TREX1; TREX2; DNase III; stroke; cerebrovascular disease

Results 1-2 (2)