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1.  Natural disease course and genotype-phenotype correlations in Complex I deficiency caused by nuclear gene defects: what we learned from 130 cases 
Mitochondrial complex I is the largest multi-protein enzyme complex of the oxidative phosphorylation system. Seven subunits of this complex are encoded by the mitochondrial and the remainder by the nuclear genome. We review the natural disease course and signs and symptoms of 130 patients (four new cases and 126 from literature) with mutations in nuclear genes encoding structural complex I proteins or those involved in its assembly. Complex I deficiency caused by a nuclear gene defect is usually a non-dysmorphic syndrome, characterized by severe multi-system organ involvement and a poor prognosis. Age at presentation may vary, but is generally within the first year of life. The most prevalent symptoms include hypotonia, nystagmus, respiratory abnormalities, pyramidal signs, dystonia, psychomotor retardation or regression, failure to thrive, and feeding problems. Characteristic symptoms include brainstem involvement, optic atrophy and Leigh syndrome on MRI, either or not in combination with internal organ involvement and lactic acidemia. Virtually all children ultimately develop Leigh syndrome or leukoencephalopathy. Twenty-five percent of the patients died before the age of six months, more than half before the age of two and 75 % before the age of ten years. Some patients showed recovery of certain skills or are still alive in their thirties . No clinical, biochemical, or genetic parameters indicating longer survival were found. No clear genotype-phenotype correlations were observed, however defects in some genes seem to be associated with a better or poorer prognosis, cardiomyopathy, Leigh syndrome or brainstem lesions.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10545-012-9492-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10545-012-9492-z
PMCID: PMC3432203  PMID: 22644603
3.  A second locus for Aicardi‐Goutières syndrome at chromosome 13q14–21 
Journal of Medical Genetics  2005;43(5):444-450.
Background
Aicardi‐Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an autosomal recessive, early onset encephalopathy characterised by calcification of the basal ganglia, chronic cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis, and negative serological investigations for common prenatal infections. AGS may result from a perturbation of interferon α metabolism. The disorder is genetically heterogeneous with approximately 50% of families mapping to the first known locus at 3p21 (AGS1).
Methods
A genome‐wide scan was performed in 10 families with a clinical diagnosis of AGS in whom linkage to AGS1 had been excluded. Higher density genotyping in regions of interest was also undertaken using the 10 mapping pedigrees and seven additional AGS families.
Results
Our results demonstrate significant linkage to a second AGS locus (AGS2) at chromosome 13q14–21 with a maximum multipoint heterogeneity logarithm of the odds (LOD) score of 5.75 at D13S768. The AGS2 locus lies within a 4.7 cM region as defined by a 1 LOD‐unit support interval.
Conclusions
We have identified a second AGS disease locus and at least one further locus. As in a number of other conditions, genetic heterogeneity represents a significant obstacle to gene identification in AGS. The localisation of AGS2 represents an important step in this process.
doi:10.1136/jmg.2005.031880
PMCID: PMC2649012  PMID: 15908569
AGS2; Aicardi‐Goutières syndrome; interferon α; intracranial calcification; 13q14–21
4.  Peripheral and central hypomyelination with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hypodontia 
Neurology  2006;67(11):2066-2069.
We identified four unrelated patients (three female, one male) aged 20 to 30 years with hypomyelination, pituitary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hypodontia. Electron microscopy and myelin protein immunohisto-chemistry of sural nerves showed granular debris-lined clefts, expanded abaxonal space, outpocketing with vacuolar disruption, and loss of normal myelin periodicity. Reduced galactocerebroside, sphingomyelin, and GM1-N-acetylglucosamine and increased esterified cholesterol were found. This is a clinically homogeneous progressive hypomyelinating disorder. The term 4H syndrome is suggested.
doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000247666.28904.35
PMCID: PMC1950601  PMID: 17159124

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