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1.  Physiological responses to psychological stress: importance of adiposity in men aged 50–70 years 
Endocrine Connections  2014;3(3):110-119.
We tested the hypothesis that overweight/obese men aged 50–70 years will have a greater salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and heart rate (HR) responses to psychological stress compared with age matched lean men. Lean (BMI=20–25 kg/m2; n=19) and overweight/obese (BMI=27–35 kg/m2; n=17) men (50–70 years) were subjected to a well-characterised psychological stress (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) at 1500 h. Concentrations of cortisol and alpha amylase were measured in saliva samples collected every 7–15 min from 1400 to 1700 h. HR was recorded using electrocardiogram. Body weight, BMI, percentage body fat, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were significantly higher (P<0.05) in overweight/obese men compared with lean men. Both groups responded to the TSST with a substantial elevation in salivary cortisol (372%), salivary alpha amylase (123%) and HR (22%). These responses did not differ significantly between the groups (time×treatment interaction for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR; P=0.187, P=0.288, P=0.550, respectively). There were no significant differences between the groups for pretreatment values, peak height, difference between pretreatment values and peak height (reactivity) or area under the curve for salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase or HR (P>0.05 for all). The results showed that, for men with a moderate level of overweight/obesity who were otherwise healthy, the response of salivary cortisol, salivary alpha amylase and HR to acute psychological stress was not impaired.
doi:10.1530/EC-14-0042
PMCID: PMC4033390  PMID: 24867909
stress; sympatho-adrenal medullary system; hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis; obesity; adiposity; men's health; cortisol
2.  Measuring the fate of plant diversity: towards a foundation for future monitoring and opportunities for urgent action 
Vascular plants are often considered to be among the better known large groups of organisms, but gaps in the available baseline data are extensive, and recent estimates of total known (described) seed plant species range from 200 000 to 422 000. Of these, global assessments of conservation status using International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria are available for only approximately 10 000 species. In response to recommendations from the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity to develop biodiversity indicators based on changes in the status of threatened species, and trends in the abundance and distribution of selected species, we examine how existing data, in combination with limited new data collection, can be used to maximum effect. We argue that future work should produce Red List Indices based on a representative subset of plant species so that the limited resources currently available are directed towards redressing taxonomic and geographical biases apparent in existing datasets. Sampling the data held in the world's major herbaria, in combination with Geographical Information Systems techniques, can produce preliminary conservation assessments and help to direct selective survey work using existing field networks to verify distributions and gather population data. Such data can also be used to backcast threats and potential distributions through time. We outline an approach that could result in: (i) preliminary assessments of the conservation status of tens of thousands of species not previously assessed, (ii) significant enhancements in the coverage and representation of plant species on the IUCN Red List, and (iii) repeat and/or retrospective assessments for a significant proportion of these. This would result in more robust Sampled Red List Indices that can be defended as more representative of plant diversity as a whole; and eventually, comprehensive assessments at species level for one or more major families of angiosperms. The combined results would allow scientifically defensible generalizations about the current status of plant diversity by 2010 as well as tentative comments on trends. Together with other efforts already underway, this approach would establish a firmer basis for ongoing monitoring of the status of plant diversity beyond 2010 and a basis for comparison with the trend data available for vertebrates.
doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1596
PMCID: PMC1569457  PMID: 15814350
global biodiversity; species richness; conservation assessments; extinction risk; IUCN Red List; Living Planet Index
3.  Effects of short term sacral nerve stimulation on anal and rectal function in patients with anal incontinence 
Gut  1999;44(3):407-412.
BACKGROUND—Some patients with faecal incontinence are not amenable to simple surgical sphincter repair, due to sphincter weakness in the absence of a structural defect. 
AIMS—To evaluate the efficacy and possible mode of action of short term stimulation of sacral nerves in patients with faecal incontinence and a structurally intact external anal sphincter. 
PATIENTS—Twelve patients with faecal incontinence for solid or liquid stool at least once per week. 
METHODS—A stimulating electrode was placed (percutaneously in 10 patients, operatively in two) into the S3 or S4 foramen. The electrode was left in situ for a minimum of one week with chronic stimulation. 
RESULTS—Evaluable results were obtained in nine patients, with early electrode displacement in the other three. Incontinence ceased in seven of nine patients and improved notably in one; one patient with previous imperforate anus and sacral agenesis had no symptomatic response. Stimulation seemed to enhance maximum squeeze pressure but did not alter resting pressure. The rectum became less sensitive to distension with no change in rectal compliance. Ambulatory studies showed a possible reduction in rectal contractile activity and diminished episodes of spontaneous anal relaxation. 
CONCLUSIONS—Short term sacral nerve stimulation notably decreases episodes of faecal incontinence. The effect may be mediated via facilitation of striated sphincter muscle function, and via neuromodulation of sacral reflexes which regulate rectal sensitivity and contractility, and anal motility. 


Keywords: sacral nerve stimulation; faecal incontinence
PMCID: PMC1727421  PMID: 10026329
4.  Biofeedback provides long term benefit for patients with intractable, slow and normal transit constipation 
Gut  1998;42(4):517-521.
Background—Many patients with idiopathic constipation do not respond to conventional medical treatments. Recently biofeedback has been proposed as an alternative treatment but the long term results, and which patients benefit, are unknown. Treatment has usually been restricted to patients with normal colonic transit and impaired pelvic floor coordination on straining. 
Aims—To determine the efficacy and long term outcome of biofeedback treatment in idiopathic constipation. 
Methods—One hundred consecutive contactable patients who had completed a course of biofeedback more than 12 months previously were identified. Pretreatment details of bowel function and symptoms, whole gut transit time, and anorectal physiological testing, which had been previously prospectively collected, were collated. Follow up consisted of structured interview. Sixty five per cent had slow transit and 59% had paradoxical pelvic floor contraction on straining. 
Results—Median follow up was 23 months (range 12-44). On long term follow up 55% felt that biofeedback had helped and 57% felt their constipation was improved. There was a significant reduction in need to strain, abdominal pain, bloating, and oral laxative use. Spontaneous bowel frequency was significantly improved by treatment. Patients with slow and normal transit, males and females, and those with and without paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter on straining, benefited equally from treatment. Anorectal testing did not predict outcome. 
Conclusion—This study suggests that biofeedback is an effective long term treatment for the majority of patients with idiopathic constipation unresponsive to traditional treatments. Pelvic floor abnormalities and transit time should not form selection criteria for treatment. 


Keywords: constipation; biofeedback; follow up; laxatives; transit time
PMCID: PMC1727071  PMID: 9616314
5.  Colorectal adenomas and energy intake, body size and physical activity: a case-control study of subjects participating in the Nottingham faecal occult blood screening programme. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;67(1):172-176.
Most case-control studies of colorectal cancer have shown a positive association with energy intake. In contrast studies which have considered physical activity have found the most active to have a lower risk of colonic cancer and obesity appears to be no more than weakly related to colorectal cancer. We therefore compared energy intake determined by a diet history interview, self-reported height and weight, together with measures of lifetime job activity levels and leisure activity in the year prior to interview in 147 cases with colorectal adenomas and two control groups (a) 153 age-sex matched FOB-negative subjects (b) 176 FOB-positive subjects in whom no adenoma or carcinoma was found. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals () adjusted for age, sex and social class. No association with weight or body mass index was found. The only association with physical activity found with both control groups was an inverse association with running or cycling for half an hour continuously at least once a week RR 0.46 (0.2-1.3) compared with control group (a), and RR = 0.32 (0.1-0.8) compared with (b), but few subjects engaged in such activity. There was an inverse association with energy intake (trend chi 2 = 5.3, P < 0.025) in the comparison with control group (a) only, a finding which is consistent with those of two previous studies of asymptomatic adenoma.
PMCID: PMC1968212  PMID: 8427777
6.  Colorectal adenomas and diet: a case-control study of subjects participating in the Nottingham faecal occult blood screening programme. 
British Journal of Cancer  1993;67(1):177-184.
Diets high in animal fat and protein and low in fibre and calcium are thought to be factors in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Intakes of these nutrients were determined in three groups participating in a randomised trial of faecal occult blood (FOB) screening. A diet history was obtained by interview from 147 patients with colorectal adenomas, 153 age and sex matched FOB-negative controls (a) and 176 FOB-positive controls without colorectal neoplasia (b). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence limits (increases) adjusted for age, sex and social class. After adjustment for total energy intake, no associations were found with total, saturated or mono-unsaturated fat, or calcium intake. For total fibre intake there were non-linear relationships with both control groups with the crude RR for highest quintiles of total fibre intake compared to the lowest being 0.6, although this pattern was no longer apparent after adjustment for energy intake with group (a). In comparison with group (b) cereal fibre intake showed a more consistent inverse relationship with adenoma prevalence with the RR for ascending quintiles of intake being 1.0, 0.7 (0.3-1.6), 0.5 (0.3-1.1), 0.7 (0.4-1.4) and 0.3 (0.1-0.6) (trend chi 2 = 8.80, p = 0.003). In comparison with group (a), the adjusted RR for the highest quintile of cereal fibre intake compared with the lowest was 0.6, but no clear trend was apparent. There was an unexpected positive relationship between adenomas and polyunsaturated fat intake with the RR for having an adenoma being 1.0, 2.8 (1.3-6.1), 1.6 (0.7-3.4), 3.5 (1.6-7.5) and 2.3 (1.1-5.0) for ascending quintiles of polyunsaturated fat intakes (trend chi 2 = 4.8, P = 0.03) in comparison with group (a) only. Our data, while providing no support for the role of dietary animal fat or protein, do support the protective role of dietary cereal fibre in the etiology of colorectal adenomas.
PMCID: PMC1968225  PMID: 8381298
7.  Psychosocial and Physical Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy 
Canadian Family Physician  1991;37:1137-1144.
Breast cancer patients younger than 55 completed a questionnaire on psychosocial factors and physical side effects shortly after diagnosis and 9 to 15 months after diagnosis. Those who had used adjuvant chemotherapy were more likely than those who had not to report physical side effects; there was little difference in psychosocial factors. Recent users were more likely than ex-users to report physical side effects, difficulties with domestic chores, and improvement in psychosocial factors.
PMCID: PMC2145359  PMID: 21229020
8.  Single radial hemolysis test for quantitation of complement-fixing antibodies to non-hemagglutinating viruses. 
Journal of Clinical Microbiology  1984;20(2):248-254.
A single radial hemolysis test, which overcomes many of the problems of conventional complement fixation tests, was developed for the quantitation of virus complement-fixing antibodies. The test procedure utilized staphylococcal protein A-coated sheep erythrocytes immobilized in agarose into which antigen was incorporated. Undiluted heat-inactivated serum samples were allowed to diffuse radially from wells punched in the agarose. Protein A served to concentrate the subsequent antigen-antibody reaction on the surface of the erythrocytes. Zones of hemolysis were developed by flooding with complement. With adenovirus as a model, basic test parameters were defined, and optimum reagent concentrations and diffusion conditions were determined. A positive linear relationship was found to exist between zone diameter and increasing log concentration of specific antiserum. No correlation was found between zone diameter and total concentration of immunoglobulin G in test sera. Sera rendered anticomplementary by the addition of carrageenan produced hemolytic zones equal to diameter to those observed with untreated sera. Seventy-seven human sera with known complement fixation titers were tested by this method. Good correlation (r = 0.74) between the complement fixation test and single radial hemolysis was observed. This test was highly reproducible and more sensitive than the conventional complement fixation test.
Images
PMCID: PMC271297  PMID: 6386847
9.  Diagnostic value of a psychological test in cases of suspected child abuse. 
Archives of Disease in Childhood  1977;52(9):708-712.
The use of the Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test is described and illustrated by three examples of child abuse. This test should be considered in the investigation of definite or suspected cases of abuse and as part of the preparation of court evidence.
PMCID: PMC1544754  PMID: 921320
10.  A comparison of three systems of classifying presenting problems in general practice 
Three internationally recognized systems have been devised for classifying presenting problems in general practice. They are: the Royal College of General Practitioners' (1963) classification, the US Ambulatory Medical Care Classification of Symptoms (NAMCS), and the World Organization of Colleges and Academies of General Practice/Family Medicine (WONCA, 1976) classification which is known as An International Classification of Health Problems of Primary Care (ICHPPC).
These three systems were compared in over 8,000 consultations conducted by 81 randomly selected British general practitioners in Nottinghamshire.
For all ages of patient, the NAMCS, which has only 197 categories, was the most specific, and the least specific was the classification of the Royal College of General Practitioners.
PMCID: PMC2157994  PMID: 859156

Results 1-10 (10)