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1.  Multipotent adult progenitor cells decrease cold ischemic injury in ex vivo perfused human lungs: an initial pilot and feasibility study 
Transplantation Research  2014;3(1):19.
Background
Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a significant cause of early morbidity and mortality following lung transplantation. Improved organ preservation techniques will decrease ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) contributing to PGD. Adult bone marrow-derived adherent stem cells, including mesenchymal stromal (stem) cells (MSCs) and multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), have potent anti-inflammatory actions, and we thus postulated that intratracheal MAPC administration during donor lung processing would decrease IRI. The goal of the study was therefore to determine if intratracheal MAPC instillation would decrease lung injury and inflammation in an ex vivo human lung explant model of prolonged cold storage and subsequent reperfusion.
Methods
Four donor lungs not utilized for transplant underwent 8 h of cold storage (4°C). Following rewarming for approximately 30 min, non-HLA-matched allogeneic MAPCs (1 × 107 MAPCs/lung) were bronchoscopically instilled into the left lower lobe (LLL) and vehicle comparably instilled into the right lower lobe (RLL). The lungs were then perfused and mechanically ventilated for 4 h and subsequently assessed for histologic injury and for inflammatory markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue.
Results
All LLLs consistently demonstrated a significant decrease in histologic and BALF inflammation compared to vehicle-treated RLLs.
Conclusions
These initial pilot studies suggest that use of non-HLA-matched allogeneic MAPCs during donor lung processing can decrease markers of cold ischemia-induced lung injury.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/2047-1440-3-19) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/2047-1440-3-19
PMCID: PMC4323223  PMID: 25671090
Lung transplantation; Ischemia-reperfusion injury; Cell therapy; Mesenchymal stromal cell
2.  Human adult bone marrow-derived stem cells decrease severity of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in sheep 
Introduction
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common cause of respiratory failure among critically ill subjects, sepsis and severe bacterial pneumonia being its most common causes. The only interventions that have proven beneficial are protective ventilation strategies and fluid conservation approaches. New therapies are needed to address this common clinical problem. Others and we have previously shown the beneficial effect of infusion of exogenous adult stem cells in different pre-clinical models of ARDS.
Methods
In the present study endotoxin was infused intravenously into 14 sheep from which 6 received different doses of adult stem cells by intrabronchial delivery to evaluate the effect of stem cell therapy.
Results
After administration of endotoxin, there was a rapid decline in oxygenation to hypoxemic values, indicative of severe-to-moderate ARDS. None of the animals treated with saline solution recovered to normal baseline values during the 6 hours that the animals were followed. In contrast, sheep treated with a dose of 40 million adult stem cells returned their levels of oxygen in their blood to baseline two hours after the cells were infused. Similarly, improvements in carbon dioxide (CO2) clearance, pulmonary vascular pressures and inflammation were observed and confirmed by histology and by the decrease in lung edema.
Conclusions
We concluded that instillation of adult non-hematopoietic stem cells can diminish the impact of endotoxin and accelerate recovery of oxygenation, CO2 removal and inflammation in the ovine model, making the use of adult stem cells a real alternative for future therapies for ARDS.
doi:10.1186/scrt430
PMCID: PMC4055116  PMID: 24670268
3.  Molecular Imaging of the Paracrine Proangiogenic Effects of Progenitor Cell Therapy in Limb Ischemia 
Circulation  2013;127(6):710-719.
Background
Stem cells are thought to enhance vascular remodeling in ischemic tissue in part through paracrine effects. Using molecular imaging, we tested the hypothesis that treatment of limb ischemia with multipotential adult progenitor cells (MAPC) promotes recovery of blood flow through the recruitment of pro-angiogenic monocytes.
Methods and Results
Hindlimb ischemia was produced in mice by iliac artery ligation and MAPC were administered intramuscularly on day 1. Optical imaging of luciferase-transfected MAPC indicated that cells survived for 1 week. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound on day 3, 7 and 21 showed a more complete recovery of blood flow and greater expansion of microvascular blood volume in MAPC-treated mice than in controls. Fluorescent microangiography demonstrated more complete distribution of flow to microvascular units in MAPC-treated mice. On ultrasound molecular imaging, expression of endothelial P-selectin and intravascular recruitment of CX3CR-1-positive monocytes was significantly higher in MAPC-treated than control groups at day 3 and 7 after arterial ligation. Muscle immunohistology showed a >10-fold greater infiltration of monocytes in MAPC-treated than control-treated ischemic limbs at all time points. Intravital microscopy of ischemic or TNF-α-treated cremaster muscle demonstrated that MAPC migrate to peri-microvascular locations and potentiate selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling. In vitro migration of human CD14+ monocytes was 10-fold greater in response to MAPC-conditioned than basal media.
Conclusions
In limb ischemia, MAPC stimulate the recruitment of pro-angiogenic monocytes through endothelial activation and enhanced chemotaxis. These responses are sustained beyond MAPC lifespan suggesting that paracrine effects promote flow recovery by rebalancing the immune response toward a more regenerative phenotype.
doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.116103
PMCID: PMC3573704  PMID: 23307829
Angiogenesis; Contrast Echocardiography; Peripheral Artery Disease; Stem Cells
4.  Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells Prevent Macrophage-Mediated Axonal Dieback and Promote Regrowth after Spinal Cord Injury 
Macrophage-mediated axonal dieback presents an additional challenge to regenerating axons after spinal cord injury. Adult adherent stem cells are known to have immunomodulatory capabilities, but their potential to ameliorate this detrimental inflammation-related process has not been investigated. Using an in vitro model of axonal dieback as well as an adult rat dorsal column crush model of spinal cord injury, we found that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) can affect both macrophages and dystrophic neurons simultaneously. MAPCs significantly decrease MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase-9) release from macrophages, effectively preventing induction of axonal dieback. MAPCs also induce a shift in macrophages from an M1, or “classically activated” proinflammatory state, to an M2, or “alternatively activated” antiinflammatory state. In addition to these effects on macrophages, MAPCs promote sensory neurite outgrowth, induce sprouting, and further enable axons to overcome the negative effects of macrophages as well as inhibitory proteoglycans in their environment by increasing their intrinsic growth capacity. Our results demonstrate that MAPCs have therapeutic benefits after spinal cord injury and provide specific evidence that adult stem cells exert positive immunomodulatory and neurotrophic influences.
doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3566-10.2011
PMCID: PMC3560969  PMID: 21248119
5.  Identification of a Novel Extracellular Cation-sensing G-protein-coupled Receptor* 
The Journal of biological chemistry  2005;280(48):40201-40209.
The C family G-protein-coupled receptors contain members that sense amino acid and extracellular cations, of which calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) is the prototypic extracellular calcium-sensing receptor. Some cells, such as osteoblasts in bone, retain responsiveness to extracellular calcium in CASR-deficient mice, consistent with the existence of another calcium-sensing receptor. We examined the calcium-sensing properties of GPRC6A, a newly identified member of this family. Alignment of GPRC6A with CASR revealed conservation of both calcium and calcimimetic binding sites. In addition, calcium, magnesium, strontium, aluminum, gadolinium, and the calcimimetic NPS 568 resulted in a dose-dependent stimulation of GPRC6A overexpressed in human embryonic kidney cells 293 cells. Also, osteocalcin, a calcium-binding protein highly expressed in bone, dose-dependently stimulated GPRC6A activity in the presence of calcium but inhibited the calcium-dependent activation of CASR. Coexpression of β-arrestins 1 and 2, regulators of G-protein signaling RGS2 or RGS4, the RhoA inhibitor C3 toxin, the dominant negative Gαq-(305–359) minigene, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin inhibited activation of GPRC6A by extracellular cations. Reverse transcription-PCR analyses showed that mouse GPRC6A is widely expressed in mouse tissues, including bone, calvaria, and the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. These data suggest that in addition to sensing amino acids, GPRC6A is a cation-, calcimimetic-, and osteocalcin-sensing receptor and a candidate for mediating extracellular calcium-sensing responses in osteoblasts and possibly other tissues.
doi:10.1074/jbc.M505186200
PMCID: PMC1435382  PMID: 16199532

Results 1-5 (5)