In response to bacterial and fungal infections in insects and mammals, distinct families of innate immune pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) initiate highly complex intracellular signaling cascades. Those cascades induce a variety of immune functions that restrain the spread of microbes in the host. Insect and mammalian innate immune receptors include molecules that recognize conserved microbial molecular patterns. Innate immune recognition leads to the recruitment of adaptor molecules forming multi-protein complexes that include kinases, transcription factors, and other regulatory molecules. Innate immune signaling cascades induce the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and other key factors that mount and regulate the immune response against microbial challenge. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the bacterial and fungal PRRs for homologous innate signaling pathways of insects and mammals in an effort to provide a framework for future studies.
recognition receptors; innate immunity; immune signaling; insects; mammals; pathogens
The purpose of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of liposome-encapsulated (DPPC-C) hydromorphone administered intravenously (IV) or subcutaneously (SC) to dogs. A total of eight healthy Beagles aged 12.13 ± 1.2 months and weighing 11.72 ± 1.10 kg were used. Dogs randomly received liposome encapsulated hydromorphone, 0.5 mg/kg IV (n = 6), 1.0 mg/kg (n = 6), 2.0 mg/kg (n = 6), or 3.0 mg/kg (n = 7) SC with a 14–28 day washout between trials. Blood was sampled at serial intervals after drug administration. Serum hydromorphone concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. Serum concentrations of hydromorphone decreased rapidly after IV administration of the DPPC-C formulation (half-life = 0.52 h, volume of distribution = 12.47 L/kg, serum clearance = 128.97 mL/min/kg). The half-life of hydromorphone after SC administration of DPPC-C formulation at 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mg/kg was 5.22, 31.48, and 24.05 h, respectively. The maximum serum concentration normalized for dose (CMAX/D) ranged between 19.41–24.96 ng/mL occurring at 0.18–0.27 h. Serum hydromorphone concentrations fluctuated around 4.0 ng/mL from 6–72 h after 2.0 mg/kg and mean concentrations remained above 4 ng/mL for 96 h after 3.0 mg/kg DPPC-C hydromorphone. Liposome-encapsulated hydromorphone (DPPC-C) administered SC to healthy dogs provided a sustained duration of serum hydromorphone concentrations.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate arterial blood gases in dogs that were given hydromorphone or extended release liposome-encapsulated hydromorphone (LEH). Dogs were randomly administered LEH, n = 6, (2.0 mg kg−1), hydromorphone, n = 6, (0.2 mg kg−1) or a placebo of blank liposomes, n = 3, subcutaneously on separate occasions. Arterial blood samples were drawn at serial time points over a 6-h time period for blood gas analysis. There was no change from baseline values in PaCO2, PaO2, (HCO3−), pH, and SBEc in the dogs that received the placebo. Administration of hydromorphone resulted in significant increases in PaCO2 (maximum (mean + SD] 44.4 + 1.1 mm of Hg) and significant decreases in PaCO2 (minimum (mean + SD) 82.4 + 4.7 mm of Hg) and pH (minimum (mean + SD) 7.31 + 0.01) compared with baseline. Administration of LEH resulted in significant increases in PaCO2 (maximum (mean + SD) 44.6 + 0.9 mm of Hg) and significant decreases in PaO2 (minimum (mean + SD) 84.8 + 2.6 mm of Hg) and pH (minimum (mean + SD) 7.34 + 0.02) compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between these two groups at any time point. The changes observed in PaCO2, PaO2, and pH, however, were within clinically acceptable limits for healthy dogs. LEH was determined to cause moderate changes in arterial blood gas values similar to those caused by hydromorphone.
Hydromorphone; Extended release; Liposome; Dog; Hypercapnia; Hypoxemia
To investigate the association between objectively measured sitting and standing, using a postural allocation technique, with MRI-assessed body composition.
The present study was a cross-sectional pilot study.
Participants were examined at one centre located in London, UK.
Normal weight Caucasian women (30.9±6.1 years; body mass index (BMI), 22.9±3.4 kg/m2) with desk-bound occupations were recruited to minimise variability in body composition outcomes. A convenience sample of 12 women was recruited in January 2014 from University College London.
For each participant a number of body composition variables were attained from a single whole-body MRI session. Main outcome variables included: total and liver adiposity, visceral/subcutaneous fat ratio and BMI. Main exposure variables included: average sitting time, standing:sitting ratio and step count. Pearson correlations were carried out to examine associations between different activity categories and body composition variables.
There were significant correlations between average daily sitting and liver adiposity and visceral/subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (r=0.66 and 0.64, respectively); standing:sitting ratio was moderately correlated with liver adiposity and visceral/subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (r=−0.53 and −0.45); average daily step count was moderately correlated with liver adiposity, total adiposity and visceral/subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (r=−0.45, −0.46 and −0.51, respectively).
This pilot study has provided preliminary evidence of relationships between objectively measured sitting and standing and precise measures of body composition.
Preventive Medicine; Public Health
The purpose of this report is to demonstrate that a non-contact ultra-widefield dual wavelength laser camera (Optos) is able to capture high-quality images in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).
Materials and methods
We conducted a retrospective review of patients attending the Oxford Eye Hospital with ROP between 1 August 2012 and 16 November 2012 that underwent standard clinical assessment. Anterior segment imaging, where relevant, was performed with Retcam. Retinal imaging was then performed with Optos, using a modified ‘flying baby position'.
The Optos scanning laser ophthalmoscope was able to acquire ultra-widefield fundal images in nine ROP subjects. The images obtained show clear views of the different stages of ROP features at the posterior pole and peripheral retina. Regression of ROP features were identified, following laser and intravitreal bevacizumab treatment. Additionally, ‘skip areas' missed by initial laser treatment could be identified in the peripheral retina.
The Optos ultra-widefield scanning laser ophthalmoscope is capable of acquiring clinically useful high-quality images of the fundus in ROP subjects. The imaging technique could potentially be used in monitoring ROP progression and documenting ROP regression following treatment.
retinopathy of prematurity; ultra-widefield imaging; Optos
Rodent models of retinal angiogenesis play a pivotal role in angiogenesis research. These models are a window to developmental angiogenesis, to pathological retinopathy, and are also in vivo tools for anti-angiogenic drug screening in cancer and ophthalmic research. The mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) has emerged as one of the leading in vivo models for these purposes. Many of the animal studies that laid the foundation for the recent breakthrough of anti-angiogenic treatments into clinical practice were performed in the OIR model. However, readouts from the OIR model have been time-consuming and can vary depending on user experience. Here, we present a computer-aided quantification method that is characterized by (i) significantly improved efficiency, (ii) high correlation with the established hand-measurement protocols, and (iii) high intra-and inter-individual reproducibility of results. This method greatly facilitates quantification of retinal angiogenesis while at the same time increasing lab-to-lab reproducibility of one of the most widely used in vivo models in angiogenesis research.
Oxygen-induced retinopathy; OIR; Retina; Neovascularization; Quantification; SWIFT_NV
Resistant starch (RS) has been shown to beneficially affect insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals and those with metabolic syndrome, but its effects on human type 2 diabetes (T2DM) are unknown. This study aimed to determine the effects of increased RS consumption on insulin sensitivity and glucose control and changes in postprandial metabolites and body fat in T2DM. Seventeen individuals with well-controlled T2DM (HbA1c 46.6±2 mmol/mol) consumed, in a random order, either 40 g of type 2 RS (HAM-RS2) or a placebo, daily for 12 weeks with a 12-week washout period in between. At the end of each intervention period, participants attended for three metabolic investigations: a two-step euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp combined with an infusion of [6,6-2H2] glucose, a meal tolerance test (MTT) with arterio-venous sampling across the forearm, and whole-body imaging. HAM-RS2 resulted in significantly lower postprandial glucose concentrations (P=0.045) and a trend for greater glucose uptake across the forearm muscle (P=0.077); however, there was no effect of HAM-RS2 on hepatic or peripheral insulin sensitivity, or on HbA1c. Fasting non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were significantly lower (P=0.004) and NEFA suppression was greater during the clamp with HAM-RS2 (P=0.001). Fasting triglyceride (TG) concentrations and soleus intramuscular TG concentrations were significantly higher following the consumption of HAM-RS2 (P=0.039 and P=0.027 respectively). Although fasting GLP1 concentrations were significantly lower following HAM-RS2 consumption (P=0.049), postprandial GLP1 excursions during the MTT were significantly greater (P=0.009). HAM-RS2 did not improve tissue insulin sensitivity in well-controlled T2DM, but demonstrated beneficial effects on meal handling, possibly due to higher postprandial GLP1.
euglycemic–hyperinsulinemic clamp; GLP1; flux; stable isotopes
Radiotherapy (RT) is of critical importance in the locoregional management of early breast cancer. Over 50% of patients receive RT at some time during the treatment of their disease, equating to over 500 000 patients worldwide receiving RT each year. Unfortunately, not all patients derive therapeutic benefit and some breast cancers are resistant to treatment, as evidenced by distant metastatic spread and local recurrence. Prediction of individual responses to RT may allow a stratified approach to this treatment permitting those patients with radioresistant tumours to receive higher doses of RT (total and/or tumour cavity boost doses) and/or radiosensitising agents to optimise treatment. Also, for those patients unlikely to respond at all, it would prevent harmful side effects occurring for no therapeutic gain. More selective targeting would better direct National Health Service resources, ease the burden on heavily used treatment RT machines and reduce the economic cost of cancer treatment. Unfortunately, there are no robust and validated biomarkers for predicting RT outcome. We review the available literature to determine whether classification of breast cancers according to their molecular profile may be used to predict successful response to, or increased morbidity from, RT. Class-specific biomarkers for targeting by radiosensitising agents are also discussed.
Five laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) cases that occurred in the United States between 2008 and 2011 are presented. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviewed the recommendations published in 2008 and the published literature to identify strategies to further prevent LAB. The improved prevention strategies are described.
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common type of malignancy affecting the oral cavity. While exposures to main risk factors for oral SCC such as smoking and alcohol use are higher amongst the Aboriginal people, little is known about oral cancer in this population. This study aimed to describe characteristics and survival of oral SCC in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians.
All primary oral SCC cases reported to the Western Australian Cancer Registry (WACR) between 1990 and 1999 were analysed with respect to person characteristics including: date of birth, sex and indigenous status; and disease characteristics including: date of biopsy, disease stage and site as well as date of recurrence and date of death. Exclusion criteria included diagnosis not based on incisional or excisional biopsy, diagnosis other than oral SCC or a history of another malignant neoplasm.
Aboriginal individuals were more likely to reside in rural areas. No statistically significant differences in oral SCC characteristics and survival were noted between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Western Australians.
This study provides new information on person and disease characteristics of Aboriginal Western Australians diagnosed with oral SCC.
Aboriginality; epidemiology; oral cancer; survival analysis.
Dietary intake of the soy isoflavone genistein is associated with reduced severity of asthma, but the mechanisms responsible for this effect are unknown.
To determine whether genistein blocks eosinophil leukotriene C4 (LTC4) synthesis and to evaluate the mechanism of this effect, and to assess the impact of a 4-week period of soy isoflavone dietary supplementation on indices of eosinophilic inflammation in asthma patients.
Human peripheral blood eosinophils were stimulated in the absence and presence of genistein, and LTC4 synthesis was measured. 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) nuclear membrane translocation was assessed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation was determined by immunoblot. Human subjects with mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and minimal or no soy intake were given a soy isoflavone supplement (100 mg/day) for 4 weeks. The fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) and ex vivo eosinophil LTC4 production were assessed before and after the soy isoflavone treatment period.
Genistein inhibited eosinophil LTC4 synthesis (IC50 80 nm), blocked phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream target MAPKAP-2, and reduced translocation of 5-LO to the nuclear membrane. In patients with asthma, following 4 weeks of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation, ex vivo eosinophil LTC4 synthesis decreased by 33% (N = 11, P = 0.02) and FENO decreased by 18% (N = 13, P = 0.03).
At physiologically relevant concentrations, genistein inhibits eosinophil LTC4 synthesis in vitro, probably by blocking p38- and MAPKAP-2-dependent activation of 5-LO. In asthma patients, dietary soy isoflavone supplementation reduces eosinophil LTC4 synthesis and eosinophilic airway inflammation. These results support a potential role for soy isoflavones in the treatment of asthma.
asthma; eosinophils; genistein; 5-lipoxygenase; soy isoflavones
The National Research Council has consistently recommended housing densities for animals used in science and agriculture. For mice, the recommended density is 77.4 cm2 (12 in2) for a 15–25 gm mouse. The Council noted that its recommendations were based on “best professional judgment” and encouraged alternatives that were data driven. As part of a continual effort of The Jackson Laboratory to ensure the health and well-being of production and research mice while promoting cost-effective, state-of-the-art research, several density-driven studies have been conducted by lab researchers. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of housing density on parameters related to mouse physiology and air quality in the cages and to assess the value of specific measured parameters in such studies. The study discussed in this report monitored C57BL/6J mice in individually ventilated cages from weaning until 9 months of age. Housing densities were equivalent to 66.4 and 36.8 cm2/mouse (10.3 and 5.7 in2), representing increases in density of 17% and 110%, respectively, over the National Research Council recommendation. Clinical physiological parameters representing general health and well-being were measured. Hematological traits, plasma lipids and glucose, growth, bone mineral density and percent body fat did not differ between densities. In the more densely housed mice, however, adrenal glands were significantly smaller, heart rates were significantly lower, and food consumption was less. Cage air microenvironment was evaluated for ammonia, carbon dioxide, temperature and humidity in cages changed weekly or every 2 weeks. The cage microenvironment remained within acceptable limits at the higher density of mice at both cage-changing frequencies. The results suggest that mice housed in individually ventilated cages for up to 9 months at up to twice the density currently recommended by the National Research Council show no measurable adverse effects. Continued re-evaluation of the recommendation by measuring additional relevant parameters of health and general well-being and studying additional strains is warranted.
adrenal weight; animal husbandry; cage air microenvironment; heart rate; mouse housing density; animal well-being
Young children are at increased risk for valproic acid (VPA) hepatotoxicity. Urinary organic acid profiles, as a measure of mitochondrial function, were obtained in children 3.5 to 17.3 years old treated for seizure disorders with valproic acid (VPA; n=52). Age-matched patients treated with carbamazepine (CBZ; n=50) and untreated healthy children (n=22) served as controls. Age-related changes in organic acid profiles were observed in all three groups. Although untreated and CBZ control subjects were not distinguished by the principal component analysis (PCA) scores plot, a distinct boundary was apparent between the VPA and control/CBZ groups. Inter-individual variability in VPA-induced alterations in endogenous pathways reflecting branched chain amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress was observed. The data suggest that more detailed metabolomic analysis may provide novel insights into biological mechanisms and predictive biomarkers for children at highest risk for serious toxicity.
Comparative analysis of the sea urchin genome has broad implications for the primitive state of deuterostome host defense and the genetic underpinnings of immunity in vertebrates. The sea urchin has an unprecedented complexity of innate immune recognition receptors relative to other animal species yet characterized. These receptor genes include a vast repertoire of 222 Toll-like receptors, a superfamily of more than 200 NACHT domain–leucine-rich repeat proteins (similar to nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD) and NALP proteins of vertebrates), and a large family of scavenger receptor cysteine-rich proteins. More typical numbers of genes encode other immune recognition factors. Homologs of important immune and hematopoietic regulators, many of which have previously been identified only from chordates, as well as genes that are critical in adaptive immunity of jawed vertebrates, also are present. The findings serve to underscore the dynamic utilization of receptors and the complexity of immune recognition that may be basal for deuterostomes and predicts features of the ancestral bilaterian form.
Natural ecosystems perform fundamental life-support services upon which human civilization depends. However, many people believe that nature provides these services for free and therefore, they are of little or no value. While we do not pay for them, we pay significantly for their loss in terms of wastewater treatment facilities, moratoriums on greenhouse gases, increased illnesses, reduced soil fertility and losses in those images of nature that contribute to our basic happiness. Little is understood about the well-being benefits of the natural environment and its ecosystem services. The interwoven relationship of ecosystems and human well-being is insufficiently acknowledged in the wider philosophical, social, and economic well-being literature. In this article, we discuss an approach to examine human well-being and the interactions of its four primary elements—basic human needs, economic needs, environmental needs, and subjective well-being—and ecosystem services.
Ecosystem services; Human well-being; Sustainability; Ecological economics; Subjective happiness
Development of protocols and media for culturing immune cells from marine invertebrates has not kept pace with advancements in mammalian immune cell culture, the latter having been driven by the need to understand the causes of and develop therapies for human and animal diseases. However, expansion of the aquaculture industry and the diseases that threaten these systems creates the need to develop cell and tissue culture methods for marine invertebrates. Such methods will enable us to better understand the causes of disease outbreaks and to develop means to avoid and remedy epidemics. We report a method for the short-term culture of phagocytes from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, by modifying an approach previously used to culture cells from another sea urchin species. The viability of cultured phagocytes from the purple sea urchin decreases from 91.6% to 57% over six days and phagocyte morphology changes from single cells to aggregates leading to the formation of syncytia-like structures. This process is accelerated in the presence of lipopolysaccharide suggesting that phagocytes are capable of detecting this molecular pattern in culture conditions. Sea urchin immune response proteins, called Sp185/333, are expressed on the surface of a subset of phagocytes and have been associated with syncytia-like structures. We evaluated their expression in cultured phagocytes to determine their possible role in cell aggregation and in the formation of syncytia-like structures. Between 0 and 3 hr, syncytia-like structures were observed in cultures when only ∼10% of the cells were positive for Sp185/333 proteins. At 24 hr, ∼90% of the nuclei were Sp185/333-positive when all of the phagocytes had aggregated into syncytia-like structures. Consequently, we conclude that the Sp185/333 proteins do not have a major role in initiating the aggregation of cultured phagocytes, however the Sp185/333 proteins are associated with the clustered nuclei within the syncytia-like structures.
Recent expeditions have revealed high levels of biodiversity in the tropical deep-sea, yet little is known about the age or origin of this biodiversity, and large-scale molecular studies are still few in number. In this study, we had access to the largest number of solariellid gastropods ever collected for molecular studies, including many rare and unusual taxa. We used a Bayesian chronogram of these deep-sea gastropods (1) to test the hypothesis that deep-water communities arose onshore, (2) to determine whether Antarctica acted as a source of diversity for deep-water communities elsewhere and (3) to determine how factors like global climate change have affected evolution on the continental slope. We show that although fossil data suggest that solariellid gastropods likely arose in a shallow, tropical environment, interpretation of the molecular data is equivocal with respect to the origin of the group. On the other hand, the molecular data clearly show that Antarctic species sampled represent a recent invasion, rather than a relictual ancestral lineage. We also show that an abrupt period of global warming during the Palaeocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) leaves no molecular record of change in diversification rate in solariellids and that the group radiated before the PETM. Conversely, there is a substantial, although not significant increase in the rate of diversification of a major clade approximately 33.7 Mya, coinciding with a period of global cooling at the Eocene–Oligocene transition. Increased nutrients made available by contemporaneous changes to erosion, ocean circulation, tectonic events and upwelling may explain increased diversification, suggesting that food availability may have been a factor limiting exploitation of deep-sea habitats. Tectonic events that shaped diversification in reef-associated taxa and deep-water squat lobsters in central Indo-West Pacific were also probably important in the evolution of solariellids during the Oligo-Miocene.
Biogeography; deep sea; Eocene–Oligocene transition; phylogeny
Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with PET and [11C]raclopride in sixteen METH abusers both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (to measure DA release) to assess if it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The 6 METH abusers who relapsed during the follow up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than controls and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal dopamine changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.
methamphetamine; dopamine release; positron emission tomography; relapse; early withdrawal
Round 1 data of human papillomavirus (HPV) FOCAL, a three-arm, randomised trial, which aims to establish the efficacy of HPV DNA testing as a primary screen for cervical cancer, are presented.
The three arms are: Control arm – liquid based cytology with atypical squamous cells of unknown significance (ASC-US) triage with hrHPV testing; Intervention Arm – hrHPV at entry with liquid-based cytology (LBC) triage of hrHPV positives, with exit screen at 4 years; Safety check arm – hrHPV at entry with LBC triage of hrHPV positives with exit screen at 2 years.
A total of 6154 women were randomised to the control arm and 12 494 to the HPV arms (intervention and safety check). In the HPV arm, the baseline cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2+ and CIN3+ rate was 9.2/1000 (95%CI; 7.4, 10.9) and 4.8/1000 (95%CI; 3.6, 6.1), which increased to 16.1/1000 (95%CI 13.2, 18.9) for CIN2+ and to 8.0/1000 (95%CI; 5.9, 10.0) for CIN3+ after subsequent screening of HPV-DNA-positive/cytology-negative women. Detection rate in the control arm remained unchanged after subsequent screening of ASC-US-positive/hrHPV DNA-negative women at 11.0/1000 for CIN2+ and 5.0/1000 for CIN3+.
After subsequent screening of women who were either hrHPV positive/cytology negative or ASC-US positive/HPV negative, women randomised to the HPV arms had increased CIN2+ detection compared with women randomised to the cytology arm.
HPV; cervical cancer; screening; randomised trial; North America
The clinical features and genetics of Rett syndrome (RTT) have been well studied, but examination of quality of life (QOL) is limited. This study describes the impact of clinical severity on QOL among female children and adolescents with classic RTT.
Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted on data collected from an NIH-sponsored RTT natural history study. More than 200 participants from 5 to 18 years of age with classic RTT finished their 2-year follow-up at the time of analysis. Regression models after adjustment for their MECP2 mutation type and age at enrollment were used to examine the association between clinical status and QOL.
Severe clinical impairment was highly associated with poor physical QOL, but worse motor function and earlier age at onset of RTT stereotypies were associated with better psychosocial QOL; conversely, better motor function was associated with poorer psychosocial QOL.
Standard psychosocial QOL assessment for children and adolescents with RTT differs significantly with regard to their motor function severity. As clinical trials in RTT emerge, the Child Health Questionnaire 50 may represent one of the important outcome measures.
We assessed the correlation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and health behaviors, including seat belt use, smoke alarm in home, handgun access, body mass index, diet, and exercise. We hypothesized that IPV victims would be less likely to have healthy behaviors as compared to women with similar demographics.
All adult female patients who presented to 3 Atlanta-area emergency department waiting rooms on weekdays from 11AM to 7PM were asked to participate in a computer-based survey by trained research assistants. The Universal Violence Prevention Screen was used for IPV identification. The survey also assessed seatbelt use, smoke alarm presence, handgun access, height, weight, exercise, and diet. We used chi-square tests of association, odds ratios, and independent t-tests to measure associations between variables.
Participants ranged from 18 to 68 years, with a mean of 38 years. Out of 1,452 respondents, 155 patients self-identified as white (10.7%), and 1,218 as black (83.9%); 153 out of 832 women who were in a relationship in the prior year (18.4%) screened positive for IPV. We found significant relationships between IPV and not wearing a seatbelt (p<0.01), handgun access (p<0.01), and eating unhealthy foods (p<0.01).
Women experiencing IPV are more likely to exhibit risky health behaviors than women who are not IPV victims.
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with hyperglycemia-driven microvascular pathology and neuronal compromise in the retina. However, DR is also linked to dyslipidemia. As omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are protective in proliferative retinopathy, we investigated the capacity of ω-3PUFAs to preserve retinal function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Male leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) mice were maintained for 22 weeks (4 weeks–26 weeks of life) on calorically and compositionally matched diets, except for 2% enrichment in either ω-3 or ω-6PUFAs. Visual function was assessed at 9, 14 and 26 weeks by electroretinography. Retinal capillary and neuronal integrity, as well as glucose challenge responses, were assessed on each diet.
The ω-3PUFA diet significantly preserved retinal function in the mouse model of T2DM to levels similar to those observed in nondiabetic control mice on normal chow. Conversely, retinal function gradually deteriorated in db/db mice on a ω-6PUFA-rich diet. There was also an enhanced ability of ω-3PUFA-fed mice to respond to glucose challenge. The protection of visual function appeared to be independent of cytoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3PUFAs.
This study identifies beneficial effects of dietary ω-3PUFAs on visual function in T2DM. The data are consistent with dyslipidemia negatively impacting retinal function. As ω-3PUFA lipid dietary interventions are readily available, safe and inexpensive, increasing ω-3PUFA intake in diabetic patients may slow the progression of vision loss in T2DM.
diabetic retinopathy; omega-3 PUFAs; electroretinography